The effect of a cylindrical crosshead on shear bond strength of composite to dentin was assessed by finite element analysis (FEA) after shear bond testing thirty mandibular molars restored with composite cylinders (Tetric EvoCeram-3 mm diameter) perpendicular to conditioned dentin. Cross-sectional geometric models were created with quadrilateral linear plane stress elements. Stress distributions for normal, shear, and major principal stresses were plotted. Mean shear bond strength for the experimental group was 23.9 MPa (±4.54), about 15–75% higher than values reported with other methods. FEA showed localized ‘hot spots’ (±16–20 MPa) at the corners of the base of the adhesive layer under a 20 N vertical load. Principal stresses across the composite-dentin interface were lower (±12–16 MPa), but significantly homogenous, approximating closely the nominal strength value. With uniform stress distributions across the adhesive layer, FEA confirmed that a cylindrical crosshead may be an optional tool to improve shear bond testing of dental materials.
This study aimed, after various delays of light-activation, to examine the microstructure of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and to test its mechanical properties in short and long term. Five groups of Fuji II LC were investigated with different light-curing protocols. For each, SEM observations were undertaken with etched samples to selectively observe the organic polymer phase. Flexural strength and microhardness were also tested after 24 h and 12 months storage. SEM examination showed different images of the material according to the delay of light-activation. At 24 h, there was a delay with maximal mechanical properties: 5 min for flexural strength, 10 min for microhardness. However, at 12 months, maximal mechanical properties were reached for the shortest delay. The competition between the acid-base and polymerization reactions results in the formation of a structurally and mechanically different material according to the delay of light-activation. This delay should be adapted to the clinical situation.
The purpose of this study was to compare optical properties of root caries under two observing conditions using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). In vitro and natural root caries were observed by SS-OCT under wet and dry conditions, followed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and transverse microradiography (TMR). Signal intensity (SI), distance between SI peaks (SI-distance) and optical lesion depth were obtained from OCT. Lesion depth was measured from CLSM; lesion depth (LDTMR) and mineral loss (ML) were obtained from TMR. In vitro root caries under wet and dry conditions showed different OCT images and SI patterns. Lesion depth of OCT and that of CLSM, SI-distance and LDTMR, LDTMR and ML significantly correlated. Under dry conditions, half natural root caries showed similar OCT images and SI patterns as in vitro root caries. The base of demineralized dentin could be detected more clearly under dry conditions than under wet conditions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a silicate-based composite material on proliferation and mineralization of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs), which was compared with those of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CH) and tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5, C3S). HDPCs were cultured with CH, C3S and tricalcium silicate/dicalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5/Ca2SiO4, C3S/C2S) composites extract. The CCK-8 assay showed that the composite material stimulated the proliferation of hDPCs. The odontogenic marker genes and DSPP protein expression were more significantly up-regulated by the C3S/C2S composite material compared with pure CHand C3S. HDPCs cultured with composite material extract exert stronger ALP activity and alizarin red S staining. C3S/C2S composite material was advantageous over pure C3S by showing enhanced ability to stimulate the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, suggesting that the C3S/C2S composite materials possess desirable biocompatibility and bioactivity, and might be a new type of pulp-capping agent and dentin alternative materials.
The purpose of this study was to formulate and evaluate an adhesive resin with tantalum oxide. Ta2O5 was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction. The adhesive was formulated with methacrylate monomers and photoinitiators. Ta2O5 was added into the adhesive at 1, 2, 5 and 10 wt%. One group remained without filler (control group). Ta2O5 distribution, radiopacity (n=5), degree of conversion (DC) (n=3), softening in solvent (n=5) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) (n=10) were evaluated. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Spherical nanometric Ta2O5 was arranged in 3.35 µm particles. The groups over 5 wt% presented higher radiopacity (p<0.05). The DC ranged from 61.78 (±1.19)% to 67.35 (±1.40)%, with statistical difference from control group over 5 wt% addition (p<0.05). There was no difference in softening in solvent (p>0.05) and UTS (p>0.05). Tantalum oxide is a promising alternative for adhesive formulation and it could be further tested for biomimetic remineralization.
Enamel demineralization is the most undesired side-effect of fixed orthodontic treatments. This study were to develop a novel adhesive that is self-etching instead of using the traditional etching method, and to form a sealant on the enamel to prevent demineralization. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and quaternary ammonium dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) were mixed into a self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One, 3M, St. Paul, MN, USA; referred to as AEO). Enamel shear bond strength (SBS) was measured. Protein adsorption onto the resins was measured. An oral microcosm biofilm model with saliva was tested. Incorporation of 7.5% MPC and 5% DMAHDM into AEO did not reduce the SBS (p>0.1). AEO with 7.5% MPC+5% DMAHDM had protein adsorption that was only 1/18 that of AEO control. AEO with 7.5% MPC+5% DAMHDM had much stronger antibacterial properties (p<0.05). In conclusion, the new self-etch adhesive with MPC and DAMHDM greatly reduced protein adsorption and inhibited biofilm viability.
The effectiveness of a previously developed unsintered hydroxyapatite (uHA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) hydrophilic membrane as a resorbable barrier for guided bone regeneration (GBR) was evaluated. Critical-size 8-mm diameter bone defects were surgically generated in the parietal bones of 24 12-week-old male Wistar rats, which were then divided into three groups in which either a uHA/PLLA or a collagen membrane or no membrane (control) was placed onto the bone defect. Following sacrifice of the animals 2 or 4 weeks after surgery, bone defects were examined using microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative bone growth area values 2 or 4 weeks after surgery were highest in the uHA/PLLA group. Four weeks after surgery, the relative bone growth area in the uHA/PLLA group was larger than that in the collagen group. The resorbable uHA/PLLA membrane is thus potentially effective for GBR.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride mouthrinses on dentin bonding performance of a two-step selfetch adhesive; Clearfil SE Bond. Bovine root dentin surface was treated with either 450, 900, or 9,000 ppm F solutions for 30 s (immediate), and continually treated for one month (one month) before the bonding procedures. Microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the acid-base resistance zone (ABRZ) were performed. Chemical state of fluorine on dentin surface was analyzed by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The 450 and 900 ppm F fluoride mouthrinses did not influence the µTBS to dentin, while the 9,000 ppm F fluoride solution adversely affected the µTBSs. The fluoride application to dentin significantly enhanced acid resistance at the adhesive/dentin interface including the ABRZ. The XAFS analysis indicated different concentrations of fluoride might create different chemical compounds on the dentin surface, influencing the µTBS results.
The effects of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) applications on the bonding of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramic onlay restorations after cyclic loading were examined. Standardized mesial-distal-occlusal-palatal cavities in 32 extracted human molars were prepared. The cavities were divided into four groups: those receiving thin-layered (T), slope-shaped (S), and base-shaped (B) sealing, and the non-sealing group (N) as a control. The intra-cavity dentin walls of the T, S, and B groups were sealed with an all-in-one adhesive and a flowable composite. All cavities were scanned; hence, CAD/CAM onlays were fabricated using ceramic blocks and bonded with a resin cement system. Cyclic loading was applied and the microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) was measured. It was found that IDS application improved not only the μ-TBS, but also the bonding reliability and durability of the CAD/CAM restoration. In particular, the S restoration exhibited the highest-performance as regards both robust bond strength and stable bonding.
The aim of this laboratory study was to evaluate the monomer leaching and degree of conversion (DC) from experimental bioactive resin composites (RBCs) and to do comparison with commercial bulkfill and packable resin composites. Experimental dimethacrylatebased resin composites were reinforced with silanated nano-hydroxyapatite (30 and 45 wt%). The ion leaching and DC of these resin composites were compared and contrasted with SDR™ and Filtek P60™ by using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. A significant difference was found in elution of monomer between the resin composites. SDR™ showed significantly high monomer elution and structural changes compared to other resin composites. The DC of bioactive RBCs showed the highest conversion rate after polymerization. Resin composite with nano-hydroxyapatite with the presence of a bioactive component might provide biomimetic approach for the material. Moreover, a low concentration of nanohydroxyapatite nano-fillers have shown better properties than micro-fillers based resin composites.
This study evaluated the flexural mechanical properties of various thermoplastic denture base polymers (six polyamides, four acrylic resins, polyester, polypropylene, and polycarbonate) by three different testing conditions; specimens were tested in water bath at 37°C (Wet/Water, by ISO 20795-1), or in ambient air (Wet/Air) after being immersed in distilled water for 50 h, or after desiccation for 7 days (Dry/Air). The mean ultimate flexural strength (UFS) and flexural modulus (FM) for most products ranged from 27 to 61 MPa and from 611 to 1,783 MPa respectively, which failed to meet the minimum requirements of the international standard, except for polycarbonate (89 and 2,245 MPa). The mean UFS and FM values were ranked Dry/Air>Wet/Air>Wet/Water (p<0.05). In conclusion, the flexural mechanical properties of denture base polymers varied with the products and were significantly affected by the testing medium (air or water) and specimen conditions (wet or dry).
The mechanical properties of temporary crowns are considered to be crucial in order to achieve successful definite restorations. This study compared marginal fit, internal fit, fracture strength and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM temporary crowns to direct chairside counterparts. An upper left first premolar Frasaco tooth was prepared for all-ceramic crown. The materials used for comparison were VITA CAD-Temp®, ArtBloc®Temp, PMMA DISK and Acrytemp (control group). The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10). Each crown was investigated for the above parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.20. The average marginal gap, internal gap and fracture strength showed statistically significant difference between groups (p<0.01). The fracture mode showed statistically non-significant difference (p>0.05) among experimental groups. The CAD/CAM temporary crowns demonstrated superior mechanical properties compared to direct handmade counterparts.
The objective of the present study was to assess hard and soft tissue around dental implants made of three different materials with microgrooves on the collar surface. Microgrooved implants were inserted in the mandibles of five male beagles. Implants were made of three kinds of material; titanium (Ti), yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and ceria partially stabilized zirconia/alumina nanocomposite (Ce-TZP/Al2O3). The animals were euthanatized at three months after implantation, and harvested tissue was analyzed by means of histology. All kinds of implant were osseointegrated, and there were no significant differences in any histomorphometric parameters among the three groups of microgrooved implants made of different materials. Within the limitations of this study, implants with microgrooves integrated into the surrounding bone tissue, without statistically significant differences among the three tested materials, Ti, Y-TZP, and Ce-TZP/Al2O3.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface roughness and smear layer on the micro-shear bond strength (µSBS) of two self-etching adhesives, Clearfil SE Bond (SE) and Clearfil Tri-S Bond (S3). Flat dentin surfaces were prepared with SiC papers (600-, 180- and 120-grit) and diamond burs (extra fine, medium and coarse). They were further divided into smear-covered and smear-free surfaces and bonded with respective adhesives. µSBS test was performed after water storage at 37ºC for 24 h. Smear layer thickness measurement was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface roughness was examined by contact stylus profilometer. Smear layer thickness and surface roughness were significantly different among all groups (p<0.05). No difference in µSBS was observed among surface prepared by SiC whereas bur-cut smear layer had negative effect on µSBS, especially for S3. Surface roughness from different surface preparations had no influence on µSBS (p<0.05).
The aim of this study was to evaluate nanoleakage within the different lesion-sealing therapies applied to artificial non-cavitated enamel lesions. Thirty-two human anterior teeth were used. Artificial subsurface enamel lesions were produced on the labial surfaces of teeth. The specimens were then randomly divided into three groups (n=10): Group I- Clinpro Sealant application; Group II- ExciTE F adhesive resin application; and Group III- ICON resin infiltrant application. Each group was further divided into two subgroups: control and thermocycler. Nanoleakage was calculated by the digital image analysis software. In the control and thermocycled groups, there was no statistically significant difference between the Groups I, II, and III (p>0.05). The only significant leakage scores were obtained between the Group III control and thermocycler groups (p=0.027). ICON infiltrant can be used as an alternative to dental adhesives and fissure sealants in the sealing of initial non-cavitated enamel lesions. But the resin may become more affected by the water sorption than other resin materials over time. More studies are needed to evaluate long-term durability of resin infiltrants.
Aim of the study was to evaluate apatite forming ability and ion dissolution of bioactive glass-ceramic (BGC) particles from novel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based endodontic sealer Guttaflow Bioseal. Firstly, water sorption and solubility were determined for Guttaflow 2 and Guttaflow Bioseal (GB), the latter containing BGC filler particles. Mineral precipitations in simulated body fluid (SBF) were observed with SEM/EDX. Ion-release from the sealer was determined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in Tris-buffer solution. Change in pH was also measured. The obtained data was statistically analyzed with Tukey’s HSD test (p<0.05). GB exhibited significantly higher water sorption and solubility in comparison with Guttaflow 2. Surface structure exposed particles of BGC in the PDMS matrix. The BGC particles (size of 20–40 μm) indicated to consist of CaO-SiO2-Na2O-ZrO2-P2O5. Morphologically spherical Ca/P precipitation formed after 3 days in the SBF on the sealer surface. Ca/P ratio of the precipitation ranged in 1.20–1.65 indicating transformation to hydroxyapatite (HA). The pH of the immersion solution rose gradually.
Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) is a promising imaging modality to detect demineralization under the margins of composite restorations. The aim of this study was to assess how base materials applied under composite resin may affect CP-OCT image assessment. Base materials are commonly used for managing deep dentinal decay but once applied residual amounts of the base materials can be inadvertently left on the inner enamel walls. This study determined that base materials have significantly different scattering properties. The order grouping in the mean backscattered reflectivity (mR) of the base material was Dycal>caries phantom>Fuji IX, Vitrebond, Fuji II (p<0.05). The calcium hydroxide base (Dycal) had a higher mR than demineralized dentin and Vitrebond before and after the resin restoration was placed (p<0.05). While calcium hydroxide maybe a confounder in CPOCT imaging, several protective base materials are compatible with this type of imaging modality.
This study evaluated bonding of adhesives to dentin treated with silver diammine fluoride (SDF). Micro-shear bond strength (MSBS) to sound human dentin was investigated for 3 adhesive systems: Clearfil SE bond 2 (CSE), and Scotchbond Universal in self-etching (SBU) and phosphoric acid-etching (SBT) modes, following 4 different SDF application protocols (n=10); Control: treated with deionized water. P1: SDF applied for 10-s, no rinse. P2: SDF applied for 10-s, rinsed off after 1-min. P3: superficial dentin polished off after 24-h following P1. MSBS data were obtained after 24-h water storage at 37°C. SDF significantly affected MSBS to dentin depending on the SDF protocol and adhesive system. Rinsing SDF off improved bond strength but superficial refreshing of SDFtreated dentin prior to bonding showed the highest bond strength. The two-step self-etch adhesive (CSE) and the universal adhesive in acid-etching mode (SBT) showed better performance than universal adhesive (SBU) alone on SDF treated dentin.
The fluorescence and physical properties of thulium-doped zirconia were investigated. A standard grade of zirconia (TZ-3Y-E) and two translucent dental zirconia materials (Zpex and Zpex Smile) were examined. The specimens were prepared by addition of 0–1.5 wt% Tm2O3 and then sintering. When exposed to UV light, the Tm2O3-doped zirconia exhibited blue fluorescence with a peak wavelength of 460 nm. The fluorescence intensity of Zpex and Zpex Smile was higher than that of TZ-3Y-E, with Zpex being more intense than Zpex Smile. Zpex exhibited maximum fluorescence intensity when doped with 0.8 wt% Tm2O3. XRD analysis revealed that TZ-3Y-E and Zpex contained primarily tetragonal zirconia, while Zpex Smile contained largely cubic phase zirconia. There were no changes observed in the microstructure or physical properties of the zirconia specimens when doped with Tm2O3.
Removable partial dentures (RPDs) with resin-clasp retentive parts, which are known as non-metal-clasp dentures (NMCDs), have been used as alternatives for conventional RPDs with metal clasp, in case of aesthetic prosthodontic treatments. In this study, a profilometer and dynamic micro-indentation tests were used to investigate the effects of polishing on the surface properties such as surface roughness (Ra), dynamic hardness, and elastic modulus of high-rigidity glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTPs) composed of E-glass fibers and polypropylene for NMCDs. The Ra values of the GFRTPs after polishing were significantly lower than those before polishing. The values were close to the Ra threshold level of 0.2, which corresponds to an acceptable surface smoothness for denture base materials. Polishing did not significantly change the dynamic hardnesses and elastic moduli of the GFRTPs. The fiber loading did not greatly affect the micromechanical properties of the GFRTPs because the glass-fiber reinforcement is embedded in the polypropylene matrix.