The national parks of England and Wales seek to provide public access and conservation concurrently despite being largely composed of 'protected landscapes' that consist largely of private land situated in upland areas. This paper employs secondary sources to review evolving access and conservation mechanisms in the parks through five pivotal policies driven by changes in visitor demand. Despite pre-war conflict, such as at Kinder Scout in 1932, conservationists' alliance with the access movement in the aftermath of WWII facilitated the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act (NPAC, 1945). However, a right to roam' across upland and uncultivated areas was not granted, while conservation was undermined by institutional divisions. An administrative framework emerged gradually via the Countryside (1968); Wildlife and Countryside (1981); and Environment (1995) Acts, before the Countryside and Public Rights of Way Act (2000) did eventually extend access across upland areas, albeit with numerous caveats. Aside from national park administration, the twin mechanisms of access and conservation have also been shaped by the diversification of visitor demand, as epitomised by the ongoing debate over 'quiet enjoyment.' This paper thus offers a holistic, retrospective baseline for research into the future policy direction of upland areas which remains unresolved.
The prefectural plantation agencies are management bodies of the profit-sharing plantation contracts with landowners. They are now promoting revision of contracts for the improvement of their financial conditions. However, revision of contracts with many landowners is difficult due to the "consensus" principle in the civil law. Our survey through questionnaire to all the prefectures with the agencies revealed that the number of contracts with many landowners is approximately 7,500 in 28 agencies, one fourth of which is "communal forests", while three fourth is "combined individual private forests". Although the average number of landowners in each contract is higher in the contracts with "communal forests," the progress of their revision is almost similar. Currently, some of communities with communal forests are establishing the "registered community organizations" as corporate organizations for the consolidation of their communal rights, instead of ordinary legal approach for such rights. Our survey revealed that communities in 542 contracts in 15 agencies have already established such organizations. Further, some of agencies are revising contracts by the agreement with "majority" of landowners, in spite of the consensus principle as mentioned above, due to the difficulty in finding missing owners. Our survey also clarified that 12 out of 28 agencies have already adopted such approaches. Since the revision of "consensus" principle is related to the constitutional right of property rights, the agencies need to pursue possible approaches under the current rule of laws.
Cambodian residents in rural areas often depend on forests for their livelihoods, particularly for collecting fuelwood and non-timber forest products (NTFPs). However, many forests are being diminished because of timber extraction and conversion to agricultural lands. Our objective was to identify the characteristics, in terms of fuelwood and NTFP collecting, of households that were prone to be affected by deforestation and forest degradation within the last 5 years. We performed a comparative analysis of six sample villages across three districts in Kampong Thom Province. Using satellite image analysis and a household questionnaire, we found that households were affected differently depending on fuelwood availability around their villages. Households that were notably affected by deforestation and forest degradation were those that could not continue collecting NTFPs as one of their main livelihood activities because forest conversion occurred within a 10-km radius of their village and/or because of selective cutting of trees that provide NTFPs such as resin and fruit. These findings and assessment methods are useful for provincial land use planning and environmental and social assessments of the impact of large-scale development on rural residents.