Purposes of national forest management in Japan had not been designated since its beginning in Meiji Era until recent years. Timber supply and contribution to the national finance were the two major roles of national forest until the end of World War II, and three major mission, i.e. environmental functions, timber production, and contribution to the local society, was launched after the high economic growth period. After the fundamental reform in 1998, environmental function became the main purpose of national forest management. However, adequate management is not performed due to lack of personnel and funds. In cases of overseas, purposes of national forest are to contribute to the public ecologically, economically and socially. National forest in Japan now is in a great opportunity to realize sound forest management for the public needs because of abolition of the independent accounting system.
Timber supply from the national forest is of public interest because it can contribute to not only the development of forest industries but also the mitigation of global warming by substituting fossil fuels with forest biomass or saving energy using wood materials for constructions. In this study, the financial outlook of the national forest when it expands its final harvests was examined. First, the budget of the Japanese government was estimated under the scenario in which its expenditure balances with its income. Because the expenditure for social securities and redemption of government bonds would increase in the future, other policy expenses, including the budget for Forest Agency, would sharply decrease. The budget for the national forest was also estimated to decrease along with it. On the other hand, when the national forest would increase its final harvests, its deficit was estimated to expand because the expenditure for silviculture increased by two times despite the increase in its income from timber sales. It may be quite important for the national forest to reduce costs for harvesting and silviculture by encouraging entrepreneurs such as logging contractors or developing a cost-effective tending system. If these costs could be reduced, the deficit of the national forest can be estimated to be largely reduced.
This paper discussed the transformation of the meaning of "publicness" and the necessity of setting up a "public sphere" of Japan's National Forest in the modern age focusing on enhancing the public function of forests. Publicness of the National Forest involves different aspects, which have changed with the times. Before the 1970s, the National Forest was mainly expected to produce timber for the purpose of improving the national economic infrastructure; publicness was attributed to the nation, i.e., "national publicness". On the other hand, in the modern age, "civil publicness" has been stressed to reflect diverse citizens' needs such as enhancing the public function of the National Forest. Under such a transformation of the philosophy of publicness, managing the National Forest with public participation and collaboration has commenced; it is necessary to set up a public sphere that is open to all the citizens to embody civil publicness. Therefore, the current question for the National Forest is how to realize good governance through collaboration between the citizens and the government.
In recent years, migrant workers have supported China's rapid economic growth. This study considers the agriculture of mountainous farming villages that supply migrant workers and verifies how migrant work affects the farming village's activities and the agricultural activities of those residents remaining. The research was implemented in three villages with different natural and social conditions in Pengyang County, Guyuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as interviews with village heads and questionnaires distributed to individual workers. It was found that the level of resident activities declined in areas with disadvantageous conditions, and that shared work-working on each other's farms free of charge-was maintained by adding economic incentives in areas characterized by favorable conditions. In addition, most of those remaining in the villages participate in agriculture, and those thought to be more capable as migrant workers are more active agriculturally. However, it was found that only a small number of males in their teens and twenties remain in the villages, which raises concerns about how the workforce needed to sustain farming villages and agriculture will be secured in the future.
This paper examined how the preferences of new settlers in rural communities can create new development possibilities by prompting a reexamination of agricultural practices in the rural communities. The case study showed that new settlers to mountain villages, who tend to value the richness found within small-scale, diversified, and self-sufficient agriculture and forestry, fulfill their basic needs through homegrown production. They also tend to engage in side jobs that are at ease with such kind of agriculture and forestry. Based on these findings, this paper argues that initiatives to "translate" the preferences and needs of settlers related to life in mountain villages as well as agriculture and forestry, and to connect such settlers with local-born residents, would be useful to promote the entry of settlers into self-employment agriculture and forestry in mountain village.
Recently, large-scale land deals, investments, and acquisitions, called "land grab", are rapidly increasing. It has a positive viewpoint that it can be utilized as an opportunity for developments. On the other hand there are concerns that privatization and accumulation of lands devastate small-scale farming and rural livelihoods. This study focused on forest and wood products utilization licenses and investigated current situation of land grab in state forest area in Indonesia through analysis of "Forestry Statistics of Indonesia", "Forest Utilization Data and Information", and the related laws. The most licensed areas were designated for logging natural forests and establishing industrial plantations. There was a tendency that the natural forests' licenses had been decreased whereas the plantations' licenses had been increased. The licenses less than hundred thousand hectares represented large percentage of the natural forests' and plantations' ones. However, few companies have been holding large-scale forest lands and some have been holding plural licenses as a group. As of 2010, 28.6% of total licensed areas for logging natural forests were accumulated by 10 companies' groups and another 39.0% for establishing industrial plantations were done by 2 companies' groups. It revealed that accumulation of forest lands has been progressed by the companies' groups.
Oil palm plantation has a negative impact on Global warming on particularly on peat land that is not suitable for agriculture. This survey focuses on two factors that change the source of income and economic condition of the local people in Central Kalimantan where peat land abounds, and the perception that oil palm plantation requires conversion of custom land where traditionally utilized by them. It also clarifies the impact of the establishment phase of oil palm plantations on employment and the local society. And, based on the results, we discuss desirable livelihood strategy for local people. Findings of the survey confirm that the main source of income for young households is oil palm plantations that engage them as labor while the older households' income come from managing small private rubber plantations. However, households engaged as labor in oil palm plantations also wished to own rubber plantations and were concerned about losing custom land that the oil palm plantation companies were buying. The local people are largely dependent on uncertain plantation labor for their livelihood, and as they do not have many alternative sources of income, it is necessary for them to lower any risk by retaining custom land, which is one of their important sources of income.
Nowadays forestry becomes one of occupational areas for the general job seekers. Then, the effects on wage determination in forestry of the human capital accumulated from the general education and the general labor market experience are needed to be studied. This study estimates the wage function for the blue-color workers in the 7 forest owners' cooperatives. According to the model in the past research, the age, the tenure, and the forestry experience are significant for the wage increase, but this model indicates only the forestry experience is significant. The occupational experience can be more important in the forestry. However, the general education may be meaningless for the wage increase in the forestry. If the increasing trend of the general job seekers into forestry continues, we need to utilize these experiences which are formed before the entry.
An investigation into forestry education and qualification systems in six developed countries was conducted. The six countries were classified into two groups according to how their qualification systems operate: one in which the qualification system is operated by private professional associations (USA, UK, and Canada), and the second is operated by the national government (Germany, Austria, and Switzerland). In the first group, training programs are provided by universities, and in the second group, training is provided by both universities and special vocational training schools according to the bureaucratic class defined by the national qualification system. The groupings are strongly related to the historical development process, although each country's system has been undergoing recent changes in response to social changes, such as the environmental movement or standardization of the higher education system to an international level. In some countries, career ladders enable forestry workers to gain promotion to become professional foresters. Such changes have also been observed in Japan, too, and it may be helpful to monitor the institutional development for improving educational and qualification systems of Japanese Foresters and Forest Practice Planners.
As the resources planted after the WWII has become matured, enlarging timber production becomes an urgent issue. Timber harvesting on non-national land is undertaken mainly through the stumpage trade from a forest owner to a forestry entity. This study focused on the bargaining of stumpage trade as a process that leads to timber harvest, and in order to clarify its reality we conducted a survey for 41 forestry entities including forestry cooperatives in Miyazaki Prefecture. Our survey results led to the following findings; the trade bargaining often begins based on some existed personal relationship; how the bargaining begins differs between forestry cooperatives and private entities owning to the difference in the entity's relationship with forest owners; some matured plantations aren't harvestable because of whereabouts, boundary, and entitlement problem and/or hauling road access problem, and it's expected that these problems become more important as a constraint to timber harvesting in the future.