This paper aims to identify the elements needed for alternative dispute resolution mechanisms in the forest sectors of developing countries―as seen from the local community perspective. To do so, the paper examines existing principles, standards, guidelines, previous studies and reports. First, the arguments about the significance of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms are reviewed. Two key elements are identified: regular communication based on the autonomy of both sides in a dispute, and the involvement of a fair third party. Next, the paper surveys how these two elements have been embodied in principles, standards, guidelines, previous studies and reports on dispute resolution mechanisms in the forest sectors of developing countries. For the first one, the paper finds that project implementers should first build a trusting relationship based on dialogue with the local community, and then be involved in design and implementation of dispute resolution mechanisms with the local community. For the second one, a respected local leader or organization should be engaged as a mediator between the project implementer and local community, to maintain community harmony, human relations, and culture―which are more important than seeking independence or neutrality within the local community.
Sawmills that specialize in domestic timber have invested in their facilities to meet the requirements of the housing-industry since the 1990s, and some of them have grown rapidly in the 2000s. This study is based on data collected from seven middle and largescale sawmills in Miyakonojo area, Miyazaki Prefecture, where some of the largest sawmill factories that specialize in domestic timber use in Japan are located. The data were collected using interviews and include information about log procurement area, procurement structure, and product shipping. The findings of the study are as follows: （1）log procurement area has not expanded since the 1980s, in spite of increased log consumption, （2）log direct shipment ratio has increased among sawmills that consume more than 30 to 40 thousand m3 logs yearly, （3）log procurement pattern has been diversified; log auction market is no longer the core of log distribution among large-scale sawmills, and a new pattern of log direct shipment, namely, settlement interventional direct shipment through small and middle-scale logging contractors is revealed, and （4）trading firms have registered their presence in lumber distribution and have replaced lumber wholesalers.
With the implementation of the“Feed-in Tariff System for the Renewable Energies”in 2012, the number of power plants fueled with woody biomass is rapidly increasing. As of March 2016, 75power plants fueled with woody biomass derived from thinning are registered under the system, with 34 plants already in operation, including plants registered under the former RPS system. The volume of wood chips derived from thinning used for energy production in 2015 was 2.57 million CUM, a 61% increase from the previous year. For the stable supply of woody biomass from regional forests to these plants without affecting other material uses, detailed analysis on fuel demand/supply is essential. To this end, this study compared the volume of wood chips derived from thinning used for energy production, which was published in the new statistics of the Forestry Agency, with the registered capacity of woody-biomass power plants in operation, as well as the volume of log production, in each prefecture. The results show that the volume of wood chips derived from thinning used for energy production is correlated with the registered electricity generating capacity of power plants in operation, and that the volumes of such energy-use wood chips in ten prefectures are more than approximately 30% of the volume of log production in each prefecture. In order to enable more accurate analysis, further information disclosure on registered power plants including detailed fuel composition is required.
The transformation of prefectural forestry administrative organizations and their impact on their duties since the 2000s have been clarified. As a result, the number of prefectural forestry workers decreased by about 3,000 people between 2000 and 2015. The rate of decrease was similar to that of municipal forestry workers, but higher than that of employees in general administrative departments. As a background, there seems to have been a movement to reduce the number of regular employees in local governments as a whole for about five years starting in fiscal year 2005. The decrease in the number of forestry workers since the 2000s has rapidly increased during the last half century. This is especially shown in the number of technicians. In addition to an expansion of forest areas covered by a single worker and an increase in budgets related to forestry, this brought decrease of the extension time in the forestry extension activity. Future topics that were indicated include a system for securing municipal support, as well as the smooth passing of technology and knowledge accumulated within the organization.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze of process of establishment school forest in the gakusei system period（1872-）. In order to begin the system, village of school district was forced to bear for huge educational expenses. Then, Kaiiku elementary school （In Horinouchi-village in Tama-gun, Musashi-kuni）established school forests for cope with the finances. First, members of the village was afforestation in common land. Furthermore, they demanded sale of government property to come upon another school forest. Finally, by departing from original plan for school rebuilding, they added the school site sold of government property to school forest to increase its estate. The way was new common use of forest in the village to cope with social change of the Meiji Restoration.
As expectations for civic activities grow in natural resource management, grassroots activities are gradually becoming institutionalized. In this paper, in order to identify the effect of institutionalization on such activities, we discuss the selection process of a designated administrator for Kamakura-Hiromachi-Ryokuchi Park, Kanagawa, Japan. The Civic Association for the Forest of Kamakura Hiromachi, a civic group that worked actively in this field, failed to be designated for the position in 2014 because of its organizational uncertainty and lack of management skills. In the following year, the group was selected for the position with assistance from an association that had rich experience in park management. Analysis has revealed that one of the advantages of institutionalization is that it leads to overcoming organizational defects. However, there is a disadvantage as well in the simplification of the relationship between people and nature（through factors such as“Institutional Isomorphism”）and a decrease in the pleasure derived from the activities conducted. In order to address this problem, we should practice natural resource management based on loose networks composed of various groups and individuals, while retaining the purpose of each.
The aim of this study is to decompose the number of forestry laborers into period effects, age effects, and cohort effects. Previous researches on the tendency of forestry laborers have studied the cohort changes, either in rates or numbers, and estimated the numbers in the future, using the data of Population Census of Japan. Although the numbers on each period and at each age class are affected not only by their situations at that time and at their ages, but also by the characteristics of their cohorts, there are no analyses on forestry laborers in the past taking account of these three effects specifically. We adopt the Intrinsic Estimator （IE） as a method. We find the age effects were most prominent, making a single peak pattern with the peak of 55-59 age class, the period effects were scarce, decreasing from 1980 to 2005 and raising from 2005 to 2010, and the cohort effects have a peak on 1931-1935 birth-year-cohort and decrease thereafter and raise again from 1971-1975 birth-year-cohort.
In recent years, wood log boilers are introduced to provide heat or heated water for communities in municipalities in mountainous areas of Japan. In this research, the impact of introducing the wood log boiler to the region is analyzed and evaluated from holistic perspective. It reveals that the impact is positive in cases where the purposes are environmental conservation, promotion of energy autonomy or revitalization of the forestry. On the other hand, the system depends on temporary employment. As an overall evaluation, it is concluded that the introduction of wood log boilers are appropriate for the non-profit organizations and municipalities with public purposes at this stage.
As policy that promotes the use of forest resources for energy use was implemented in recent years, the use of wood biomass has been increasing. To use such resources sustainably, it is important to understand that there are separate demands for lumber, for manufacturing paper, and for wood fuel, and to develop a stable supply system in response to these demands. In addition to statistics on timber, whose demands are already monitored, statistics on relatively large-scale demands for wood fuel, such as the amount consumed at plants by power generators and boilers, are being calculated since 2015. However, while some reports are available on utilization at a local level, there are no statistics on the national consumption for small-scale demands of wood fuel, such as wood stoves and pellet stoves used in homes. This study carried out questionnaire surveys to households and suppliers to identify the demand for wood fuel from the perspectives of both sales and consumption. The surveys revealed the ratio of use of wood stoves in households and annual consumption of wood fuel across Japan.