Footbath have long been used for primary health care or for nursing, however, few researches have been reported. We intended to make footbath a safe physiotherapy or care technique in the modern medicine by more profound researches on footbath. The effect of footbath on the gastric motility was studied because footbath may promote recovery from post-surgical gastric paresis. The effects of footbath on the gastric motility and subjective hunger sensation were monitored in 14 healthy adult females (32±6 yeas old). They signed informed consents and took footbaths at 38, 40, 42°C and control footbath (by a footbath machine). The experiments started after permission of the Ethical Committee of International Research Center for Traditional Medicine. They took footbath after 10-min rest in a sitting position. Each footbath was 30 min long, followed by 10-min rest. The same subject participated in the studies four times at the same time of the day before taking lunch (10:00-14:00). These experiments were in a random order four days apart each other except menstruation periods. Their blood pressure, ECG R-R variability and electro-gastrogram (EGG) were monitored. The subjective hunger sensation was asked before, during and after footbath. The autonomic nervous balance was estimated from FFT analysis of the R-R variability. LF (0.04-0.15Hz) and HF (0.15-0.40Hz) components of the R-R variability were calculated. EGG was also analysed by means of FFT to calculate amplitude and frequency. The results showed the amplitude and frequency of EGG increased depending on temperature. However, the correlation between HF power of R-R variability and amplitude of EGG showed negative correlation. Regarding hunger sensation, more cases felt hunger in 38, 40°C than in control. At 42°C, the amplitude and frequency were apparently higher than in other temperatures, while the hungry cases were less than in 38 or 40°C. These discrepancies may be caused by the artifact due to sweating on the abdominal EGG leads, considering high b wave of EEG at 42°C. In conclusion, it was indicated that footbath may promote gastric motility and induce hunger sensation at 38-40°C in healthy volunteers.
The effects of long-term spa therapy were studied in 10 patients with pulmonary emphysema: five patients had long-term spa therapy for 5 years (group A), and another 5 patients had not spa therapy for the same 5 years (group B). There were no significant differences in %FVC, %FEV 1.0, %LAA of the lung on HRCT, %DLco and %RV between the two groups. 1. The LAA of the lung on HRCT slightly, but did not significantly increase in patients with spa therapy for 5 years. In patients without spa therapy, the %LAA of the lung significantly increased after 4-(61.1%) (p<0.01) and 5-year observation (65.5%) (p<0.001) compared with the initial value (52.2%). 2. The %DLco and %RV values slightly decreased in patients with spa therapy, but the decrease in the two parameters was not significant. 3. The %DLco significantly decreased (67.2% to 49.0%), and the %RV also significantly increased (175.4% to 230.6%) after 5-year observation in patients without spa therapy. The results obtained here suggest that spa therapy for pulmonary emphysema should start as early as possible when the diagnosis of the disease is decided, and the therapy should be continued as long as possible.
In order to investigate the effects of deep sea water bathing on relaxation and daylight sleep in night shift workers, electroencephalography, circulatory and cardiac autonomic functionings, visual evoked potential, biochemical markers in urine and saliva, core body temperature, sleep questionnaires, and mood state questionnaires were evaluated in nine subjects to compare with other three kinds of bathing including sham (no water), tap water and surface sea water. Deep sea water bathing showed better subjective sleep latency for sleep questionnaire (p<0.1) and significantly better vigor status for mood questionnaire (p<0.01) between four kinds of bathing. With regard to the objective data, despite the biggest increase in temperature of eardrum in deep sea water bathing, the highest sleep efficiency and the shortest wake period during sleep in electroencephalography did not reach to the significant level.
The composition of human body can be divided into five levels (atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue, and body). The objective of this study is to examine the changes with age in total body water (TBW) and fat mass (FM), which are conductive factors in the body, on the tissue level. The subjects of this study consisted of 476 healthy energetic adults living in Aomori Prefecture, Japan (146 males and 330 females). The total and partial body water and fat mass were measured by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. The following results were obtained after adding examination of changes in body composition with age. 1. Both males and females in their 30s showed the highest values of fat-free mass (FFM) and TBW; those in their 60s showed the highest values of %FAT and FM. 2. TBW, a thermal-conduction-promoting factor, was higher in males, and FM, thermal-conduction-inhibiting factor, was higher in females. 3. TBW in the extremities, especially in the lower extremities, tended to decrease with age both in males and females. 4. TBW in the extremities associated with the conductivity of a warm bath was higher in the lower extremities, so understanding TBW in the lower extremities can be considered very important when determining the applicability of warm bathing.
We investigated the influences of hot-spring bathing on the incidences of abortion and premature birth using questionnaires returned from 768 puerperal in-patients. These patients were classified into four groups: 24 taking a hot-spring bath daily (group 1), 134 taking a bath with additives (group 2), 178 taking a plain water bath daily (group 3), and 35 taking a shower daily (group 4). The incidence of threatened abortion among the ambulatory patients in each group was 4.2% for group 1, 11.9% for group 2, 9% for group 3, and 2.9% for group 4. The incidence of threatened abortion among the hospitalized patients in each group was 4.2% for group 1, 6.7% for group 2, 4.5% for group 3, and 8.6% for group 4. The incidence of threatened premature birth among the ambulatory patients in each group was 12.5% for group 1, 17.2% for group 2, 15.7% for group 3, and 14.3% for group 4. The incidence of threatened premature birth among the hospitalized patients in each group was 0% for group 1, 7.5% for group 2, 3.4% for group 3, and 2.9% for group 4. The incidence of vaginitis among the patients in each group was 50% for group 1, 43.4% for group 2, 46.6% for group 3, and 44.1% for group 4. The incidence of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) among the patients in each group was 4.2% for group 1, 21.1% for group 2, 12.9% for group 3, and 22.9% for group 4. The incidence of premature birth among the patients in each group was 0% for group 1, 3% for group 2, 2.8% for group 3, and 2.9% for group 4. Among the 42 multiparas experiencing single delivery and being treated for threatened abortion, those who for more than 10 minutes daily showed a significant difference from ambulatory patients being treated for threatened abortion that required hospitalization. Many of the 63 primiparas who did not use a labor accelerating medicine but bathed for more than 10 minutes daily delivered their babies within 1000 minutes. Conclusion The above suggests that pregnant women may bathe in hot-springs without problem but bathing for less than 10 minutes is recommended during early stage of pregnancy.
The largest percentage of patients receiving acupuncture treatment in Japan are those with chronic aches. Aches are major factors of QOL, and the pain-killing effect of acupuncture treatment has a large clinical significance. In the study, therefore, we expressed the QOL of the patients who received acupuncture treatment as scores using SF-36 and then examined the effect of acupuncture treatment on improving the QOL. Each score of SF-36 was rated from 0 to 100, where higher points represent better states of health. The study was conducted on 60 patients who received acupuncture treatment in our facility from Oct. 2002 to Jan. 2003. All scores before the start of treatment were low, and all score fell below the national standard value. Physical functions (PF), bodily pain (BP), and generally view of healthiness (GH) of the physical component summary (PCS) and vitality (VT) of mental component summary (MCS) showed particularly low scores relative to other scores. Comparison of scores before the start of treatment with those 1 month after the treatment revealed that BP among the eight sub-scales was improved significantly (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that receiving acupuncture treatment can contribute to improving a patient's QOL.