Cold pressor tests were examined on the eight wintering members (mean age 35±SD 4years old) of the 28th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition to study their autonomic adaptation to local severe cold stress. Tests were carried out 6 times with 3 month intervals through the expedition. The first test was done on the ship in the Indian Ocean, on November 24, 1986 (Test-1). The second (Test-2), third (Test-3), fourth (Test-4) and fifth test (Test-5) were done at the Japanese Antarctic Asuka Base on February 24, 1987, May 20, 1987, August 18, 1987 and November 11, 1987, respectively. The last sixth test (Test-6) was done on the ship in the Antarctic Ocean on February 29, 1988. The left hand was immersed in the ice floated water for three minutes for cold pressor test. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR) and variation coefficient of R-R intervals (CV(R-R)) were examined, before immersion (F), at the beginning of immersion (A1), at the end of immersion (A2) and 2 minutes after immersion (A3). An usual sphygmomanometer was used for blood pressure measuring and CARDIMAX FX-102A (FUKUDA) was used for electrocardiogram. HR and CV(R-R) were calculated from each 50 R-R intervals of ECG. Student's paired t-test was used for statistical evaluation. SBP (A1, A2, A3), DBP (A2) and HR (A1) rose significantly (p<0.05-0.001) in Test-1. The increases in SBP (A3) and DBP (A2) were not observed in Test-2 and those after. The increase in SBP (A1) was observed in Test-2 but not after Test-3. The increase in HR (A1) was observed in Test-2 and Test-4 but not in Test-3 and after Test-5. CV(RR) (A1, A3) in Test-2 and CV(RR) (A2, A3) in Test-4 decreased significantly (p<0.05-0.01). CV (RR) (F) was relatively higher in these tests than others and was within normal range at the Test-3, Test-5 and Test-6. The sympathetic adaptation to local severe cold seems to have advanced in 2 months and completed within 5 months in their Antarctic life. The parasympathetic function might have been excited when the sympathetic adaptation was unstable.
Psychological tests were undertaken on the eight wintering members of the 28th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (mean age 35±SD 4years old) with about 4 month intervals through the expedition. The first test was done on the ship to Antarctica on November 24, 1986 (Test-1), and the second (Test-2), the third (Test-3) and the fourth test (Test-4) were done at the Japanese Antarctic Asuka Base on March 28, 1987, July 17, 1987 and October 11, 1987, respectively. The last fifth test (Test-5) was performed on the ship to Japan on February 29, 1988. For psychological tests, MAS (manifest anxiety scale), CMI (Cornell Medical Index) and SRQ-D (Self-rating Questionaire for Depression) were used. The mean scores of MAS-A, CMI-T (S, I, J+M-R) showed a tendency to become high in Test-2 and Test-3 and become low after Test-4. The mean scores of SRQ-D exhibited a tendency to become high in Test-3 and the high score continued after Test-4. The psychological stress seems to have reached a peak point at Test-3, in July, 1987, when was the last session of winter with no sunshine at Antarctic Base. Some management for mental health might be needed in this season for the wintering members of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition.
During the past four years authors encountered a total of 25 tourists suffered from cerebral (CI: 14 cases) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI: 11 cases) while staying in Kusatsu Hot Spring. The subjects consisted of 13 males and 12 females, ranging from 49 to 85 years old (mean 68±9.5). Analytical study relating to the time of onset of diseases, bathing, drinking and others was performed in these patients. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Higher incidence was observed from May to October in CI, while from March to April and in September in AMI. A majority of the subjects suffered from CI or AMI within two days after arrival in Kusatsu. Attack occurred during bathing in one subject, within six hours after bathing in one, and from six to 24 hours after bathing in the others, respectively. Furthermore, a hourly distribution of the onset of disease showed the high incidence of CI between 3:00 and 9:00, and of AMI between 21:00 and 0:00. 2) Bathing was done one to four times within 24 hours before onset in all subjects. Meanwhile, drinking was in 56% of the subjects. 3) Out of 21 subjects investigated six cases were under medication with hypotensive drugs. From the results above described, a role of bathing playing in pathogenetic mechanism in thrombotic diseases such as CI and AMI was briefly discussed.
He-Ne laser and Ga. Al. As-diode laser were irradiated at 150 to 750mJ/cm2 to cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EC) from umbilical cord vein and human fibroblasts (Fb) from human skin. He-Ne laser irradiation to EC enhanced the production of von Willebrand factor and fibronectin, while Ga. Al. As-diode laser irradiation to EC did not give a significant change. Cell growth of the Fb was not influenced significantly by both laser irradiation, but a marked decrease in the production of fibronectin was observed at as low as 150mJ/cm2 of the diode laser irradiation. It was suggested that the effects of laser irradiation to cultured cells are different depending upon the wave length of the laser.
when the relation between N20 and LLR was examined based on the results of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and long-loop reflexes (LLRs) obtained from 50 upper limbs of 25 normal subjects by stimulating the median nerve, four regions were set up in a latency correlation diagram. N20 and LLR were assumed to represent mainly the afferent and the efferent functions, respectively. The results of N20 and LLR obtained from 70 upper limbs of patients with multiple sclerosis were discriminated according to the presence or absence of pyramidal sign and/or vibratory sense impairment and were plotted on the four regions of the diagram. As a result, asymptomatic lesion in the afferent pathway was found in 5 out of 18 cases (28%) and that in the efferent pathway, in 9 out of 17 cases (41%). Simultaneous measurement of SEPs and LLRs is useful for evaluating the afferent and efferent pathways in the central nervous system, and those results are useful for programming and evaluating rehabilitation of patients with multiple scleosis.
In this paper, I present age-compensated formulae for finding MR-R and CVR-R of healthy subjects resting in a supine position, CVR-R of healthy subjects breathing deeply, and CVR-R of healthy subjects standing upright. 1) Age-compensated formula for finding MR-R of healthy subjects resting in supine position: Y=126.153-16.187*LogeX (X: age) 2) Age-compensated formula for finding CVR-R of healthy subjects resting in supine position: Y=10.818-1.993*LogeX (X: age) 3) Age-compensated formula for finding CVR-R of healthy subjects breathing deeply: Y=24.293-4.738*LogeX (X: age) 4) Age-compensated formula for finding CVR-R of healthy subjects standing upright: Y=7.389-1.277*LogeX (X: age) How the autonomic nerve activities in the heart of subjects resting in supine position, breathing deeply, and standing upright are evaluated using the MCV Graph Method is described here. (MCV Graph Method stands for Mean and Coefficient Variation Graph Method.) Plotting of M and CV data measured by an ECG R-R Checker or a Plethysmograph P-P Checker on an MCV Graph, which is a quite new and easy-to-observe method, enables synthetic evaluation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve functions. The MCV Graph Method can be used for measurement under various loads.