This paper analyzes the chronological changes in cultural values pertaining to forests and perspectives of governmental authorities, forestry researchers, and the public regarding mountain villagers, who are the forest culture’s successors. Until approximately 1930, people involved in forestry research and the forestry industry thought that mountain villagers were harmful to forest resources. The Nosangyoson-Keizai-Kosei-Undo（Economic Rehabilitation Projects for Rural Villages）offered extensive infrastructural and policy-based assistance to rural villages； however, the emergence of World War II disrupted this plan. Although the term of “culture” was frequently used in war-damage reconstruction process, public opinion favored increased timber production over various other functions, including forest culture development. In the 1960s, depopulation issues in rural areas strengthened and “disappearing folklore” was recorded by public authorities with respect to cultural assets and by folklore studies researchers. Since the 1970s, rural areas have been commodified as “Furusato”, or commercialized hometowns. At the turn of the millennium, some depopulated areas that were not completely commodified were considered to have been abandoned by some researchers. Some of the ruins and old documents pertaining to forestry are now part of the forestry “heritage”. We should understand that the forest culture cannot be maintained without ensuring mountain villagers’sustainable livelihoods.
There are concerns about adverse effects caused by dilution of the connectedness to nature, and restoration of cultural practices related to nature has become a significant issue. In Japan, academic approaches to forest cultures have been posited for some time, but have not yet been developed into policy theory. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on the collection and use of edible plants and mushrooms, attempting to identify cultural elements relating thereto, and to interpret the vicissitudes affecting the culture of their use. The process was divided into: pre-, post- and during harvest processes, dividing each into several aspects. Diverse cultural elements were identified, and some of these were linked to the significance attached to the resources examined in the study. Shifting postwar patterns of use were categorized, and we interpreted that the elements with the various significance to people have remained up to the present, and have become popular as recreation. Nevertheless, there were some elements that have unavoidably declined or disappeared due to changes in the natural and social environments. In order to restore forest cultures, there needs to be both an individual approach that fosters the meaning of forests to people, and a wider approach in terms of the relationship between the natural environment and institutions.
As an introduction to value studies in forestry, this paper seeks to refocus human values on forests as the key factor to approaching the complicated relationships between people and forests. From this viewpoint, the cultural value of forests seems quite an obscure framework; and has been defined in many ways by reflecting on the concepts of multiple forest functions, ecosystem services, or principles of existing social and forest sciences. However, even under this broad framework, focusing on human values shows that various actors and groups find multiple values in forest spaces, lands, landscapes, trees and other plants, animals, and forest trails as the objects. Moreover, these values have been dynamically born and evolved through their ongoing relationships with forests and many types of social changes. The values of mountain bikers and trail runners in forests, and toward the forestry heritage, which have generated new trends of forest use in Japan, provide good examples of that process. Studies such as this should explore prudent adoption of diverse human values and stakeholders’interests for application to conflict resolutions and decision making leading to sustainable, efficient, and equitable forest use.
The management of forest landscape has not always been promoted based on a stable policy．This paper aims to discuss the role of the concept of “Cultural Landscape” in the conservation and creation of future forest landscapes，while reviewing the history of forest landscape management in the modern era．With the establishment of the Landscape Act in 2005，the idea of landscape conservation changed to a system operating on rules that matched regional characteristics and gave appropriate authority to organizations with conservation will．Using the concept of “Cultural Landscape，” which appeared in the Act on Protection of CulturalProperties a “dynamic conservation” mechanism was developed focusing on maintaining the livelihood system in contrast to “frozen preservation，” which was the mainstream policy thus far．The first important cultural landscape focused on forest and forestry was the “Forestry Landscape on Chizu Town” designated in 2018．The relationship between forestry and cultural landscape is still in its infancy．The true use of the concept of cultural landscape lies in creating an axis of livelihood and community making，which should be followed by reading the essential value of the landscape．
In this study, the author extracted remarks of the members of the National Diet about the countermeasures against pollinosis from the National Diet minutes since the １st special session in 1947, and categorized them into the following 4 groups: (1) forest and forestry issues, (2） medical issues, (3） environmental issues and (4) other countermeasures, and then analyzed the number of remarks in each group, contents and transition of remarks about the countermeasures in forest and forestry issues．These analyses of the Diet deliberations revealed that (1) remarks about the countermeasures in forest and forestry issues account for the largest proportion of total remarks about the countermeasures against pollinosis, and this tendency has been stronger in recent years; (2） the countermeasures in forest and forestry issues have remained to be of interest for more than ３０ years since the first remark by a Diet member on this issue was made in 1986; (3） contents of remarks about the countermeasures in forest and forestry issues have deepened as exemplified by detailed remarks related to the effectiveness of individual measures and methodology of target setting since around FY 2004 and it contributed to the accelerating promotions of the countermeasures．
Starting in the 2010s, demand for domestic wood shifted away from solid toward laminated wood products. Insufficient research has been done regarding how forested regions have responded to this change. Thus, this study focuses on the case of the log auction market and sawmill belonging to HOLZ-Mikawa in Aichi Prefecture. To this end, market sales slips were analyzed to identify the market’s response, and interviews were conducted at other sawmills and log auction markets as complementary measures. Results showed that the HOLZ-Mikawa wholesale department consolidated market transactions that maintain the sales channel for its traditional small orders from local sawmills by auction, as well as for demand from customers outside the prefecture by negotiation. Moreover, a new negotiation transaction was started with the HOLZ-Mikawa sawmill department, which had moved away from its primary business of managing orders from union members to lamina production for laminated wood materials. In doing so, new and diverse sources of demand―separate from local and non-prefectural demand―were created. In response to this demand shift, the firm flexibly reformed its materials wholesaling function and processing function, which may have played a role in suppressing material prices in the Higashi-Mikawa region.
Kyushu nature trail is a part of long-distance nature trails built by the Ministry of the Environment throughout Japan. This trail was built to provide an opportunity to access nature and increase people’s awareness of the natural environment. However, previous studies have not clarified the characteristics of hikers and their level of environmental consciousness. This study fills this gap by conducting an on-site, questionnaire-based survey for hikers along the Kyushu nature trail. The results indicate that most hikers used the trail to enjoy nature and promote fitness. Over 70% of them were repetitive users of the nature trail. Most were singleday users. However, depending on definition of long-distance trail hikers, around 10 to 20% of the users were long-distance trail hikers. In addition, regarding environmental awareness, the users of the Kyusyu nature trail were more environmentally aware with respect to nature and environmental problems compared to that of the Japanese public. Furthermore, the more frequently a hiker used the trail, the more environmentally aware he or she tended to be.
As tourism diversifies in Japan, the region’s resources are depleting, and the residents’living environment is degrading. Local rules spearheaded by communities to control and regulate tourist behavior are increasingly coming to the fore as a way to counter the damage. This study aims to present a framework for classifying and categorizing the nature of these local rules. A large number of cases in Okinawa Prefecture were comprehensively collected, and a comparative analysis of the data was performed. Interviews and inspection surveys conducted at each of the sites identified 46 cases, and the details of each were individually validated. Based on these details, we found three axes corresponding to the following components: 1) Objects to be protected; 2) Target persons and their behavior and activities that rules are applied to; and 3) The system to enact and enforce the rules. After classifying each of the rules according to this framework, we examined their current circumstances and the issues facing them.