This study focuses on the formation process of forest owners' organizations in Finland from around its independence to the present day, and investigates how the country has shared responsibility between public and private sector. In particular, the core of my argument is the contrast of two forest owner cooperatives with distinct characteristics, namely the Forest Management Association (MHY) that has been frequently referenced in the Japanese Forest and Forestry Revitalization Plans, and Metsaliitto that is a mega forestry cooperative and a global corporation. This contrast can be incorporated into the theories of Forest Owners' Cooperative theories in Japan. That is 1) the public nature of the MHYs as land management organizations are re-questioned in the midst of recent administrative and fiscal reform, and 2) the nature of Metsaliitto is forced to change from restricted capital as a forest owner cooperative to functional capital as a large-scale forest industry. Finally, 3) this discussion here could shed new light on responsibility-sharing arguments between public and private sector in Japanese Forest Owners' Cooperative.
We consider that forest owners make decisions under the influence of social relationships as well as the influence of economic factors. This paper demonstrated theoretically the relationship between the behavior of forest owners and their social relationships from the perspective of transaction cost economics. We proposed hypotheses which explain that social relationships between forest owners and forestry corporations and social relationships among forest owners themselves affect the forest owners' decisions about harvesting and silviculture. The validity of these hypotheses was tested with mail survey on members of the forestry cooperatives in Iwate Prefecture and Akita Prefecture. The results revealed that social relationships among forest owners themselves have a large influence on the forest owners' decisions. We discussed the existence of a background mechanism in which social relationships among forest owners themselves stimulate the circulation of reputations about forestry corporations and reduce the social uncertainty.
Local people's participation toward natural resource management was examined based on approaches and influence of two conservation and development oriented support projects in sixteen communities of Ambohilero forest. Community members were interviewed in order to understand their activities, organization and individual participation. Community group from development oriented projects had a higher involvement in management activities than members from the conservation project. Access difficulties and lack of livelihood incentives from the conservation project after implementation of management contract have raised limitations of households' participation in the sustainable use of resources, while development projects creates incentives through the community forest logging. It is argued that depending on how the support projects implement the participatory process and empower the community, they create restraints, provide opportunities differently.
This paper examines the methods and progress in the development of small-scale private forest management in Canton Lucerne, Switzerland, and discusses the support scheme by the government. The RO project by Canton Lucerne attempts to improve competitiveness in the wood market relying on independent activity based on a rational sense by ROs, which are voluntarily established by forest owners. The project succeeded in quickly organizing private forest owners, and improving the profits of its members so far. The factors of its success are: (1) ample room for owners choice in their method of forest management, (2) trust in professional foresters, (3) improvements in the wood distribution process through leading projects, (4) perceptions of the merits of cooperation through experiencing storm damage. Canton supports RO through direct, indirect and nonfeasance measures carefully avoiding excess government intervention. The support scheme has been cautiously designed based on reviews in both the public and private domain.
The research focuses on the development process of timber harvesting in Khabarovsk region of Russia after World War II. Until the mid-1960s was initial stage and most felling was in Komsomol and Lower Ussurii forestry area. The railroad and floating was the main means of transporting the timber. From the mid-1960s until the collapse of Soviet Union was period with active timber harvesting. In this period, under Soviet economic policies that emphasized the development of the Siberian economy, all the forestry areas in Khabarovsk region increased their output. Ulgal forestry area had the highest output, followed by Komsomolsk and Lower Ussurii forestry area. After the collapse of Soviet Union was period of transition. Although the quantity sharply declined along with political collapse, the 1998 Russian financial crisis prompted harvesting to increase production for export. Intensive felling took place in Amgun, Sovgaban Komsomol and Lower Amur forestry areas, which were geographically advantageous for exportation to Japan. Deforestation, which occurred in forests that had good transport, high-quality wood and easy access to markets, caused resource deterioration.