Plate penetration into dry granular materials is numerically studied using a large-scale discrete element method (DEM). To investigate the effects penetration angle on the interactions between particles and the plate, the simulations with the different angles from 0 (vertical penetration) to 60 degree are compared. The results show that the drag force acting on the plate increases with a decrease in the penetration angle. For all cases, the formation of shear bands from the plate tip to the free surface in the bed is confirmed. The analysis of energy consumption in the bed shows that most of the energy input to the bed by the plate is locally dissipated by sliding frictions between particles in shear bands. As the penetration angle decreases, the amount of energy dissipation due to the friction increases in the shear bands formed near the plate tip.
Forward osmosis (FO) membrane process is an emerging membrane technology for wastewater treatment and desalination. This process enables to achieve a membrane separation with lower energy than conventional pressure-driven ones. However, the realization of effective FO membrane processes essentially needs draw solutions offering both a high osmotic pressure and a facile regeneration mechanism. In this review, the basic explanations of FO membrane process and draw solution are firstly provided. Subsequently, an overview of a variety of draw solutions is presented. Finally, the draw solution based on the magnetic particles modified with polyelectrolytes is explained.
Recent requirements of agrochemicals are high biological efficacy, higher safety to both human beings and environment, and laborsaving. In this article, the outline of pesticide formulation is explained and then recent advances in development of new formulations and application technologies are introduced. As recent development examples for environmental load reduction technologies as well as laborsaving technologies which have been gathering big attention, DL dust, Jumbo and Mametsubu formulations and drift prevention nozzle technologies are explained.