Internationally, forest law reforms and administrative organizational restructuring have been implemented since the 1990s. However, in Japan, the situation is different as its policy systems are focused on public forestry projects and are still regulated by the Forest Law of 1951. This paper examines the framework and path dependency of the forest policies in contemporary Japan to verify the current status of the forestry management entities that the Forest and Forestry Revitalization Plan aims to develop. The aim of the Forest and Forestry Basic Policy, based on the Forests and Forestry Basic Law in 2001, is to realize the "fulfillment of the multi-functional role of the forest" through a "sustained and healthy development of forestry management." However, many management entities that are responsible for "the establishment of a desired structure of forestry administration" lack a stable management system. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of the Japanese regional forest management system by comparing the framework of the Forest Law and role of administrative organizations in Japan with that in Switzerland. The Forest and Forestry Revitalization Plan can be considered a substage of the Forest and Forestry Basic Policy, but the policy approach of the revitalization plan has been unable to overcome the limitations of the forest law system of 1951.
This study aimed to examine the policy-making and implementation process of "revitalization plan of forest and forestry" from a perspective of rural development. It was pointed out that the final report in July, 2010, positioned mountainous areas only as a place for job creation and didn't consider the presence of family-owned business in forestry. Meanwhile, 2010 World Agriculture and Forestry Census analyzed that family-owned business had expanded timber production approximately to the share of 30% in 2010. Ninety percent of the production was produced by family-owned business owned less than 100 ha. Accordingly, it was pointed out that the Forest Management Plan and "forest management and environmental conservation direct payment system" are strong structural reform policies and incentive for wood production. Finally, we carried out case studies of the Forest Management Plan in the implementation process. We argued that forest actors of forest and forestry management vary from community to community, so who are to be the policy makers is the issue to be left to the discretion of local governments, not to be decided across the board by the nation.
This study examines three things. The first is the current meaning and necessity of human resource development for foresters in the event of change in the bearer in forestry production. The second is the present condition of the Forest and Forestry Revitalization Plan and the contents of and problems with human resources development training. The third is the present condition of the Japanese forester training system. The results reveal that the bearer is not decided upon and there are problems with the forest owners' cooperative. The Forest and Forestry Revitalization Plan involves an engineer training the subject without addressing the problem of dispersive forest possession. Although there is a semi-forester training to enable foresters to adopt a global perspective when managing the area designated to them, this training program falls short in many respects.
The forest owners' cooperative association (FCA) in Germany aims to overcome the economic disadvantage hampering small producers through cooperation, just like the FCA in Japan. Conversely, FBG Isar-Lech is a new type of FCA, established exclusively by medium-scale forest owners. This paper aims to clarify the contents of the activities and the establishment details of the FCA, based on a hearing survey, as well as considering the meaning of its foundation in German forestry. The FCA was established in 1992 and consists of 48 members, each of which holds an average forest area of 650ha. The key business of the FCA is timber sales and both membership and timber sales have expanded year by year. The FCA stands out, since it is limited to only medium-scale forest owners and covers the entire Bavarian state. The FCA targets the following aims: (1) resolving aggravation caused by middle-scale forest management through decreasing income, due to the downturn in timber prices caused by wind damage and increasing management expenses, (2) correspondence of the supply side to concentration of production in saw mills, (3) coexistence with other existing FCAs and functional specialization as a FCA exclusively for middle-scale forest owners.
In Japan, forest trusts are always mentioned as a faraway El Dorado. It is also similar in the forest and forestry revitalization plan. Of course, as is well known, Article 9 of the Forest Owners' Cooperative Act outlines the "acceptance of trusts for the purpose of the management of forests owned by cooperative members" as one type of cooperative activities, and there are only a few examples. In addition, there are factors, such as the 2006 revision of the Trust Law and an increase in the level of commitment to forest issues of finance-related companies, and recently there has been increased talk about forest trusts. However, little research has been done on forest trusts, and an accurate picture of the significance of forest management and conservation still remains unclear. This study serves as a preliminary study based on the past history and debates surrounding forest trusts as well as on present cases. As a result, we found out 1) concept of the commercial trust in pre-WWII, 2) political tool for the extensions of profit sharing forest and forest recreation, 3) political tool for intensive management, 4) consignment of the public forest.
This study applies how the cooperated with school and outsiders for using School forest as the forest educational field. Cooperation with the civic group is needed for supporting the new school forest activity of urban regions. The case study of school forest activity by the civic group revealed the following benefits. 1) Acquisition of resources from the outside and enhance public relations activities, 2) Offer the Professional technology and knowledge, 3) Enforcement of continuous activity. The cooperation construction by the reporting from the government and the making of organization which thought about the present situation of the child is necessary for construction of such a system.
The authors aimed at clarifying the expenditure trend for silviculture subsidy of prefectures and the correlations between changes in reforestation and silviculture subsidy and other factors related to forest resources, ownership, and fiscal conditions of each prefecture in the 2000s, by applying both multivariate regression and tree regression analyses. Results showed that the amount of subsidy for silviculture declined in early 2000s, but recovered in the latter half of the 2000s, partly because of the fiscal policy galvanizing forest operations as a measure to counter climate change. Both analyses identified the resource factor (percentage of private plantation forests aged > 36 years) that was the most robust variable in explaining the changes in subsidy for reforestation and silviculture in the 2000s. Tree regression analysis indicated a drastic increase in the subsidy for silviculture in prefectures with stronger fiscal basis and located in urban areas or with higher utilization of growing forest stock. However, the amount of subsidy in prefectures with smaller increases in prefecture-initiated projects was reduced. We highlighted the importance of securing prefecture-initiated fund to warrant management of forests despite the differences in resources, ownership and fiscal basis.
To further advance the course of integrated forest management prescription, it is important for forest cooperative organization to reach agreement with forest owners. Within the region of study are forest owners that easily reach agreement and those that face difficulties, and for that reason, tactics for obtaining agreements become important in intensive forest operation. If the target forest owner's character is understood, it will become easier to get his agreement with many tactics. So in this paper, the tactics for agreements to forest management prescription by the cooperative organization were considered by grouping the forest owners and clarifying the characteristics of each group. The data used was from a research carried out in 2009 by the forest owners' association in Shimonita. The Hayashi's quantitative method type three and cluster analysis were the methods used for analyses. The results showed that for an integrated forest management prescription, each group displayed some characteristics and differences based on forest operation, site class and many more. Since the features of each group differ, it is thought that they each have different tactics of agreeing to forest management prescriptions by the cooperative organization.
In this report, the forest environmental education in Shiga Prefecture was taken up. Through all the processes of the experience learning programme, the programme of the special-needs schools were the characteristic contents of composition as compared with the common school. This has suggested that it is necessary to set up a different target from a common school, and the contents of a program, in order to promote the forest environmental education of a special-needs school. But by programme of "Yamanoko", since the government had not distinctionized the forest environmental education in accordance with each school, the result of this research showed that new designs of experience learning programme and the active role of the government which shows the plan of an auxiliary enterprise were called for. On the other hand, although evaluation of the programme as part of school education was comparatively low, it was shown that the evaluation as experience study using the senses is high, and evaluation of the teacher about the programme itself is high generally. It means that expectations are encouraged to the research on deployment and this of the forest environmental education in a future special-needs school.