Purpose. The aim of this study was to clarify the change of the profile mood of the cancer patients who were treated by Tamagawa Hot Spring Bathing. Material and Methods. Fifty seven patients (17 men and 40 women: age range 42-87 years) were examined by POMS (profile of mood states) methods. The cancer type of enrolled patients were 16 breast, 10 lung, 7stomach, 5 liver, 4 colon, 4 prostate and 11 others. The mood scale were divided into next 6 types such as Tension-Anxiety (T-A), Depression-Dejection (D), Anger-Hostility (A-H), Vigor (V), Fatigue (F) and Confusion (C), respectively. Results. In general, increasing vigor and decreasing confusion were observed (P<0.01). In the men cases, vigor was significantly rised up, and in women, T-A and D were decreased and vigor was increased significantly (P<0.05). And, in elder group (more than 71 year old) vigor were also increased significantly (P<0.05). In the case less than 10 days stay showed the increasing vigor. However in the case treated over 11 days were increasing D, A-H, V and C, respectively. The cancer case of breast and lung, vigor were increased significantly, but in the other cases, mood scale were not changed remarkably. This phenomena is resulted of small case number.
The purpose of this study was to clarify difference in heating effect of the two types of bathing for the elderly, footbathing at 44°C and full bathing at 40°C. The subjects of this study were nine elderly persons for footbathing (average 73.5 years old) and 10 elderly persons for full bathing (average 77.4 years old). The tympanic temperature was measured using a thermistor, sweat rate using the ventral capsule method, and blood pressure and heart rate using an autonomic spygmomanometer during control period 10 minutes before bathing, for 20 minutes during bathing, and for 10 minutes after bathing. Subjects wore plain clothes while taking a footbath time or swimming trunks while taking a full bathing. The ambient temperature was set to 20°C during the footbath or 26°C during the full bathing. During the footbath, the tympanic temperature increased to 60% that of full bathing and a significant increase of sweat rate was observed. In contrast, during full bathing, a significant rise in systolic blood pressure was observed immediately after bathing started due to hydrostatic pressure and a significant drop of diastolic pressure was observed after bathing due to heating during bathing. These findings suggest that the footbath is safe, does not cause any change in blood pressure and is expected to provide mild warming for the elderly.
We observed a case of Aeromonas genus infection in soft tissue caused by an underwater trauma. The patient was a 67-year-old male. His chief complaint was the left cruralgia, and his medical history was unremarkable. The clinical history was that he fell into a rice field while riding a bicycle on July 22, 2005, and suffered a blow to the left eras. On the same day, he was emergently referred to our hospital. He was diagnosed with a left eras bruise; after his wound was washed and sewed up, antibiotics were administered. When he visited our hospital again on July 24, he was hospitalized because of aggravated infection. His wound was urgently washed, drained, and debrided. Aeromonas genus was detected in a bacterial culture. The wound was opened and debrided on August 5 because skin necrosis appeared on the sewed portion of the wound due to continued infection. As the infection receded, granulation was promoted by bFGF and the patient was declared healed on September 22. The Aeromonas genus is a gram-negative, rod-shaped genus of bacteria that lives underwater, and a fatal course due to infection with it is possible even from a mild trauma. Although few cases of Aeromonas infection in soft tissue during spa treatment have been reported, springs could always be polluted by them because they are environmental bacteria. It is important to suspect bacterial infection in the case of an underwater trauma and administer appropriate treatment. In addition, it is necessary to consider the possibility of contamination of spa water with bacteria when we receive spa treatment. We want to enlighten spa operators and users about preventing infection in the future.
Background: Spring water exhibits “aging”, characterized by increased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and diminished therapeutic efficacy. However, the influence of spring water ORP on the body during bathing is unknown. Gout has been treated by spa bathing and by acupuncture, as well as pharmacologically. We accordingly examined the relationship between ORP and uric acid excretion, and that between ORP and ryodoraku current, which is closely related to acupuncture. Design: Three groups of three volunteers each bathed in a different solution; sulphur-containing spring water, bicarbonate-containing spring water, or tap water. Serial changes in uric acid excretion and ryodoraku were measured. Results: Urinary uric acid: creatinine ratio and ryodoraku current increased after sulphur spring water bathing and diminished after tap water bathing. Urinary ORP was negatively correlated with urinary uric acid: creatinine ratio and urinary pH. Ryodoraku current and urine ORP changed in opposite directions. Conclusion: Bathing water ORP affected urinary ORP, urinary uric acid excretion, and ryodoraku current. Urinary ORP was assumed to reflect interstitial fluid ORP, suggesting that uric acid excretion and ryodoraku current were affected by interstitial fluid ORP. These findings appeared to indicate that ORP influenced cell membrane potential because voltage-dependent transporters or channels exist in the kidney and epidermis. Moreover, as urinary ORP was negatively correlated with urinary pH, ORP seemed to electrically buffer pH. As these findings can be explained by the Nernst equation by which ORP is derived, ORP of spring water might electrically influence the organism during bathing.
The Salt Lake mineral was dissolved in the warm water to develop bath salt that contained the Salt Lake mineral with the element of seawater, and we made comparative study of the effects with the tap warm water for five healthy adults. As a result, the warm water with the Salt Lake mineral increased in the changes of the surface skin temperature in the forehead, the deep thermometer in front of chest and the tissue blood flow of thigh skin compared to the tap warm water. Therefore, the warm water with the Salt Lake mineral was suspected that the thermo effects was good compared to the tap warm water. It seemed that it was possible to use it safely as bath salt, for it did not change the blood pressure, the heart rate, the oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide exhaust. Also, the abnormality of the skin was not additionally recognized.
Objective: Exercise baths are generally considered to be one of the most appropriate and advantageous rehabilitative therapies, yet their effects have not been comprehensively investigated. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of exercise baths on quality of life (QOL). Methods: The 49 subjects consisted of 20 patients with brain disease, 21 patients with orthopaedic disease, and 8 patients with other diseases (i.e., 7 life-style related diseases and one heat burn). In the present study, all patients were first treated by conventional rehabilitation comprising physical therapy and occupational therapy for 4.2±1.4 weeks. Exercise baths were then added to the rehabilitation program for a further 4.4±1.2 weeks. The subjects were immersed in water at 38°C for 30-60min, twice a week. QOL was evaluated by alterations in the MOS Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36). We defined the period from admission to exercise bath start as Treatment I, and the period from exercise bath start to discharge (exercise bath finish) as Treatment II. On admission, before and after exercise bath, QOL was evaluated using the SF-36 scores. Results: We found that the increase of all eight subscales of the SF-36 was smaller in Treatment I period than in Treatment II period. Increases in SF-36 scores were observed in all patients, in all eight domains. Specifically, after exercise baths, increased scores of Physical functioning (PF), Role physical (RP), General health (GH), Vitality (VT), Role emotional (RE) and Mental health (MH) subscales of the SF-36 were observed in the patients with brain disease. Further, after exercise baths, increased scores of PF, RP, Bodily pain (BP), GH, VT, RE and MH subscales of the SF-36 were observed in the patients with orthopedic disease. Conclusions: It was concluded that exercise baths are an effective non-pharmacological treatment that might facilitate rehabilitation programs.