In order to investigate effects of deep sea water bathing on psycho-physiological status, body temperature, circulatory and autonomic nervous system functions, and questionnaires on refreshment and sleep were evaluated in comparison with other 3 kinds of bathing including sham (no water), surface sea water and tap water. The skin temperatures of both tights and lower back were significantly higher for only deep sea water bathing compared with the sham bathing. It was also the case for tympanic temperature. Concerning circularly and autonomic nervous functions there were no significant difference between 4 kinds of bathing. For refreshment and sleep quality both sea water bathing showed higher scores, but not consistently significant differences. However, when taking any kind of bath shorter sleep latency was related to higher cardiac parasympathetic activity during sleep.
Objectives: To determine the effect of hot bathing on blood circulation, we analyzed pressure wave using Wave Intensity (WI), which is defined as changes in blood pressure (dP)×changes in blood flow velocity (dV) during hot bathing, as the index for assessment. Methods: Using a combined Doppler and ultrasonic echo-tracking system, we recorded changes in vascular diameter (dD) and dV of the common carotid artery simultaneously in six healthy subjects before (Pre-bathing), during (Bathing), and 10 minutes after bathing (41°C) (Post-bathing). We then measured the product of their changes at fixed intervals as WI and evaluated the positive component of the early systolic phase (FE) (representing the forward-traveling pressure wave), negative components following FE (B) (representing the reflection pressure wave), and the appearance time of (RT). RT was measured as the percentage ratio. Results: 1) The magnitudes of FE and B tended to decrease during 10min of bathing (Bathing) and recover to the level of the pre-bathing stage after 10min of bathing. 2) The value of RT measured after 10min of bathing (Post-bathing) was significantly longer than the level before bathing (Pre-bathing). Conclusion: The effect of the reflection pressure wave (i. e., the after load on the vascular system) decresses during hot bathing. We can thus conjecture that the time phase of appearance of the reflecting pressure wave is delayed when the arrival time of the forwardtraveling pressure wave to the periphery is delayed and the propagation of the reflection pressure wave from the periphery slows down due to the expansion of vessels during hot bathing. Hot bating can therefore be expected to reduce after loads of healthy adult subjects.
From March 1990 to September 2001, 24 patients with psoriasis (16 males and 8 females, 54±18 years) were admitted to our hospital to receive balneotherapy using Kusatsu hot-spring water. The psoriasis had been refractory to various treatments including steroid ointment therapy over a long period of time. The patients took a 10-minute 40-42°C hot-spring bath followed by application of vitamine D3 ointment 1-2 times daily for 37±19 days. The main components of the hot-spring water are aluminium, sulphates and chlorides, and its pH is 2.0. The skin symptoms of 20 of 24 cases (83%) were improved through the balneotherapy, while those of the remaining 4 cases were not changed. No side effects were observed. The serum levels of uric acid, GOT and GPT which are reported to be increased slightly did not correlate with the skin symptoms. The serum LDH level which is associated with the skin manifestastions in patients with atopic dermatitis also gave no useful information in the treatment of psoriasis. Although the mechanism of the improvement of skin manifestations is not clarified, balneotherapy at Kusatsu can be useful for the treatment of refractory cases of psoriasis as alternative and complementary medicine
A self administered survey on bathing and nearly drowning accidents in the bathtub was conducted among subjects consisting of 216 members of an aged person's club (153 males and 63 females, 73.7±4.9 years of age) for the purpose of utilizing the results for guidance in bathing for elderly persons. The subjects were bathing almost every day. The total bathing time was 20min and the time spent in the bathtub was 11min. With regard to the preference of bathing temperature, 50.4% of males and 33.3% of females answered that they like hot bathing (P<0.05). The ratios of the subjects who bathe at water temperatures over 42°C in the cold season were 39.0% of males and 21.0% of females (P<0.05). Only 4.2% of the subjects bathe below the waist. The ratios of the subjects who frequently bathe after drinking were 9.2% of males and 1.9% of females. The ratio of the subjects who bathe alone at home was 94.1%. The ratios of the subjects in this survey who had nearly drowned in the bathtub while bathing at home was 4.3%. A nearly drowning accident occurred primarily when the subject got fatigued (44.4%) or physical condition of the subject was bad (44.4%). The ratio of the subjects who had nearly drowned in a large bathtub of a hotel was 1.4%. No subjects had experienced a nearly drowning accident in the bathtub of a public bath. These results suggested that old persons, particularly males, bathe under rather unsafe conditions.
This study was conducted to observe autonomic nervous system reactions in the cardiovascular system caused by the new transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation apparatus CONVALES® Autonomic functions were evaluated before and after stimulation of 10 male students between 19 and 42 years of age. The dynamic observation method of autonomic functions proposed by Nishijo et al. was used for evaluating autonomic responses. The activity levels of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems were found to increased after stimulation. Neither significant changes in blood pressure nor adverse effects of stimulation were observed. These results suggest that the apparatus used in this study causes autonomic responses similar to those caused by acupuncture with shallow needling during exhalation phase while sitting, or by laser acupuncture. This study also suggested that this therapeutic method is safe for short periods.
Sand bathing is a method of Uighur medical treatment that use natural conditions to treat diseases at Turpan, China. Its effects on heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, body weight and rheumatoid arthritis were discussed in various patients. The heart rate (absolute increase 16.33±7.5/m), systolic blood pressure (absolute increase 4.05±16.6mmHg) and body temperature (absolute increase 1.02±0.2°C) increased gradually after 10 minute sand bathing and decreased gradually in 10 minutes after the sand bathing in 91 patients. Since heart rate and blood pressure could not recovery after completing the sand bathing in a small part of patients, we considered that hypertensive patients should pay attention to taking the sand bathing. Reduction in body weight (absolute increase 1.46±3.8kg) was observed one hour after completing at 50-60°C sand bathing. For 21 (70.0%) of 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients treated by serial sand bathing for 15 days, though joint pain was relieved significantly. However, for 5 patients (16.7%) treated by the serial sand bathing, joint pain was not changed. For 4 (13.3%) treated by the sand bathing joint pain was worsened. From the above results it was considered that sand bathing may exert rather beneficial effects on rheumatoid arthritis patients.