In this study, we conducted a survey on the residents in Saijo Sakagura Area using photographs of sceneries with three types of townscape improvement: ①Erasing utility poles and electrical cables, ②Erasing signs and flags or changing signs' colors, and ③Changing from asphalt-paving roads to stone-paving roads. The effects of the personal attributes and attitudes of the residents on the evaluation of the proposed townscape improvement were examined, and the residents' views on townscape improvement were clarified.
A questionnaire survey was conducted to exploratorily examine the relationship between school building plans, indoor environment elements, and factors that increase learning motivation and motivation to learn.
As a result, it was shown that classroom design, lighting environment, safety plans, and architectural plans that help students' minds can mainly affect factors that increase learning motivation and motivation to learn. Furthermore, it was shown that interactive spaces and playgrounds can affect some factors that increase learning motivation and motivation to learn.
In addition, it was shown that environmental factors may indirectly affect motivation to learn through factors that increase learning motivation.
This study experimentally investigates the effects of early lateral and vertical reflections on the horizontal spread (HS), that is auditory source width (ASW), and vertical spread (VS) of a sound image. A psychoacoustical experiment employed early lateral energy fractions Lf and early vertical energy fractions Vf for controlling auditory stimuli. HS increases with a larger Lf. In contrast, the effect of Vf on HS is limited, although HS is larger when early vertical reflections are present. Results also reveal that VS increases with a larger Lf or Vf, but the effect of Lf on VS is greater than Vf .
Windows in the building envelope act as an interface that communicates information between outdoor and indoor environments. View out through windows has an integral role in transmitting outdoor environmental information to people indoors and supporting their satisfaction and well-being. This paper reviews research results that have formed the basis for the current criteria for assessing the quality of the view out. It is rated primarily by the view width, the outside distance of the view and the number of view layers to be seen. The literature review provided a new idea of analyzing the view out quantitatively as visual information.
This paper describes results of a field measurement on air and thermal environment in a residential building where both radiant cooling and ventilation are realized. Combination between radiant cooling and ventilation can keep indoor CO2 concentration less than 1000 ppm and room air temperature s and MRTs 28°C or less. Radiant cooling uses less power than air conditioners with similar COP to the heat pump of panel cooling and is not remarkably affected by incoming outside air. Even if ventilation is done, external shading can realize the same SET＊ with higher panel temperatures than the case of non-shading.
This study aims to examine the effect of airflow on local clothing insulation and evaporative resistance. Local clothing insulation and evaporative resistance of two types of summer clothing were measured under four different airflow conditions (0.15, 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 m/s). As a result, evaporative resistance has larger decrease than thermal insulation due to airflow. In addition, the magnitude of decrease in local clothing insulation and evaporative resistance were likely affected by direction of airflow and turbulence intensity.
This paper aims to clarify ventilation issues, and the field survey was conducted during the intermediate season at nursery facilities in Yokohama City. As a result, nursery facilities are classified into three categories according to ventilation behavior of nursery teachers. “Window-ventilation type” tends to have high room temperature and risk of heat stroke. “Mechanical-ventilation type” and “Combined-ventilation type” indicate high CO2 concentrations and have difficulties with ventilation routes and use of ventilation equipment. Based on the estimated ventilation rates, “Mechanical-ventilation type” was found not to meet the ventilation standards and design ventilation rates.
From the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, there have been many reports on cluster infections in clubs and bars. Meanwhile, there is no report on the indoor air environment in those places and it will limit measures for infection control. This study aims to understand the indoor air and ventilation environment and to propose practical and appropriate improvement measures for related industries. In addition to measuring CO2 concentration in clubs and bars in Tokyo, we have surveyed the voluntary measures taken against COVID-19, outlines of building and ventilation/air conditioning equipment, ventilation regime, and so on.
Recently, health risk assessment of chemical substances has become a legal requirement, and accordingly, estimation of indoor gas concentrations and their impact on workers has taken on increasing importance. Therefore, we have developed a numerical model based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) methods to predict transient and non-uniform concentration distributions for chemical substances in enclosed spaces. This paper (Part 2) reports on the heterogeneous concentration distributions of ethanol and aqueous ammonia solutions formed in a full-scale environment, the microclimate around the human body, and the risk assessment of trans-airway exposure.
In this study, we investigated the deposition behavior of particles in air using a thermal manikin and a silicon wafer as a surface on which particles are deposited. As a result, it was confirmed that the particle deposition velocity on the heated manikin was reduced compared to that on the unheated manikin, due to the effect of thermophoretic forces. The deposition velocities obtained from the experiments were compared with existing models of particle deposition on the human body, and the order and trend of the experimental values were generally consistent, confirming the validity of the models.
Indoor temperature environment and air quality affect the health of residents of houses, and thus efforts are underway to improve the insulation of houses. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate changes in health symptoms and quality of life after moving into a house with a central air conditioner, floor heating, and room air conditioners. The results revealed that residents of houses with central air conditioning tended to have a higher rate of improvement in health symptoms and quality of life compared with other types of air conditioning.
The fact-finding study for elevator system installed to a university facility of a high-rise building, which system is considered to have low service satisfaction was conducted. In addition, a comparison was made between the results of conventional elevator design methods and actual measured values. As a result, the accuracy of the round-trip time predictions could be improved by adjusting the "loss time factor" of the traffic calculation method. These results indicate that the adjusted traffic calculation method can be used to design elevator systems in high-rise university facilities.
In this paper, a multi-step analysis method with machine learning was developed to understand the characteristics of building energy consumption. The method was analyzed following 3 steps.
1. Cluster analysis was conducted to classify buildings based on their electricity consumption characteristics.
2. Random Forest model was created to reproduce the classification results, and the feature importance of the explanatory variables was calculated.
3. The difference from the average of all buildings is quantified for feature importance items.
It was indicated the possibility of applying this method to an automatic labeling function for the energy consumption characteristics of typified buildings.
Air temperature and CO2 concentration were measured in classrooms with ventilation system from April 2018 through March 2022. It is assumed that, under the COVID-19 circumstances, windows of the classrooms, where ventilation system was working, were basically kept open throughout a year. The average air temperature at foot level was 11°C during winter period because of cold outdoor air infiltration. The estimated ventilation rate tended to decrease during winter period. However, the estimated ventilation rate per person more than 30 m3/h was obtained in case of half number of pupils in the classroom with Hybrid-Flexible lesson for the whole day.
In this research, we developed an "Indoor and Outdoor Environment and Energy Visualization System" that supports energy-efficient living while maintaining comfort and safety, and conducted a long-term system operation experiment targeting detached houses.
The results of the experiment confirmed that more than 90% of the houses utilize tools to easily check the indoor and outdoor environment, and adjust their behavior according to the indoor and outdoor environment. In addition, more than 75% of the houses visited the site at least once a week during most of the time period, and there was no trend of declining usage.