This study analyzes the main historical, social and political factors that led to today's forest ownership structure of the Czech Republic through an examination of relevant information. The focus is on the evaluation of the legislation affecting the forest ownership. From the analyzed data, the historical timeline was divided into four historical phases. In the first phase (1867-1918), the non-state forest ownership was very high and by 1910 counted for almost 100% of the country's forests. At the beginning of the second phase (1918-1948), the share of forests owned by individuals went up to 75% but the total for non-state forests slightly decreased. Then, two drastic changes directly resulting from the unstable political climate in Europe and the Second World War occurred: In 1938, the vast mountainous areas around Czech borders were ceded to Germany. As a reaction to that, the first major wave of property confiscation took place right after the Second World War. About 1,080,000 ha of total private forest area were confiscated by means of the "Benes Decrees". During the third phase (1948-1989), the non-state ownership decreased to only 6.6% in 1980. At the beginning of the fourth phase (1989-2005), the reverse process began.
This paper applies the cost-benefit analysis to the issue of participatory forest management (PFM) projects in Bangladesh. As economic incentive is the key factor to ensure farmers' willingness to continue in the PFM project, cost-benefit analysis of the project is very essential to understand the success of the project. To meet the objective of the study an interview-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on 146 purposively selected participated farmers whose plots were felled in 2003. The important findings of this study were (i) the PFM project was economically beneficial both for the farmers and for the government, (ii) the average amounts of farmers' share of benefit from the final felling were Tk. 37,260 in agroforestry system and Tk. 67,104 in woodlot forestry system, which were attractive amounts for a local poor households, (iii) the benefit-cost ratios were 3.54 for the agroforestry system and 2.45 for the woodlot forestry system, (iv) although the collection of total government revenues was higher from woodlot forest plots than from agroforestry plots, the benefit-cost ratio was higher in agroforestry plot than in woodlot forest plot, (v) the standard of living of 100% of the farmers had improved after receiving their share of benefits from final felling.
Japanese and Russian specialists on forest policy and economics surveyed local attitudes regarding participatory forest management in forest communities in the southern part of Khabarovsk Krai. The questionnaire survey was conducted in two communities in September 2002 to identify people's perceptions of forest management and their preferences among policy options, to determine their willingness to embrace participatory forest management. Respondents totaled 117. It was found that the respondents are strongly against private forest ownership, but there is no clear consensus on who should own the forest. The results also show that majority of the respondents did not feel it necessary to participate in forest management. But the results also indicated that most of the respondents were interested in forest issues and were concerned about forest management. Concerning the respondents' attitudes regarding forestry participation, information and small business, there were no clear differences between the two communities.