This study investigated the classification and amount of FSC-labeled products sold in large retail stores in Morioka，between November 2014 and March 2015. The FSC defined its original product classifications as wood products，pulp and paper products, and NTFPs. This study checked 25,868 products in 26 product groups. First, the study found 192 FSC-labeled products among 19,875 products in six product groups. Fourteen of these FSC-labeled products were found in two stores. Therefore 178 kinds of FSC-labeled products were analyzed in detail. The six groups were “engineered wood products,” “household articles,” “stationery of wood,” “paper,” “stationery of paper,” and “printed materials.” Twenty license codes were identified in 178 kinds of products, and 90% of these license codes were found to be valid. Second, 82 of these FSC-labeled products were manufactured in Japan, and the other 96 FSC-labeled products were foreign manufactured. Third, FSC labels covered less than 5.7% of the product surface, and by color 74.7% of the FSC labels were black-and-white or gray. Finally, no clear price differentials were observed between FSC-labeled products and alternative products. FSC-labeled products were not necessarily expensive than non-labeled alternatives.
This paper analyzes the 2013 Forestry Management Statistics Survey Report（“Report”）from the point of view of the Peasant Forestry（Farm Forestry）theory. In the background are the crisis in mountain villages and the forestry crisis. Under the self-harvesting family forestry theory, family labor is used in agriculture and forestry at the small and medium-sized level to form fixed capital. This paper establishes an integrated perspective on the demolition theory and the Peasant Forestry（Farm Forestry）theory. Based on the labor theory of value of Marxist economics, this paper splits value into constant capital（c）, mainly from the Report, variable capital（v）, and calculated surplus value（Mehrwert（m））and conducts analysis over time and synchronic analysis. It would appear that the forestry crisis led to the mountain village crisis and a subsequent deepening. However, at the small and medium-sized level, family labor wage valuation（v２）is observed. Also, a decline has been observed at the level of 500ha or more, where there is some prospect for farmers’forestry. By zone, Kanto and Higashiyama showed financial improvements. An advantage of the western Japan personality can be seen. Self-harvesting forestry in western Japan also is considered to be thriving.
This study aims to explain the anti-forest management（i.e., non-thinning）practices of resident and non-resident forest owners in an underpopulated rural area. Data from separate mail surveys among resident and non-resident forest owners of Nichinan town were analyzed through a binary logistic regression. This study found the following results.1）The size of a forest and recognition of the forest area can underpin the forest management behaviors of both resident and non-resident owners.2）Legal registrations for the forest can underpin the forest management behavior of resident owners.3）Education, ties with Nichinan town, and distance from the forest can underpin the forest management behavior of non-resident owners. The results contribute to the local government's forest policy in two ways. First, this study confirmed the importance of economic and cognitive factors in forestry policy research. Second, the analysis clarified that different factors affect the forest management behavior of resident and non-resident owners. Therefore, although the local government and forest owners' cooperatives can adopt the same measures for both resident and non-resident owners in some cases, they need to employ different strategies for both in other contexts.
Today we find the phenomenon of forestation in many places in Java Island, with people enthusiastically planting timber trees such as Sengon（Praserianthes falcataria）. So now in Java we do not find the deforestation but forestation. This forestation takes place more at privetely owned land rather than the government-designated forest area（kawasan hutan）. We have studied this forestation in Java Island using the data that we collected in 2012 at mainly the area where government did not impliment systematic afforestation program at north coastal flat areas in Pemalang District, Central Java Province. The survey showed that upper class farmers, or people who have occupations at non-agricultural sector tend to plant these trees at agricultural land, or home gardens, with relatively large numbers of trees. The number of tree plannted increased, the percentage of tree planted at the agricultural land to homegarden increased, however substantial number of timber trees spicies and multipurpose tree spicies are still planted at the homegarden.
Reasons why forest certification scheme is not widespread in Japan after 15 years from the introduction might be low recognition in the market and absence of price premium. In this paper, authors tried to verify the possible presence of price premium of certified wood products by 1）questionnaire survey, and 2）experimental sales of certified wood products. A questionnaire survey was conducted through internet, and acquired 432 responses from between 20s and 60s of age classes. It resulted that more than 80% of respondents didn’t know forest certification, but after the description of forest certification 44.9% of them showed the intention to accept the price premium of 5% or more. The experimental sales of FSC certified wooden cutting board resulted 10.1% of the purchasers chosen certified product with 10% price premium and 28.0% chosen certified products with 5% price premium. By the result of the experimental sales, the presence of the price premium on certified wooden cutting board was demonstrated.
To expand domestic wood utilization, we must understand the characteristics leading consumers to choose wooden houses. Though large housing companies list wooden houses, medium- and small-scale companies play important roles in the woodenhouse market. We aimed to clarify the preferences of consumers who select direct-marketing wooden houses by conducting questionnaires and interview surveys of customers of a mid-scale housing company, “N,” in Kashimo village, Gifu prefecture. “N” has been encouraging local wood utilization and regional vitalization since the 1980s. Adopting Cramer’s coefficient of association and multiple regression analysis, we analyzed differences among three regions and relationships between housing prices and consumer attributes using a survey of 61 respondents who had had wooden houses built by “N” between 2007 and 2014. Results: a） In Chubu, many customers already had land for their new houses, and their annual household incomes were not high. b） In Kansai, many consumers bought land for their new, medium-sized houses. c） In Kanto, main customers were in their fifties with high household incomes, and built expensive houses. d） Customers had preferences for multiple factors related to wooden houses, but not for housing companies. e） Customers with annual incomes greater than 15 million yen built more expensive houses.
China established collective forest systems in the 1950s under socialist systems that allocated forest ownership to the state and collectives. Problems arose due to a lack of clarity about forest rights, so collective forest tenure reform were implemented to clarify forest use rights and tree ownership. In collective forests, not only right confirming policies but another forest policies overlapped, but research focused on these policies’impacts and relationships is limited. This study aimed to clarify the state of forest management and policies’impacts on villagers by examining forest policies through case studies of three villages in Hunan Province. We found that due to overlapping ecological forest in collective forest, forest rights certificates in the study villages were transferred to villager groups without any notification to the farmers. Also, farmers were not informed that portions of their collective forests had been designated as ecological forests, placing restrictions on their use of forest. The implementation of forest policies involved three actors（local authorities, village leaders and farmers）, but local authorities generally implemented them mainly through village leaders. We concluded that to prevent disadvantages to local farmers, it is desirable that policies be implemented through transparent systems and ensure that information reaches them.