The effects of high concentration mineral water bating (31.16g/kg, mainly composed of Na, Ca, Mg chloride and sulfate) were studied in 13 healthy men (44.9±16.3y.o.). The subjects took 41°C, 10min bathing and kept warmth by a blanket for 30min. Blood pressure (BP), Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR) and sublingual temperature by electric thermista as deep body temperature were measured during and after bathing. Skin blood flow by LASER doppler flow meter and venous partial gas pressure and pH were also measured. Sublingual and forehead temperature was increased significantly by +1.4°C after 10min bathing and +0.9°C increase continued even after 30min. Diastolic BP and TPR were significantly decreased, and HR and CO were significantly increased by +20bpm and +2.7l/min, respectively. Significant increase of skin blood flow was also demonstrated. Significant increase of venous pO2 (+20 Torr) and decrease of pCO2 (-8.0 Torr) suggested the improvement of peripheral oxidative metabolism due to increased CO. High concentration mineral water bathing was highly effective than simple water bathing probably due to the thick coating effect by binding concentrated minerals with skin furface protein.
It has often been pointed out that introduction of early rehabilitation programs may convey a considerable risk of cerebral hypoperfusion, presumably due to dysautoregulation. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in six patients with cerebrovascular disease using 99mTc-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HM-PAO-SPECT) to investigate whether warm bathing with CO2 bubble stimulation (CO2 bathing) can be applied to early rehabilitation programs. The subjects comprised two patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage, two with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and two with cerebral infarction. CO2 bubble stimulation was produced by dissolving 100g of commercially available CO2 bubble forming tablets in 300L of warm water (41°C) and a course consisting of 10 minutes of CO2 bathing was applied for seven days. Vital signs such as blood pressure, pulse rate, and body temperatures at the axilla and the external auditory canal adjacent to the ear drum were checked during each bathing. CBF measurements and routine laboratory examinations were made before and after the seven-day course of CO2 bathing. Student-t test was used for statistical analysis. No definite changes were shown in vital signs before and after CO2 bathing. A significant decrease in WBC counts was observed after CO2 bathing, but there were no changes in values of C-reactive protein. Although no significant changes in hemisphere CBF were identified, actual values of regional CBF in the unaffected hemisphere tended to increase in two patients. These results suggest that CO2 bathing produces no adverse effects on cerebral perfusion and can be applied safely to early rehabilitation programs.
To determine the need of guidelines for judgment of the bathing advisability for the aged in Councils of Social Welfare, we had a cross-sectional study in 1999. A questionnaire survey by mail for Councils of Social Welfare which were extracted by systematic sampling (n=828, extraction rate was 25%) was conducted. The response rate was 83% and the proportion of respondents who answered the guidelines were necessary was 86% (n=642). Chi-square tests and logistic regressions analyses showed that bathing service in facility, existence of guidelines for judgment of the bathing advisability by body temperature, and respondents judging were independent factors associated with the need of guidelines for judgment on the bathing advisability in aged. Our results suggest the necessity to make guidelines for judgment of the bathing advisability in the aged.
In the 1880's, massage therapy was first introduced from Europe. It had been developed by Dr. Albert Reibmayr of Austria. Jiko Nagase, an army surgeon, tried to apply Reibmayr's massage techniques as regular therapy at his hospital. It was the first time that this therapy was used in Japan, but details are not clear, so this paper intends to clarify this therapy's theory and techniques in order to utilize it in clinical practice as a method of physiotherapy. We used a compendium of massage (5th ed. 1893) and “Die Tecknik der Massage” (5th ed. 1892), illustrated by Reibmayr, as the basis of our study. (1) Reibmayr's massage techniques were being developed in Europe then because the procedures were described in French and joint movements, “Bewegung, ” came from Germany. (2) Reibmayr classified his massage therapy into four basic procedures (Effleurage, Massage à Friction, Pétrisage, and Tapotement) according to the classification system of Mezger (from Holland). (3) He explained the effects of his massage therapy in combination with joint movements, particularly passive joint movements, based on the exercise method advocated by Ling (from Sweden). (4) He emphasized the massage therapy and mechanical and reflex effects based on physiological research in those days. (5) He found that massage therapy improved the function of the circulatory and nervous systems, and stimulated metabolism as a whole. According to this discovery, he advocated doing neck massage, abdominal massage, and preliminary massage. (6) He recommended the application of his massage therapy to various fields (internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics, gynecology, etc.) as physical therapy. In order to advance the usefulness of current medical massage therapy, it is important to recognize these procedures' effects and to apply them more in clinical practice.