Traditionally, simulation studies in dentistry have relied on the finite element method (FEM). However, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, which represents objects as particle collections without the use of meshes, has gained recent attention. Despite its application in dentistry, there is currently a lack of comprehensive literature summarizing the specific applications of the SPH method in the oral region. This review aims to provide a summary of studies that have utilized the SPH method in dentistry, focusing on its applications in analyzing large deformations, such as dental ceramic collisions, soft material analysis (e.g., denture adhesive), and virtual training simulations for dental treatments. By combining the advantages of the SPH and FEM methods, more accurate simulations can be achieved, and further applications of the SPH method in dentistry are anticipated.
The aim of this study was to determine whether erbium laser irradiation emitted by modified glass-fiber tips would improve the intraradicular bonding of fiber posts. Forty human canines were endodontically treated and prepared for fiber-post placement. Roots were divided into five groups (n=8); according to the laser-tip combinations (2,940 nm Er:YAG and 2,780 nm Er,Cr:YSGG). Non-irradiated root canals served as control. Posts were cemented with self-adhesive resin cement and subjected to push-out test. Failure modes were characterized, and intraradicular bonded interfaces were analyzed by SEM and submitted to nanoleakage evaluation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α=0.05). No significant differences were observed in cervical and middle sections (p>0.05), while significantly higher bond strengths were observed in apical sections (p<0.05). Laser irradiation reduced adhesive failures, cement-dentin gap formation, and nanoleakage apically. Laser-irradiation protocols employing end- or radial-firing tips improved bonding to apical intraradicular dentin contributing to more uniform bonded interfaces.
This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of five endodontic sealers (AH Plus, MTA Fillapex, Endoseal MTA, Sealapex, and Zinc oxide eugenol) in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to check cell viability at 1, 3, and 7 days. Genotoxicity was assessed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus, single-cell gel electrophoresis, and γH2AX immunofluorescence assays. Cell viability of all endodontic sealers, except Endoseal MTA, on day 1 was less than 100%. Endoseal MTA showed the highest cell viability on day 7. AH Plus and Endoseal MTA showed less DNA damage than other sealers. After complete setting, AH Plus and Endoseal MTA showed low genotoxicity, which could reduce DNA damage in periapical cells, making them suitable as endodontic sealers.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the homogeneity of the mechanical properties of commercial CAD-CAM composites between different blocks of the same material (interblock homogeneity) and within each block between the internal and external parts (intrablock homogeneity). Tetric CAD (TET); Katana Avencia (KAT); Cerasmart 270 (CER); Grandio (GRN) and Vita Enamic (ENA) were tested for flexural strength (σf), flexural modulus (Ef), flexural load energy (Ur) and hardness (HV). Results showed significant differences in interblock homogeneity of σf, Ef and Ur for TET, KAT, CER and ENA. In addition, significant differences in interblock homogeneity of HV for TET, CER and GRN were found. Moreover, significant differences in intrablock homogeneity of σf, Ef and Ur were found for KAT, CER, GRN and ENA, as well as for HV of all the tested materials except CER. Weibull modulus was highest for GRN, followed by ENA, KAT, TET then CER.
Incorporating zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as antibacterial fillers in heat-cured acrylic resin could decrease mucin and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion, reducing the incidence of dental caries in the baseplates of orthodontic patients. Here, ZnO nanoparticles were modified using 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate with various concentrations, added to acrylic resin powder, homogenized, mixed with acrylic resin liquid, and processed. The composite systems interfered well with mucin and S. mutans adhesion. The lowest mean of the amount of mucin adhered was on heat-cured acrylic resin with 7.5% ZnO nanoparticles, with a standard deviation of 18.07±0.80 mg/mL. The ZnO nanoparticles with a concentration of 7.5% showed an 87.09±0.88% S. mutans adhesion in control groups with no additives. These composite systems were proven to have better physicochemical characteristics and antibacterial abilities. Combining ZnO nanoparticles with heat-cured acrylic resin has great potential for self-cleaning baseplates of orthodontic patients in the future.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of low-temperature degradation (LTD) on the mechanical properties of additive-manufactured zirconia. In addition, the mechanical properties of additive-manufactured were compared with those before aging under similar experimental conditions. This study prepared stereolithography apparatus fabricated zirconia specimens with flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, Vickers hardness, and fracture toughness. The specimen position data were set as parallel (0°), diagonal (45°), and perpendicular (90°) to the direction of the building. The LTD condition was 5 h under 134ºC and 0.2 MPa in an autoclave. It was found that the 0° direction differed significantly from all other conditions before and after aging, and the highest flexural strength was obtained when the additive specimen was manufactured perpendicular to the building direction. However, the results indicate that there is a negligible effect of aging on the mechanical properties of additive-manufactured zirconia.
The aim was to develop dual-cured resin cements containing Sr-bioactive glass nanoparticles (Sr-BGNPs; 5 or 10 wt%) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM; 3 or 6 wt%). Effects of additives on degree of monomer conversion (DC), biaxial flexural strength/modulus, shear bond strength (SBS), mass/volume change, color stability, ion release, and cytotoxicity were examined. Controls included material without reactive fillers and Panavia SA Plus (PV). Experimental cements showed higher DC than PV regardless of light activation (p<0.05). Mean SBS and color stability were comparable between experimental cements and PV. Cell viability upon the exposure to sample extracts of experimental cements was 80%–92%. High additive concentrations led to lower strength and modulus than PV (p<0.05). The additives increased mass change, reduced color stability, and promoted ion release. The experimental resin cements demonstrated acceptable mechanical/chemical properties and cytotoxicity. The additives reduced the strength but provided ion release, a desirable action to prevent recurrent caries.
In this study, fine powders of tristrontium aluminate (S3A) and distrontium cerate (S2Ce) cement were prepared using a dry grinding process, and their mechanical and ion dissolution properties were estimated. Fine cements showed the particles about 10 μm in diameter or smaller with sharp particle size distribution curves. The setting reaction of the fine cements was rapid; therefore, a 0.1% w/v of citric acid solution was used as the retarder. The compressive strengths of the fine cements were improved compared to those of the coarse cements at both 1 and 28 days after mixing at a water/powder ratio (W/P) of 0.4. The dissolution of Sr and Al ions from fine S3A cement was enhanced. However, the relative flowability decreases with fine grinding. Further studies on flowability, handling property are required. Additionally, the biological effects of endodontic cement should be studied both in vitro and in vivo.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the color match of the materials after the staining and bleaching procedures applied to the teeth restored with single-shade and multi-shade composite resins. Cavities prepared on the facial surface of human incisors were restored with two different composite resins. After 24 h, the color matching parameters between the initial filling-tooth of the samples were recorded. Then, the color measurements of the samples subjected to the coloring process were repeated. Each composite resin group was randomly divided into 2 subgroups and home and office bleaching methods were applied to the samples. After bleaching, color measurements were repeated. In terms of periods, a statistically significant difference was found in ΔE values 1 day and 28 days after bleaching (p<0.05). In addition, it was found that the color match between filling-tooth was generally weaker in Omnichroma material and after home bleaching.
This study investigated the influence of different surface treatments on unfiring or firing zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) glass-ceramics. Celtra Duo and IPS e.max CAD blocks were cut and process following manufacturer protocols. The specimen surface was treated with seven different protocols. Two ceramic blocks with the same surface treatment were bonded with luting agent and prepared for mini-interfacial fracture toughness tests (mini-iFT). The specimens were tested after 1-week storage. The data was statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 comparison (α=0.05). The highest mini-iFT of both Celtra Duo unfired and fired was shown in the HF+S group, which was not significantly different from HF+S+UA. For IPS e.max CAD, the mini-iFT was higher in the groups treated with hydrofluoric acid. Additional adhesive after silane application did not significantly improve bonding effectiveness. Therefore, surface treatment with hydrofluoric acid and silane is recommended for both unfiring and firing ZLS glass ceramics.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of electrical energy and its synergistic activity with graphene oxide (GO) in Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms. The viability of E. faecalis biofilms was analyzed by colony-forming units, crystal violet staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The morphologies of the biofilms and the bacterial organelles were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission emission microscopy (TEM), respectively. Application of electrical energy combined with 0.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on E. faecalis in biofilms significantly decreased the bacterial viability and biofilm biomass compared to the 0.2% NaOCl-only-treated group. Furthermore, additional application of GO showed similar antibacterial effects to 0.5% NaOCl. Notably, TEM observation revealed that the bacteria treated with electric energy and GO showed damaged cell membranes. The results suggest that combination of electrical energy and GO enhances antibacterial activity of NaOCl and has the potential to be applied to root canal irrigation protocols.
This study radiologically and histologically compared two bioresorbable bone substitutes with different compositions carbonate apatite (Cytrans® Granules; CGs) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) for vertical bone augmentation on a rat skull using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes. This PTFE tube was placed at the center of the skull, fixed with Super Bond, and augmented with CGs or β-TCP granules. Specimens with surrounding tissue were harvested at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively, and radiological and histological evaluations were performed. The bone volume to total volume ratio (BV/TV) of the β-TCP-implanted group was markedly higher than that of the CG-implanted group at 4 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Compared to CGs, β-TCP exhibited the ability to form blood vessels into the graft material for a short period after transplantation, as well as an elevated production of collagen into β-TCP granules during the bone formation process.
This study aimed to assess the effect of different calcium silicate-based root canal sealers (CSRS) on osteogenic effect in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). hPDLCs were cultured in a medium containing extract of 5 types of CSRS. The specimens were assessed by the cell cytotoxicity test, alkaline phosphatase staining, alizarin red S staining, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The diluted concentrations of extracted solutions had no significant effect on the viability of hPDLCs. There was a statistically significant difference in the mRNA expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) among some groups. The protein expressions of BSP, OCN, and RUNX2 were significantly higher in some groups compared to the control group. The CSRS did not interfere with the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, compared to the control group. CSRS are shown to have biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation effect on hPDLCs.
This study compared the histologic response of a pulp capping material Matreva MTA modified with different concentrations of aloe vera (AV) solutions to Biodentine cement. Ninety dogs’ teeth were included and categorized according to the capping material into five groups (18 teeth each); Group I (Biodentine), group II (Matreva MTA), group III (Matreva MTA 10% AV), group IV (Matreva MTA 20% AV) and group V (Matreva MTA 30% AV). The histopathological findings were recorded at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Matreva MTA and Biodentine groups showed the highest inflammatory cell count compared to the AV-modified Matreva MTA groups at 2- and 4-week intervals (p>0.05). Moreover, the AV-modified Matreva MTA and Biodentine groups showed higher dentin bridge thickness compared to unmodified Matreva MTA at different follow-up periods (p<0.05). AV can significantly enhance the in vivo bioactivity of Matreva MTA, inducing mild inflammation and good dentine bridge formation comparable to Biodentine.
The study evaluated the persistence of residues, bond strength and tags formation of a cementation system after post-space irrigation with different sodium hypochlorite-based irrigants. The groups were divided according to the irrigation protocol (DW: distilled water; SHS: sodium hypochlorite solution; SHG: sodium hypochlorite gel; and, SHT: sodium hypochlorite with surfactant). Forty roots (n=10) were used to evaluate the persistence of residues by scanning electron microscopy. Other forty roots were used to the push-out bond strength test, failure mode and tag formation analyses. Non-parametric data were submitted to Kruskal Wallis and Dunn tests, while parametric data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. No difference was observed in the persistence of residues. DW showed the highest bond strength and tag formation. Type 2 failure mode was the most frequent in the experimental groups. Compared to control, SHT showed the best performance, since less negative effects on adhesive interface was observed.
The objective of the study was the impact of universal adhesives on color coordinates and color change of single-shade resin composites compared with a multi-shade composite after thermocycling. Five resin composites (Filtek Z250, Omnichroma, Vittra APS Unique, Zenchroma, and Charisma Diamond One) were used. The composites were randomly divided into three subgroups: two universal adhesive groups (Single Bond and Gluma Bond) and one control group (n=10). Color measurements were performed initially and after 10,000 thermocycling. Color change (ΔE00) values were calculated using the CIEDE2000 formula. The two-way variance analysis was used (p<0.05). The lowest and highest ΔE00 were exhibited in the Filtek Z250 and Charisma Diamond One (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). The highest ΔE00 was exhibited in the Gluma Bond (p<0.001). An adhesive system may adversely affect the color change of resin composite materials. L and a values of resin composites decreased, and the b values increased after thermocycling.
This study investigated the effect of translucency and absorbance of conventional (FiltekTM-Z350-XT) and bulk-fill (Tetric®-N-Ceram) composites on temperature change during photopolymerization, using a non-contact infrared sensor. Three shades from each composite were selected to prepare disk-shaped specimens (n=3), which then photopolymerized with LED-light for 20 s. A second light exposure was performed on the photopolymerized specimens. The first peak temperature rise during composite photopolymerization (ΔTtotal), second peak temperature rise by the light (ΔTlight), and net peak temperature rise by composite curing heat (ΔTcomposite) were obtained from the temperature change vs. time curve. The changes in ΔTtotal and ΔTlight with varying the composite shade were greater than those in ΔTcomposite. The conventional composite showed higher ΔTtotal and ΔTlight than bulk-fill composite. ΔTtotal and ΔTlight increased as translucency parameter decreased, and absorbance increased. The potential risk for heat-induced pulpal damage should be considered when selecting a composite shade, especially for deep cavities.