The national forests of Bangladesh have been depleted drastically and presently make up only 6% of the total land, compared with 17% in 1971. Most reports have identified population pressures and shifting cultivation patterns as the causes of forest loss in Bangladesh. This study examines the management strategies to evaluate their roles in the loss of forest cover. It is concluded that a lack of continuous and complete forest inventory and inadequate forest management plans acted as catalysts in declining forest cover. It is recommended that in order to protect the remaining forests, the government should adopt an effective approach emphasizing sustainable-yield silvicultural objectives for the reservation and reclamation of forest lands.
The timber industry in Indonesia started growing in the late 1960s. In the early state of timber development, unprocessed logs were the dominant wood export and a major source of foreign exchange earnings after petroleum. When the government supported the establishment of plywood mills and began to restrict log exports in 1982, plywood replaced unprocessed logs as the dominant export as the economy began to diversify and stopped relying so heavily on the export of oil. Realizing that too many mills had been built, in 1990 the central government barred the erection of additional plywood mills or the expansion of existing mills, thereby sustaining log supplies for existing plywood mills. The promotion of pulp and paper plantations as an environmental and economic solution to depleting timber resources started in 1990. Soft loans, the inclusion of government equity and gaining permission for the use of logging waste for wood products are determinant measures in promoting the pulp and paper industry.
This paper explains progress made toward integrating and sustaining a collaborative approach in the management of the high forest ecosystem in Ghana as well as examining the opportunity this approach provides to support forest-based rural communities' socioeconomic development. The reserved and unreserved high forests show high degradation and deforestation, as a result of forest policy prior to 1994, inoperative forest laws and regulations, and the decline and recovery of the high forest economy, which severely impacted both the forest condition and rural communities' social and economic welfare. Thus the objectives and strategies of Ghana's integrated and adaptive collaborative forest management approach are to ensure sustainable management through conservation, production, use, and restocking of the high forest as well as provide an opportunity and incentives to promote forest-based rural community socioeconomic development.
A recent survey of the status of plantation forests in Ghana revealed a past trend of lack of sustainable commitment to the development of forest commodity resources, despite increasing production and degradation activities. This paper describes a new approach to forestation development aimed at sustaining the natural tropical high forest. The current qualitative and quantitative status of the high forest shows it is degraded. Historically, forestation activities aimed at rehabilitating plantation forests have been unsuccessful for many reasons; a long-term and comprehensive approach towards developing a sustainable forestation program is therefore being implemented. The program's success depends on implementing effective measures such as forest policy and tenure arrangements, strategic and operational planning, economic incentives, and institutional reforms. These measures are designed to motivate the active participation of private and local civil organizations while ensuring successful commodity resource development, particularly the development of timber.
Probably the most important single data upon which tourism policy consideration should base is the number of tourists. Its estimation, however, has not been necessarily accurate nor reliable enough. We implemented two types of questionnaire in order to estimate the number of tourists to Yakushima Island, which is inscribed on the World Heritage List. One questionnaire was distributed to inhabitants of this Island. The other was carried out at the ports of entry. Utilizing these survey data, the percentage of visitors who were tourists was estimated to be between 51% and 60%, i.e., there were approximately 130,000-150,000 tourists to Yakushima in 1996. We included the tourists with plural purposes such as both leisure and business in the process of estimation. We found about 10% of tourists had plural purposes to visit.