This study investigated the existence of platelet activation before the onset of cerebral infarction, and analyzed the association between the platelet activation and the degree of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, prediction of the risk of cerebral infarction by assessing platelet activation was attempted. Thirteen patients with cerebral infarction, 7 patients with atherosclerosis and 8 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Ultrastructural shape change, peroxidase reaction, and fibrinogen content in the platelets were observed and plasma levels of thrombin antithrombin complex, α2-plasmin inhibitor plasmin complex, β-thromboglobulin and platelet factor-4 were measured in patients with atherosclerosis and cerebral infarction at the acute, subacute and chronic phases. The ultrastructural shape change, peroxidase reaction, and fibrinogen content did not differ among acute, subacute and chronic phases of cerebral infarction. The frequency of platelet shape changes were also increased in patients with atherosclerosis, compared with healthy subjects. Plasma levels of β-thromboglobulin, platelet factor-4, and thrombin antithrombin complex increased only during the acute phase of cerebral infarction. It is suggested that platelet activation occurs before the onset of cerebral infarction and that platelet shape change is associated with the degree of atherosclerosis, or plaque stability. Platelet activation would be derived not from thrombotic event itself but from endothelial damage or pre-existing atherosclerosis. Platelet shape change, therefore, could predict the risk of cerebral infarction. Taken together with our previous reports demonstrating increased blood viscosity, noctural hypotension, increased human atrial natriuretic peptide, decreased fibrinolytic activity, and platelet shape change were observed after very hot hot-spring bathing, cerebral infarction in spa-resort could be caused partly by very hot hot-spring bathing after traveling on a tight schedule and alcohol drinking by elderly patients with atherosclerosis.
The ulcer of the foot induced by arteriosclerotic obstruction (ASO) is poor prognosis that often comes to amputation. In the meantime, the CO2 warm water is reported with that it has the powerful vasodilator action. In this research, it was made that the effects for the foot ulcer using the high concentration CO2 warm water bathing was examined to be a purpose. The subjects are the 49 cases (average 66-years, male: female=20: 29) degree of Fontaine II-IV. We prepared high concentrated CO2 warm water in approx. 1, 000ppm at 38— technically utilizing an artificial gas-permeable dialysis membrane (MRE-SPA, Mitsubishi Rayon Engineering Co., Ltd.). Using the partial bathing with this CO2 warm water, the progress was observed on the improvement of foot ulcer in the bathing of 10min. as the period, and of 1-2time/day. In addition, the peripheral tissue bloodflow and the transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure in dorsum pedis during the warm water bathing were observed. The obvious improvement on each case of ulcer was confirmed within several months. The peripheral tissue blood flow (before bathing 1.1±0.5ml/min/100g) was increased after 1min and it rose to 4.4±1.8 after 10min from the beginning to bathing (p<0.01). Afterwards, it immediately returned to the previous value after the end. In the meantime, though the transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure was 40.7±18.3mmHg prior to the bathing, it increases after 10min with 50.7±18.2mmHg (p<0.05), and it was maintained at 50.3±20.8mmHg in 20min after bathing (p<0.01). And, in each Fontaine groups it significantly increase with the peripheral tissue bloodflow and the transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure. As a conclusion, the partial bathing of the foot with high concentration CO2 warm water is effective as the therapy for the foot ulcer caused by ASO. The mechanism indicated that the rise of transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure and peripheral tissue bloodflow was concerned without relating to the seriousness of ASO.
Effect of foot bath on sleeping time in 3 old patients (70, 82, 84 years old) was investigated. After 2-days control period, feet were immersed in a water bath containing about 1, 000ppm CO2 at 40-41°C for 15 minutes at 17:00 for 3 consecutive days. Wrist Mini-motion-logger actigraph was used for recording their activities. The hour for lights-out was 21:00 and that of rising was 06:00. They went to bed between 20:30-20:50 and woke up at 05:30 next morning. In 2 patients, sleeping time at night began to increase on the second immersion day, which continued even on the following 2 days without foot bath. All the patients showed no changes in daytime activities. They were satisfied with foot bath and felt warmth not only in their feet but also in their bodies. No remarkable side effects were observed in the present study. Foot bath is thought to be effective to treat insomnia.
N-3 fatty acids are reportedly effective for asthma. In addition, spa therapy has been reported to be effective for patients with asthma. In the present study, the effects of spa therapy combined with perilla seed oil-rich diet (rich in n-3 fatty acid) were examined on asthma. A total of 14 asthmatic patients had a complex spa therapy and consumed a perilla seed oil-rich diet-rich in α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) for 8 weeks. Generation of leukotriene (LT) C4 by leucocytes, respiratory function were analyzed. The generation of LTC4 by leucocytes decreased significantly for 2, 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.05). Peak expiratory flow (PEF) values increased significantly for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks (P<0.05). The values of ventilatory parameters [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow after 25% of expired FVC (FEF25), forced expiratory flow after 75% of expired FVC (FEF75), mean expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75)] revealed a significant increase after 4 and 8 weeks of the modified diet (P<0.05). The results suggest that spa therapy combined with a perilla seed oil-rich diet are effective in the treatment of asthma in terms of its ability to suppress LTC4 generation by leucocytes, and in inducing an improvement of pulmonary function.
A comparative study was made on bathing-induced changes in body temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate and tissue blood flow of 12 healthy adults using tap water and artificial CO2 water at 37°C to clarify the physiological effects of CO2 at various concentrations of 0, 100, 300, 600, 800 and 1000ppm. There was no change in body temperature during bathing in either water, whereas blood pressure and pulse rate were similarly decreased during bathing, but either of these decreases was not significantly different between tap water and CO2-water. Therefore, it seemed that the decrease in blood pressure due to vasodilation during bathing would be controlled through some regulatory system like autonomic nerve system not so as to result in too much decrease. But, tissue blood flow was more increased during bathing in CO2-water than tap water, suggesting that blood circulation in the tissue near skin surface would have been more enhanced by bathing in hot CO2-water, resulting in a decrease of blood pressure. Since the increase in tissue blood flow during bathing was dependent on the concentration of CO2, it seemed that an improvement of tissue circulation and metabolism would have resulted from venous return increase associated to venous dilatation, one of dose-dependent CO2 effects.
Objective: We studied immunological and physiological effect by the polarized infrared light irradiation near the neck stellate ganglion. Methods: Subjects were eleven healthy volunteers (age 21-22 years old, male). The polarized infrared light irradiation system (Super Lizer HA-550) for 20 minutes was used for the irradiation near the stellate ganglion. In the dummy, they were treated by the same irradiation instrument that the light were obstructed completely. We analyzed hematological test and perspiration quantity and temperatures of limbs and blood pressure before and after the irradiation. Results: The leukocytes decreased (p<0.01) and NK cells decreased after the irradiation significantly. The hormone and blood pressure did not significantly change. The perspiration of right hand (irradiated side) was significantly decreased. The peripheral temperature of bilateral upper and lower limbs elevated after the irradiation. Conclusion: It was considered that the effect by the polarized infrared light irradiation near the stellate ganglion was the same with the sympathetic nervous ganglion block which dilated arteries and increased of peripheral circulation, and inhibited the sympathetic nervous function.