We analyze shifts in local residents' participation in urban forest conservation at Kamakura's Hiromachi Ryokuchi Park in the Kanagawa Prefecture. These conservation activities began in protest to development from the 1970s and still continue today. By analyzing conservation activities of local residents, we show a shift from a community-based organization to a voluntary association with diversifying conservation activities. Therefore, currently, some associations coexist in this place with various purposes. In addition, a survey of each motive showed that a strong sense of responsibility from participating in the protest against development motivated the local residents' current activities. Thus, promoting local environmental governance for urban forests requires nurturing a sense of responsibility and an efficient framework for diverse activities for local residents.
This study examines how forest owners associations have coped with the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. These associations, which play an important role in forest improvement, have faced significant problems in the reconstruction of the forestry industry in Fukushima Prefecture after the nuclear disaster. The study describes the actual status of management in 6 forest owners associations damaged by the nuclear disaster. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) when exclusive zones expanded into the area of an association, its office had to be moved and its members, executives, and workers evacuated for an extended period; (2) the main income source of the cooperatives shifted from forest improvement projects to earthquake disaster reconstruction projects such as radioactive decontamination; and (3) a final deficit for the associations was avoided because of the indemnity from the Tokyo Electric Power Company. Although these forest owners associations have attempted to reconstruct their management by launching earthquake disaster reconstruction projects as a key function of local forest management, the associations whose areas included exclusive zones and those suffering from serious radioactive contamination are still finding it difficult to return to their primary business.
To improve the livelihood of local people involved in the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) project, we examined the necessary factors to incorporate Melaleuca (Melaleuca cajupti) timber production as a new income source. At PM Village, with Central Kalimantan as research target, we conducted Project Cycle Management (PCM) to investigate Melaleuca timber production. Findings clarified that the main problem was access to the timber market. Therefore, we conducted market surveys to search for and develop a distribution channel. We discovered two markets for Melaleuca timber; market of a small-diameter timber and a middle-diameter timber. Eventually, it became apparent that there was no room to enter the small-diameter market. In the middle-diameter market, a shortage of timber was occurring simultaneously with an increase in Melaleuca demand because the amount of timber available from Kalimantan (e.g., Meranti: Shorea spp.) had decreased. In PM Village, there were no middle-diameter trees, so forest management (i.e., silviculture) was identified as an objective for the area. Moreover, forest management in this area has become additionality of the REDD+ project. Accordingly, it is anticipated that Melaleuca grown in peatlands will generate profitable income for REDD+ projects in other peatland areas.
This study investigated the current state of forest management by suburban non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners in areas with almost no income from forestry. The results from a questionnaire and interviews conducted in "T" Hamlet in Motegi Town, Tochigi Prefecture are as follows. First, the forest owners seldom harvest timber because the main purpose of forest management is collecting fallen leaves for fertilizer. Second, utilization of forest resources is declining because the household income of the forest owners has been dependent on other occupations since the 1970s. Third, the forest owners conversely believe that their forests should be managed by themselves and are not willing to entrust or relinquish their forests. Fourth, those who manage their forest are mostly aged in their 70s, have a surplus of labor in their family and regard their forest as family property. As the younger generations who will inherit the forests in the hamlet tend to seek jobs other than agriculture and forestry, it seems unlikely that the forest owners will continue to manage their forests directly. However, the results also showed potential for forest owners to contribute indirectly to forest management through community revitalization activities.
This study examined the relationship between paper and paperboard production and the procurement of raw materials used for their production in Japan after World War II. It also clarified the relationship between their production and the consumption of raw materials for 2011. The results are as follows: (1) production of printing and communication paper and linerboard greatly increased with economic growth, (2) consumption of hardwood and wastepaper also increased, (3) hardwood supply shifted from domestic natural hardwood to overseas planted hardwood. Furthermore, in 2011, printing and communication paper and linerboard accounted for a large percentage of the production of paper and paperboard. Linerboard was predominantly produced from wastepaper, so consumption of wood chips was not greatly influenced by its production. Since approximately 50% of domestic wood chips were used to produce printing and communication paper, their production had an effect on the consumption of wood chips. Most wood chips were composed of hardwood from overseas planted forests. After the fall of Lehman Brothers in 2008, production of printing and communication paper decreased. It shows that decreases in printing and communication paper production influence planted forest management in tropical regions, Oceania and the other regions.
The human-wildlife conflict has been escalating in Japan. To mitigate this conflict, collaborative management, an effective damage management method, has been advocated. However, many villages are reluctant to conduct this method. Previous studies stated damage management method chose by perception of farming or damage management based on farm conditions. However, few studies have attempted to understand one village's farmers' perception of damage management. We focused on the perceptions of damage management of the residents of village A, Sano city, Tochigi Prefecture, and considered how these perceptions affected their notions of collaborative management. We conducted interviews with individual farm classes, which were classified according to the farmland area of each farmhouse. The responses showed that individual farm classes had different perceptions, but all had some incentive to practice farmhouse management. However, all farm classes doubted the effectiveness of collaborative management or felt dissatisfaction. There were also the concerns for their village's future, and the low incentives offered by the village relatively youth. In conclusion, when considering effective collaborative management, we need to analyze not only farm conditions but also other factors such as villages' capacity to introduce this management method.