Germany has led the world in the field of forestry science since the start of related activities there in the 18th century. Full-scale artificial forestation with conifers also began with the progress of forestry science, and the forestry developed remarkably in the country during the 19th century. As part of this process, the concept of sustaining forests arose from the internal logic of the forestry, as demonstrated by the fact that a number of yield regulation measures were contrived as techniques for forest maintenance. Long disputes on the concept of sustaining forests and the setting of targets in forestry management ensued. Since the 1970s, the German forestry has had to place more focus on people's heightened expectations in regard to forests as well as an increased number of environmental conservation campaigns and global movements concerning the significance of forests. The framework of Germany's concept of sustaining forests has been transformed through such changes in external conditions, and the country has reached the stage of promoting near-natural forestry. It is now faced with new technical issues, including natural regeneration and management of mixed forests, within the new framework set by such conditions. In the future, the German forestry is expected to progress toward the resolution of these technical issues.
Relationship between the clan forest management in the Edo era and the national forest management in the Modern era haven't been studied in historical studies on Japanese forest policy. The current study analyzed the achievement of the management and operation system for the clan forest in the Edo era, and its succession to the Modern era in Akita. In the early 19th century, a drastic reformation of forest policy had started in Akita clan. Then, the forest policy and administration had been unified by the Akita clan, and an advanced forest management based on logging in rotation had been established. In the early Meiji era, governmental forest in Akita prefecture was formed by a succession of the clan forest, fundamentally. The governmental forest was managed by Akita prefecture at the begging, while it has been under the control of the central government directly, since 1878. However, the forest management system, which was established in the 19th century, was accumulated by the talents who have experiences of governmental forest management, and villages which had been utilizing the clan forest. Thus, a method of detailed forest resource survey and systematic utilization of governmental forest had always been aimed.
This study examines the processes by which modern forestry was established and spread in the British Empire. In the first part of this study, I observe the development of forest management system in India and other colonies, and also seek to indicate that Continental European forestry had an influential impact on it. In the early 20th century, many Indian foresters found a few common questions like forest fire and shifting cultivation as particular elements of tropical forestry. Through the debate on the effects of fire protection in North-eastern India, they began to recognize the importance of fire to sal regeneration. After the First World War, the Empire Forestry Conferences were held to discuss about forest resource management in the empire. At these conferences, knowledge and management practices in various colonies were exchanged and new hybrid forestry practices were produced as compromises with the European forestry model.
Since Austria produces same amount of log with Japan even though its small land area, comparative study was done by interview survey on the forestry related organizations mainly in Styria (i.e. national and regional governments, national and regional forestry cooperatives (WV), sawmills), and also done by statistical and literature survey. As a result, addition to the forest conditions, such as mature stand, relatively gentle slope, dense forest roads, increase of log demand on forest industries which invested plants and equipment to maintain their competitiveness has developed active forestry in Austria. Large scale forest owners harvest higher portion of their forest growth and sell the timber directly to the mills. On the other hand, mobilization of forest resources of small forest owners is an important issue. WV has simple and cost efficient structure and increases its timber trade because of the secure payment, higher log price by joint marketing and efficient arrangement of logging or trucking contractors for owners. WV was established to cope with large scale sawmills, however, it was recently in cooperation with forest industries.
This research is conducted under the policy adopted for the forest certification with an aim to improve forest management standards, taking place in case the first certification of non-commercial forest in China. The purpose is to understand the impact of changes after certificated, and find the way to display more effects. This essay selects Badaling Forest Division as the research subjects,and gives analysis of collected internal data and questionnaires. Results revealed the following three points. i) due to the limited government budget, and the cooperation between Forest Division and forest relationship branch during audition, there is good environment for public welfare to display. ii) as the effect of certification, the level of forest management has been improved, public function will be displayed,whereas the reputation rises. iii) however, because forestry workers are less than enthusiastic about the expensive certification process, and the certification standards don't apply well to the conditions on the ground, forest certification still have a long way to go before it could be established in China.
Indonesia has instituted both the internationally recognized Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification and a national certification scheme known as Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia (LEI, Indonesian Ecolabelling Institute). LEI was developed by strong government initiatives that included relevant parties. This article explores the social and economic impact of a national certification scheme in select villages, and it analyzes the programs' potential for further development. Field observations, interviews and secondary data collection were conducted in December 2005, October 2006 and March 2010. A key finding of this research is that a sustainable approach to forest certification and the management of certified community forests can only be achieved through community participation. In particular, sustainability is best achieved by involving local NGOs that can, in turn, support existing farmers' groups that work on forest certification and management. The certification model used in the villages had shortcomings: for example, there was an imbalance between the supply of certified wood and companies' demand, a lack of public awareness regarding the value of certification and undeveloped market mechanisms to sell certified wood. However, the forest certification model could be seen as an innovative approach with great potential to benefit local communities and to ensure sustainable forest management.
This study examines three timber distribution systems for plywood manufacturing with regard to their structure, function, dealing practices, and territory supplied. These systems were established in the Tohoku region between 2001 and 2003. In these systems, local loggers directly supply a stipulated amount of timber, determined according to the local business situation, to a designated plywood factory. These systems thereby facilitate supply-demand adjustment. In order to investigate their impact, a comparative analysis is performed on data obtained from interviews, statistics, and GIS mapping. The analysis shows that these systems have been effective because of adequate forest resources, the feasibility of low-priced domestic timber as a substitute for imported one, improvements in plywood processing technology, and the existence of private/national timber distribution systems. Nevertheless, although these systems have revitalized logging activities in the Tohoku region, this revitalization has led to conflicting demands for lumber and plywood. An additional finding of this study is that the extent of logging and restructuring of supply in Tohoku's plywood industry vary.
The following findings were obtained from a questionnaire given to house builders about their selection of kuda-bashira (connective posts) for the construction of Japanese post-and-beam housing. 1) The proportions of kuda-bashira in 2007 are as follows: laminated wood, 56.0%: solid wood (kiln-dried), 39.0%; and solid wood (excluding thekiln-dried), 5.0%. Larger builders tend to use laminated wood and smaller ones prefer solid wood. 2) However, laminated wood have been coming into increasing use among small- and medium-sized builders. 3) On the other hand, a return to solid wood can also be seen, particularly among the small- and medium-sized builders. 4) When ordering laminated wood, builders place more emphasis on "functional value", and when ordering solid wood, they focused on "emotional value".