To assess the effect of 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) and 6% hydrogen peroxide (HP) home bleaching agents on the translucency and color of monolithic zirconia. Ninety disc specimens were fabricated (diameter, 10 mm) from multi-layered (ML), ultra translucent multi-layered (UTML), and super translucent multi-layered (STML) zirconia blocks at three thicknesses (0.4,1,1.5 mm) (n=5). The samples were divided into two subgroups, which were treated with 6% HP (45 min per day) or 10% CP (8 h per day) for 14 days. The color of specimens was measured before bleaching (T0) and after bleaching on the third (T3), seventh (T7), and 14th (T14) day. Color (∆E) and translucency (TP) changes were calculated. The thickness varieties used in the samples and the bleaching agent types used created statistically significant differences only in TP and ∆E00, respectively (p<0.05). Bleaching agents can affect TP and ∆E. Patients who have zirconia restorations should be careful when using home bleaching agents.
This study aimed to develop a novel polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) composite fabricated via a slip-casting method for a dental training model tooth with machinability compatible to human enamel. A PICN model tooth comprised of silica/acrylic-resin was fabricated via the slip-casting method. A commercial resin-based model tooth and human enamel were used as the control sample. The samples were evaluated based on Vickers hardness, inorganic contents, density, and machinability. The machinability was characterized by a grinding amount obtained from the grinding test using a device equipped with a dental micromotor handpiece with a diamond bur. The properties of the PICN model tooth yielded a silica content of 84.7% and a density of 1.99 g/cm3, and its Vickers hardness (312) was comparable with that of enamel (348). The grinding amount was comparable with that of enamel. The castable PICN model tooth was compatible to enamel in terms of hardness and machinability.
The aim of this study was to assess the utility of an actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) as a hardness-dependent carious dentin removal device by using different outputs. Thirty-six plane surface dental caries samples were treated with the ADPJ at 150, 200, and 250 voltage (12 teeth each). The Knoop hardness number (KHN) and Ca/P mass ratio were measured at 70 μm from the deepest point of the removing groove. Furthermore, three other teeth samples were manually treated with the ADPJ at the three above mentioned voltages (one tooth each) for 1 min. The KHN and Ca/P mass ratio were measured at 70 μm from the surface of the residual dentin part. In both the KHN and Ca/P mass ratio, higher residual dentin depended on the applied voltage of ADPJ. The ADPJ enabled the removal of softened carious dentin in an applied voltage-dependent manner.
It is difficult to control corrective forces in orthodontic treatment with clear aligners. The grip of aligners on teeth is important to ensure accurate corrective forces from aligners. This study aimed to measure the gripping force of aligners under various conditions to clarify factors that influence it. We created aligners with different attachment morphologies and placement sites and different margin lengths. We developed a device to measure the mechanics involved in the removal of these aligners. The gripping force was evaluated at five different aligner removal sites on the teeth. We found that the gripping force of the aligner was the weakest on the lingual side of the first molar and strongest on the labial side of the central incisors and that the attachment morphology and placement sites affected the gripping force of aligners.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α expression levels of macrophage cells induced by benzydamine hydrochloride (BNZ), BNZ with chitosan, calcium hydroxide (CH) and chlorhexidine (CHX) medicaments. Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were assessed on THP-1, Saos-2, and CRL-2014 cells using MTT assay. THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages with phorbol12-myristate13-acetate and activated with lipopolysaccharide. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in supernatants were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data were examined with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test (p=0.05). At the selected concentrations, the cell viability was higher than 50% for chitosan and CH, whereas CHX presented lower IC50 values than BNZ and BNZ+chitosan. According to ELISA results, the lowest IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α values were observed with BNZ+Chitosan 50 µg/mL and BNZ 50 µg/mL. BNZ+chitosan 50 µg/mL combination has revealed promising anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, these findings need to be examined in clinical conditions.
This study aimed to clarify the effects of vertical bone defect width and a ferrule on fracture of the fragments of fractured tooth reattached with adhesive resin cement (reattached tooth). The reattached tooth was built up by a fiber post and composite resin core for abutment and formed to the abutment with or without a ferrule. The vertical bone defect was fabricated with a V-shaped defect in different widths. The fracture load was evaluated using a universal testing machine. The vertical bone defect did not affect the fracture load, but a ferrule increased the root fracture load. For the specimens without a ferrule, debonding between the composite resin core and the root at the coronal loading side and fractures at the apical side of the root were found. In conclusion, the ferrule at abutment could affect fracture load and modes, and the bone defect width did not.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of a glass ionomer cement (GIC) consisting of fluoro-zinc-silicate glass on the demineralization of bovine dentin using the ultrasonic pulse-echo method. The findings were compared with those obtained using a conventional GIC. Slabs of dentin from bovine teeth were sliced, shaped into a rectangular form, and immersed in 0.5 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution at 25ºC for 6 days, followed by storage in distilled water for 3 days. After demineralization, they were immersed in artificial saliva with and without the GIC specimens. The propagation times of the longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the samples were measured. The ultrasonic velocities of the fluoro-zinc-silicate glass-containing GICs were significantly increased 2–3 days after the start of the experiment and showed an upward trend thereafter. These findings indicate that the GICs containing fluoro-zinc-silicate glass might exhibit the potential to promote remineralization in the dentin.
This study aimed to evaluate the stress distribution that results from temperature changes in teeth restored with gold inlay and to predict the fatigue life of the teeth. A thermal load regimen for finite element analysis (FEA) was established in an in vivo experiment, in which participants with gold inlays drank hot and cold water. An extracted human maxillary molar was converted into a 3D FEA model. The tooth models with Class I and II preparations were restored with gold inlay in the experimental groups. The stress distribution was analyzed under the thermal loads. Also, lifetime prediction was conducted using Basquin’s formulation. The gold inlay groups showed a higher stress distribution than the preparation-only groups regardless of the type of preparation. The Class II gold inlay group showed the shortest fatigue life of 2.48×1011 cycles, whereas the Class I preparation group showed the longest fatigue life of 4.49×1016 cycles.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of retention hole designs in artificial teeth on failure resistance of the connection with a thermoplastic denture base resin. Artificial teeth with the following retention hole designs were attached to polyester and polyamide resins: no hole, vertical hole, horizontal hole, and vertical and horizontal holes. An artificial tooth with no hole attached to polymethyl methacrylate was prepared as the control. The load was applied until connection failure occurred between the artificial tooth and resin, and failure resistance was detected. Although the control showed the highest resistance, the artificial tooth with vertical and horizontal holes showed higher resistance than those with other retention hole designs in both thermoplastic resins. Providing vertical and horizontal retention holes in artificial teeth may be effective in improving failure resistance of the connection with thermoplastic resins.
Clinically relevant parameters, such as stress intensity factor of bilayered resin composite structure with short fiber base and its stability over time, has yet to be investigated. This study investigated the stress intensity factor of pre-cracked bilayered specimens composed of short fiber resin composite base (SFC) and particulate filler resin composite (PFC) as veneering layer, with a crack located in the PFC layer, 0.5 mm away from the PFC-SFC interface. Monolayered specimens served as controls. All specimens were stored in water at 37°C either for 1 week, 1 month or 6 months before testing. Two-way ANOVA (p=0.05) was used to determine the differences among the groups. Results indicated that SFC base improve the brittleness of the PFC. The type of short fibers affected the crack propagation; fiber bridging in millimeter-scale SFC was the main crack arresting mechanism, whereas fiber pulling observed in micrometer-scale SFC mainly deviated the crack path.
The aim of this study was to investigate the mineral-promoting effects of in-office bleaching agent on enamel subsurface lesions. Enamel subsurface lesions were divided into following groups; D: demineralized samples without any further treatment, DS: samples were further immersed in fresh saliva, DSR: samples were immersed in saliva followed by remineralization buffer, and DSBR: samples were immersed in saliva, subjected to in-office bleaching, and then immersed in remineralization buffer. The control group (CONT) consisted of untreated enamel specimens. Transverse microradiography showed that integrated mineral loss was significantly lower in the DSBR group than in the DSR group. Confocal laser Raman analysis revealed that ν1 phosphate peak height of 959 cm−1 and mineral to matrix ratio of peak heights 959 cm−1 to 1,610 cm−1 in the DSBR group were similar to those in the CONT. In-office bleaching can promote enamel remineralization by altering or removing proteins infiltrated to enamel subsurface lesions.
Self-etch adhesive systems have the advantages of simple operating steps and low technique sensitivity. However, some deficiencies of self-etch adhesive result that the immediate bonding strength between self-etch adhesive and dentine is not so high. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) can be used for surface modification. Previous studies of our research group have proven that NTAPP can improve bonding durability between dentine and etch-and-rinse adhesive. However, it is still unknown whether NTAPP can improve bonding strength between dentine and self-etch adhesive. The study observed the contact angle on dentine surface, the adhesive permeability and MTBS. The study proved that NTAPP can improve dentine surface wettability, clear up smear layer, and enhanced the self-etch adhesive permeability in dentine bonding interface. In conclusion, NTAPP could improve the bonding strength between dentine and self-etch adhesive systems. The most optimum treating time was 15 s.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of decontamination agents against saliva contamination on the bonding of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin block. Three commercially available decontamination agents were used in this study. The samples were subjected to microtensile bond strength test. A saliva protein staining test was performed by the pigment binding method to investigate the effect of removing saliva protein. All the decontamination agents could significantly restore the bond strength from the saliva contamination, and KATANA Cleaner showed no significant difference with the control. From the results of the saliva protein staining test, KATANA Cleaner showed higher removal effect of saliva protein for CAD/CAM resin block surface than the other materials due to the surface active effect of MDP salt. It was suggested that cleaners containing MDP salt were more effective in removing artificial saliva contamination than cleaners containing other ingredients for CAD/CAM resin blocks.
Recently, the number of patients who request esthetically pleasing aligner-type orthodontic appliances (referred to as aligners) has been increasing. However, the orthodontic forces generated by these aligners are still unknown. This study aimed to verify whether the orthodontic force in aligners can be estimated by measuring near infrared 2D birefringence, and to visualize the orthodontic force. We measured the mechanical and photoelastic properties of transparent orthodontic thermoplastic specimens to correlate the optical retardation with the applied load. The results confirmed equivalence between the mechanical properties and the photoelasticity. In addition, the 2D retardation distribution that occurred when stress was applied to the sample was mapped and visualized. This indicates that it is possible to estimate and visualize the orthodontic force using the retardation obtained by near infrared 2D birefringence measurement.
The use of Q-switched erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (Er:YAG laser), which have much less thermal effects than conventional Er:YAG lasers, has been proposed mainly in the medical field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding ability of dentin after Q-switched Er:YAG laser irradiation.The effects of dentin irradiation with Q-switched and conventional lasers were evaluated in terms of dentin morphology, roughness, hardness, elemental content, and resin bonding strength. Q-switched Er:YAG laser at average power densities of 20, 40, and 60 W/cm2 and conventional Er:YAG laser at 909 W/cm2 were used, and their performance was compared with that of the untreated group. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed between 20 W/cm2 and the other groups in term of surface roughness and surface hardness. The resin adhesion of the 20 W/cm2 group was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p<0.05).
Recently, the potential of β-cyclodextrin-thread acid-degradable polyrotaxane (AdPRX) has been emphasized as a therapeutic agent for cholesterol-related metabolic disorders. In this study, we investigated whether carboxymethyl carbamate-modified AdPRX (CMC-AdPRX) can be used for adsorption to calcium phosphate to treat bone diseases. We first synthesized CMC-AdPRX and used it to coat the calcium phosphate plate. RAW264.7 cells were then differentiated into osteoclasts via a receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, and the number of osteoclasts and the area of absorption lacunae were determined. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells was reduced on the CMC-AdPRX-coated plate. The area of the absorption lacunae was smaller with CMC-AdPRX than with AdPRX, which was not carboxy-modified. Our results suggest that CMC-AdPRX can adsorb to calcium phosphate and act on differentiated osteoclasts to suppress their functional expression.
This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of a universal adhesive to contaminated/non-contaminated dentin when applied with three different protocols. One-hundred-eighty dentin samples were divided randomly into 12 groups (n=15). The groups were created by combining four dentin contamination conditions (non-contaminated or contaminated with blood, hemostatic, or blood+hemostatic) with three application protocols for Single Bond Universal (no-preconditioning or preconditioning with the 35% phosphoric or 1% gallic acid). Following thermal cycling, the SBS test was performed. Data were analyzed using two-way-ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD (p<0.05). Dentin surfaces subjected to phosphoric acid, gallic acid, or hemostatic were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. SBS results were influenced by both the dentin contamination (p<0.001) and application protocol (p<0.001). A significant interaction was found between the two factors (p=0.005). The highest bonding performance to contaminated dentin —at all contamination conditions— was achieved with the gallic acid preconditioning.