Effects of hot bathing on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis were studied in 35 patients with various diseases by measuring pulse rate and blood pressure and performing peripheral blood and hemostatic examinations before and after a 10-minute hot bath at 40 to 42°C. Pluse rate increased significantly during the hot bath (p<0.001) However, no changes were observed in the results of blood pressure and perpheral blood examinations. APTT, PT, fibrinogen, factor II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, von Willebrand factor, prekallikrein, and antithrombin III were measured during coagulation examinations, but no significant changes were observed between those factors before and after hot bathing. Although no significant changes were shown in plasminogen and antiplasmin during hot bathing, euglobulin lysis time (ELT) was significantly (p<0.001) reduced during the hot bath. It remains to be determined whether the reduction in ELT is due to the release of a tissue-type plasminogen activator from the vascular endothelial cells. The reduction rate of ELT was studied in patients with each type of disease. The reduction rate of ELT in the patients with hypertension (HT) was larger than that in the patients without HT, and that in the patients with cerebral vascular accident (CVA) was also larger than that in the patients without CVA. However, the reduction rate of ELT in the patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) was smaller than that in the patients without DM. The patients with CVA, HT or DM are considered to have vascular damages. In the effect of hot bathing on fibrinolysis, however, there is a difference in reduction rate of ELT between patients with HT or CVA and those with DM. This study indicates that pulse rate is increased during hot bathing and fibrinolysis is accelerated.
Factors of spa therapy in relation to clinical effects were studied on 36 patients, who were admitted to Misasa Branch Hospital in 1987 with respiratory diseases. 1. The patients who received the spa therapy comprised 30 cases of bronchial asthma, 3 cases of diffuse panbronchiolitis, 3 cases of allergic granulomatous angitis, and 1 case of bronchiectasia. 2. Most bronchial asthma patients were over 40 years old, and 16 cases (53.3%) of 30 patients had long-term glucocorticoids. The serum cortisol level was generally low and was especially low in the cases with glucocorticoids therapy (4.9±5.6mcg/dl in female patients and 3.5±3.2mcg/dl in male patients). The incidence of each clinical type of asthma was as follows: 12 cases (66.7%) of bronchospasm type (Ia), 6 cases (33.3%) of bronchospasm plus hypersecresion type (Ib), and no case (0%) of bronchiolar obstruction type (II) out of 18 female patients. For male patients, there were 5 cases (41.7%) of Ia, 5 cases (41.7%) of Ib, and 2 cases (16.7%) of II. Spa therapy was obviously effective in 25 out of 30 cases (83.3%). 3. Spa therapy was also effective for respiratory diseases other than asthma, especially for diffuse panbronchiolitis.
Allergological characteristics were studied on 36 patients with respiratory diseases (30 cases of bronchial asthma, 3 cases of diffuse panbronchiolitis, 3 cases of allergic granulomatous angitis, and 1 case of bronchiectasia) who received spa therapy at Misasa Branch Hospital. 1. The results obtained in patients with bronchial asthma were as follows: Serum IgE levels were generally low, and many cases with less than 301IU/ml were observed (185±184/ml in female patients and 469±532IU/ml in male patients). The rate of positive skin reactions to various allergens was low in these asthma cases. A rather low rate of positive skin reaction to house dust, in particular, was characteristic. In regard to the rate of releasing chemical mediators such as bistamine and leukotrienes from leukocytes stimulated by Ca ionophore A 23187, a wide variety of cases were observed (histamine, 3.4-51.1%; LT B4 9.8-119.8ng/106 cell; LT C4, 3.5-43.8ng/106 cells). By analyzing cell components in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF), notable increase in the number of eosinophils were observed especially in male patients, although no other significant differences were shown between the two groups. 2. In those patients with respiratory diseases other than asthma, a remarkable increase in the number of neutrophils in BALF was seen in diffuse panbronchiolitis cases and a remarkable increase in the number of eosinophils in BALF was seen in the cases of allergic granulomatous angities. Serum IgE levels were low in both of these cases.
The effect of bathing with artificial sodium sulfate on changes in the systolic blood pressure and the level of atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) in plasma or atrium of normotensive male rats was studied. The following results were obtained: 1) As a result of bathing for 20 minutes at a temperature of 37°C, the systolic blood pressure lowered and the plasma ANP level decreased. The blood pressure lowered most clearly after artificial sodium sulfate bathing at a prescribed concentration (p<0.5), while the plasma ANP level decreased significantly after plain water bathing (p<0.01). 2) The atrial ANP level showed no significant change. Presumably the reason was that the quantity of atrial ANP was so large that it was not affected by fluctuations in the peripheral ANP level. 3) The temperature and duration of bathing, the concentration of bath salts, and other factors might also influence the plasma ANP level. These results suggest that the artificial sodium sulfate bathing lowers the blood pressure by preventing heat radiation from the skin and by delicate regulatory mechanisms on ANP secretion.
The changes of skin surface hydration state were measured in vivo to evaluate the efficacy of bath preparations and their common use raw materials, following five samples, from a view point of moisturizing effect using High Frequency Impedance Measurment (3.5MHz.) as an empirical approach previously adopted by Tagami et al. The temparature of water immersion was 41°C and the duration was 5min. Five kinds of samples used in this survey, 15 and 30g of sodium hydrogencarbonate, bath preparations containing 85% of sodiumu hydrogen carbonate, 2% of JOJOBA OIL, and 5% of dextrin were dissolved into plain water equipped with the maintenance of water temparature at 41°C, respectively. As the result of this examination, these five samples enhanced the hydration state of stratum corneum after immersion and the value of skin surface hydration state showed high significant difference comparing to plain water. Especially, sample A immersion (containing 2% of JOJOBA OIL; Fig. 1) showed clear cut difference to compare to plain water immersion. (P<0.01 at 30, 60, 90, and 120min, after immersion) These data suggested that JOJOBA OIL, dextrin and sodium hydrogen carbonate can be utilized effectively as a moisturizing factor for various types of bath preparations. It was proved that JOJOBA OIL, dextrin, and sodium hydrogen carbonate as raw materials of bath preparations possess the moisturizing effect after immersion through this survey. We suppose that these raw materials might be concerned in the quantity of secondary bound water which is necessary to retain the suppleness and smoothness of stratum corneum, and propose that High Frequency Impedance Measurement (3.5MHz) is a suitable method to evaluate the hydration state of stratum corneum after water immersion.
There are many studies on physical effects of hot spring bathing, but few studies have been made on effects of hot spring bathing on coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Therefore we studied the effects of hot spring bathing blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems by measuring levels of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), plasminogen (PLG), alpha plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2 PI), fibrinogen (FBG), antithrombin III (AT III), thrombin antithrombin III complex (T-AT), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in plasma before and after hot bathing. Methods: The above measurements were made on 20 patients with chronic thrombotic stroke (65±12 years old (mean±2SD), comprising 18 cases of deep branch artery occlusion including four cases of multiple infarction and two cases of main trunk artery occlusion. Collection and assay methods: Blood was collected from antecubital veins before and after a five-minute hot bath (at 40°C) and dissolved into 3.8% sodium citrate at the volume ratio of 1:10. T-PA and T-AT were measured by specific enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay. ELT by the fibrin plate method. and vWF by immunoelectrophoresis. Activities of P1G, alpha 2 PI, and AT III were measured by S 2251 and S 2238. Results: The basal level of t-PA was 5.4±.8ng/ml (±2SD) and rose to 7.2±1.8ng/ml (±2SD) after a five-minute hot bath (p<0.005). ELT decreased from 6.5±1.5 hours (±2SD) to 4.9±1.8 hours (±2SD) (0.1<p<0.2). No fluctuation was observed in other factors. A positive interrelation was observed between the reduction rates of ELT and 10-m gait time in 10 cases (0.1<p<0.2). Conclusion: The above results show that fibrinolysis is induced during hot bathing by the release of tissue plasminogen activator from vessel walls without causing significant coagulative activities, suggesting the clinical significance of hot bath in patients with thrombotic stroke.