In this study, we investigated composite plating of Ni-SiC by pulse current elelctrolysis using pyridinium (AZPy) and trimethyl ammonium (AZTAB) surfactants with an azobenzene group. The SiC content of Ni/SiC plating using 1μm SiC particles increased with an increase in the pulse frequency from 40vol.% to 60vol.%. This value increased to more than 70vol.% for 0.27μm SiC particles. The roughness of the plating for 1μm SiC particles decreased with an increase in the pulse frequency from 1.7μm to 0.5μm. This value decreased to 0.3μm for 0.27μm SiC particles, which is close to that of the substrate. The hardness of the Ni/SiC plating depended on the SiC content and the highest value obtained was 780Hv. This value was increased to 1340Hv by heat treatment of Ni-P/SiC plating.
A PdCl2/SnCl2 mixed catalyst is generally used for the initiation of or pretreatment for electroless copper plating on non-conductive substrates. However, this procedure has become expensive because of the increase in the cost of a Pd metal. Furthermore, the remains of Pd on a substrate surface induce electrical problems in fine and dense circuit patterns. In this study, we have developed a new catalyzing process using a mixture of copper and tin salts instead of the Sn-Pd mixed catalyst. This catalyst has showed much the same performance as the Sn-Pd catalyst, where a uniform copper film was deposited on an epoxy resin. An adhesion strength larger than 1.0kN/m was achieved. The new catalyst process is suitable for forming fine line patterns without extraneous deposition since copper is easily removed from the resin surface.
This paper focused on the effects of deposition temperature and annealing conditions on the flexibility and phase transformation behavior of thick (up to 10μm) flash-evaporated film of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA). The TiNi films were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), bending tests, and bulge tests. The phase transformation temperatures of the TiNi alloy film were little influenced by the deposition temperature, in the range of 250°C to 450°C. However, the phase transition peak became larger when the deposition temperature was 300°C or higher. The flexibility of the TiNi film was also improved drastically as the deposition temperature rose up. A flexible TiNi film, without fracture at a maximum strain of 1.5%, was obtained when the deposition temperature was 400°C or higher. The annealing temperature for shape memorization was optimum at 500°C. When the TiNi film was annealed at lower temperature (400°C), the TiNi film was not flexible. On the other hand, the phase transition peak became broad with annealing at a higher temperature (600°C). The TiNi film, deposited at 450°C and annealed at 500°C for 3h, could deform to at least a 4.5% strain in the bulge test. A residual strain of about 2% was obtained after the external load was released. When the TiNi film was heated above the phase transformation temperature, typical shape recover behavior was observed.
DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) coatings possess many attractive properties, including high hardness, a low friction coefficient, and extreme wear resistance. Due to these properties, DLC coatings have elicited considerable interest within high technological industries, such as those for magnetic hard disks, ball and rolling bearings, high-precision gears, cutting tools, etc. But in some cases, sliding components including car clutches, and laptop hinges require frictional controlled DLC surfaces. They are expected to have appropriate torque, and superior fatigue and wear resistance, but lower friction coefficients are less important. In this study, experiments were conducted on the controlling of frictional forces by topographically structuring contact surfaces. Fine Particle Bombardment (FPB) has been employed to create micro-dimples that act to control surface roughness. The friction coefficient at the DLC surface changes according to the surface roughness. Therefore, the method presented in this study provides a simple and effective way of controlling the friction between DLC coated surfaces in contact.
We focused on a via of 150μm in depth and 90μm in opening diameter, which is used for the three dimensional stacking of sheet devices in cellular phones. The optimized additive compositions are SPS : 3, SPRA : 20, Cl- : 70, and LEVA : 5(mg/dm3). Adopting the periodical reverse pulse(PR pulse) of –6(mA/cm2), the via was completely filled with 540min. Then we used two-steps current for the lower side and upper side of the via. For the lower side, PR pulses of –10(mA/cm2) of 270min was applied and for the upper side, a direct current(DC) of –10(mA/cm2) of 60min was applied. Total time of 330min was required. Furthermore, by applying oxygen purge, the via was filled completely with PR pulses of –15(mA/cm2) for 168min and DC of –10(mA/cm2) for 60min. The total time of 228min was required. The off time of the PR pulse was set as 0min. The via was filled completely with PR pulse of –15(mA/cm2) of 84min(PR pulse off time=0min) and DC of –10(mA/cm2) of 60min. The via was perfectly filled with total time for 144min. Then we measured the potential for two cases : PR pulse off time=200ms and of PR pulse off time=0ms. Almost same acceleration potentials of via bottom both for PR pulse off time=200ms and for PR pulse off time=0ms. Almost same inhibition potential of via outside both for PR pulse of off time=200ms and for that of off time=0ms.