A new type admixture was developed for low drying-shrinkage concrete with water-cement ratio of 40-55%. The properties of fresh and hardened concrete using this admixture were studied on the laboratory test and mock-up test. Drying-shrinkage of the low drying-shrinkage concrete using this admixture was 15-20% less than ordinary concrete. Properties of this hardened concrete, as compressive strength, young’s modulus, tensile strength, durability and carbonation were determined by this experiment. Effect on reducing cracks by using this admixture were verified in the mock-up test and applications.
The performance of latest devices with electromagnetic induction method for the measurement of cover depth of rebar was confirmed by some experiments. The result is as follows. 1) The accuracy of latest devices was almost in the range of the standard value of JASS5T-608. 2) Mixture proportion of concrete and the age of specimen did not influence measurement values of latest devices with electromagnetic induction method.
The survey accuracy of cover depth of rebar of RC member by the devices with electromagnetic induction method was confirmed by the experiment. As a result, it was shown that measurement of actual RC members was possible. In addition, there was the case that we have to use A method or B method of JASS5 T-608.
In these experiments, a technique to observe a marker installed all over the artificial ground was used for the visualization of behavior of the digging soil. This suggests that the use of this technique helps understand the behavior of digging soil. The behavior of digging soil differs according to the rotational direction of an auger equipment.
This study intends to analyze techniques and systems to mitigate environmental impacts on transportation load of building materials based on the field survey in building construction process. The procedure of study was as follows, to select the typical steel structure building constructed in Tokyo area, to investigate transportation conditions from raw materials plants to the construction site of building, and finally to analyze the transportation routes/means, loading capacities, and packaging to their transportation conditions. It would be useful to reduce the CO2 emissions due to energy consumption during transportation.
The revised building standard law established in 2007 confused building confirmation application process in building work places. This cause of the confusion is related to the strict examination duty ruled by the revised law. In this paper, the contents of the strict examination were analyzed, the work rate was measured, and the working time was measured. Furthermore two techniques to make the examination process more efficient were proposed. One is an effective technique in strict examination, and another is an outline examination. In the outline examination the work rate is small, however a building confirmation application can’t be judged exactly. In contrast, in strict examination work rate is heavy, however a building confirmation application can be judged more exactly. Both examination methods have different concept, however using both methods in coordination can make the examination process more effectively. In the previous paper, the strict examination process was shown, and in this paper outline one is mainly discussed.
An elevator set up in a high-rise building may cause a problem of elevator rope sway. To solve this problem, the responses of building-elevator systems are examined based on the Complex Complete Quadratic Combination method and damage risk is evaluated with respect to possible earthquakes in Chuetsu district of Niigata Prefecture and the northwestern part of Chiba Prefecture. It is observed that some positions of elevator car can reduce the damage risk of main rope by shifting the natural periods of the rope away from the natural periods of the building.
The already proposed identification methods for linear systems are applied to shaking table tests of a full-scale 4-story steel building at the E-Defense. The structure is modeled as a 4DOF linear shear building in each horizontal direction. Only accelerations recorded at the centers on all floors are utilized for the identification. Natural frequencies, the corresponding damping ratios and modal shapes in the lowest two modes are evaluated by one-input-four-output ARX models. These modal parameters are utilized to identify the mass, damping and stiffness matrices. The results are compared with the structural parameters reported by the E-Defense project team.
The already proposed identification method for nonlinear hysteretic systems is applied to shaking table tests of a full-scale 4-story steel building at the E-Defense. The structure is modeled as a 4DOF nonlinear shear building in each horizontal direction. The nonlinearity in stiffness is expressed as the Bouc-Wen hysteretic model. The identified hysteretic curve is compared to the corresponding experimental result.
The sliding bearings are used for lightweight structures instead of the laminated rubber bearings. In many studies, the frictional coefficients of sliding bearings are assumed as less than 0.1. However, even if frictional coefficient is about 0.2, it may be effective for a large earthquake(max. acceleration > 200cm/s2). In this study, the effectiveness of sliding bearings made of surface-treated steel plates is examined under different conditions with a surface pressure. The reduction effect of response is proved by shaking table test. The frictional coefficients are identified, and by using these coefficients the response is verified analytically.
For real-time estimation of earthquake damage, high-spatial resolution estimation of ground-motion spectra in wide area is required from relatively low-dense strong-motion observation information. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate distribution of response spectra, based on combination of spatial interpolation (kriging) on engineering/seismic bedrock and spectral modal analysis which takes into account soil non-linearity by equivalent linearization. The application examples in Sendai are also indicated using strong motion records during the recent disastrous earthquakes of 2005 and 2008.
The soil-bag has the large bearing capacity to the external force, because the materials inside soil-bags are wrapped and confined completely by the bag. In this study, the compression tests and cyclic shear tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the soil-bags for the design of the reinforcement soil by bags. As the results, the experimental compression baring loads almost agree with the theoretical values and the characteristics of the high performance hysteresis damping of the piled up soil-bags were found out.
This paper describes development of a simulation system for dynamic behavior of liquefaction ground - building by means of substructure pseudo dynamic testing and its verification of accuracy. Soil-element loading test is adapted to the experimental sub-assemblage of the simulation. Soil specimen is made of drying sand. Dynamic system of the soil-building structure is replaced to the Penzien model. From the result of this simulation on the behavior of hysteric-curve, phenomena such as cyclic mobility, soft-spring and so on can be simulated by the soil-element loading test even under random cyclic loading. Dynamic behavior such as lengthening the natural period, increasing the response displacement and decreasing the response acceleration can be simulated after occurrence of liquefaction.
Blind tests by seismic deformation method, dynamic analysis using 2D-finite element method, and dynamic one using Penzien model were performed to centrifuge test of lateral resistance of pile foundation during soil liquefaction. The test results showed that 1) the pile stresses estimated by seismic deformation method were larger than the observed ones, 2) the pile stresses estimated by 2D-finite element method and Penzien model were different from each other, because of differences between the deformation characteristics of the liquefiable soil models, 3) it was effective in improvement of analysis precision, to take into consideration fixation degree of the pile head.
This research was performed to evaluate the shear performance of prefabricated mud shear wall (PMSW) which was developed to introduce more vigorously into the modern timber house with appropriate modification. In order to precisely investigate the performance of PMSW, relative relationship between rotational and shear behavior of mud in side of frame was considered with the parameter of number of screw. Consequently, PMSW-2 and PMSW-3 which are fixed by 16 and 24 pieces of screws for one PMSW unit showed high performance compared to the CMSW. On the behavior of mud unit for shear deformation of timber frame, rotation of mud was dominant until yielding of wall at both CMSW and PMSW, then yielding of whole was occurred along with shear yielding and failure of mud.
The research objective is to compensate for the weaknesses of plywood and ceramic board (fiber reinforced calcium silicate board) by combining the two materials without adhesive, making use of plywood’s fixedness − an advantage when nailed. Porous ceramic board has advantage including humidity control, fire resistance and sound insulation. When combined, ceramic board is expected to compensate for plywood’s weaknesses, such as flammability, allowing improved strength and durability as a structural panel. This paper details the findings of research into the supplementary strength enabled by the in-plane shear force of the face material combining plywood with 6mm-thick fiber reinforced calcium silicate board.
Fiber reinforced cement siding boards are necessary for buildings in respect of fireproof, waterproof and windproof. The shearing performance of the bearing walls with fiber reinforced cement siding boards is evaluated to the safety side. In our bearing wall test, the initial stiffness and the maximum strength increased compared to those of the bearing wall without fiber reinforced cement siding boards, though the deformation performance decreased. In this paper, the behavior is examined by the relation between horizontal displacement and vertical displacement in the nailed joint test.
In the traditional Japanese architecture, mud wall is used as a major structural element. However, horizontal shearing strength of mud wall is low, and it is difficult to maintain the length required of the shearing wall in the direction toward the frontage of the building. In this paper, a type of mud wall with high shearing performance characteristics has been developed through reinforcement by embedding bracings in mud wall. Shearing property of the mud wall embedded with bracings was confirmed by experiment. Also, the resistant mechanism against shear force in this wall was clearly defined by the element test.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of multiple force, initial development and loading speed to shear strength of structural wooden panels. The following main results obtained by this study are: 1) As the increase of deformation, the influence of multiple force is higher than other case. 2) The influence of initial deformation makes heq larger in micro deformation area, though this isn’t show that the shear walls have enough energy absorption capacity. 3) Loading speed isn’t influence to SIP shear walls.
This paper proposes a simplified seismic diagnosis to rapidly gather a lot of data for the earthquake resistant performance of wooden houses and describes the verification of its accuracy and indicates some examples to gather data by means of this diagnosis. In this diagnosis, the data for wooden houses are gathered by visual obtainment of exterior. We can choose in two options for how to conduct visual obtainment of exterior. One option is to obtain data by direct visual on-the-spot investigation. The other is to obtain data from the site of street view in the Google. From the results, it is found that one of the important factors that accuracy goes down is error when some lengths on houses are evaluated by visual obtainment of exterior, and that a lot of data can be gotten by means of this diagnosis.
This paper describes the relation of seismic diagnosis marks and the construction costs based on seismic retrofitting of fifteen wooden houses mainly exist in kanto area. We evaluate the ability of resistance to earthquakes and give marks before and after seismic retrofitting. The main results obtained from the investigations are as follows. The construction costs become high in price and construction period become long as the gap of marks of before and after seismic diagnosis become large.
The purpose of this study is to examine the bracing effects of SIP shear walls. There are a lot of studies on racking strength of light-frame nailed shear walls in Japan. However, there seems to be no established theories in bracing effects of SIP shear walls. Therefore we conducted static loading tests of two types specimen. The following main results obtained: 1) Bracing effects showed 20% to 30% increase in shear strength. 2) We conducted the formulation of bracing effects of SIP shear walls, and we got definite result.
The main building of Yokufu-en has been designated “Selected Historical Buildings of Tokyo Metropolitan Government” built after the Great Kanto Earthquake in the Taisho period. This building was designed by Yoshikazu Uchida, a famous university professor and his assistant. As a result of the study, the building has enough strength of structure, and the concrete shows sufficient compressive strength. However, as the 3rd story with having high eccentric factor is necessary to be reinforced for earthquake resistance, the reinforcement plan was designed for obtaining a prescribed seismic capacity performance.
The authors have proposed Step-over Isolated Structure system as one of the extension methods for multistory housings. In this system, stability consideration for the supporting columns is essential, including P-Δ effects and plastic deformation of columns. In this paper, the effects of such combined non-linear characteristics of the columns on the stability and seismic response of the system are studied and discussed.
The authors have been developing reinforced concrete masonry buildings with the wall thickness of 150mm, for the purpose of the increase of inner space of buildings, the decrease of building weight, and the usage of the standard building module of 300mm. In this paper, test results of laterally loaded bearing walls and wall girders with the standard reinforcement, using newly developed small-size concrete units with the thickness of 150mm, special pre-mixed cement mortal for the joints, and grout concrete of the strength of 60 N/mm2 class, are shown in detail.
This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the seismic performance of Reinforced Concrete Column-Steel Beam frame systems with centrifugally molded PCa Columns, which are made using the production line of PRC piles. At first, two basic tests, the tensile test of Non-Diaphragm-pipes and the compression test of the joint filling mortar between the PRC Column and steel pipe, were carried out. Afterward, two interior beam-column joints were tested under reversed cyclic loads while subjected to constant axial compression. Finally, a procedure to evaluate the seismic capacity of steel beam- PCa column joints is presented.
For the purpose of simplify the method on death toll, this paper proposes the simple method on population for effectively and efficiently selecting the seismic hazard maps having significant impact on Nagoya city, Japan, as an example area in this study. We select the extensive distribution of population exposure seismic intensity by use of the simple method on population, and estimate the effectiveness and the efficiency of selected it. The result shows that nearly 95% of estimated victims in Nagoya city is able to be covered by only 2 maps selected in the strategic choice approach.
The building facade plays important role for not only appearance designs, but also the safety and the environmental impacts. For satisfying these demands, the authors have proposed the integrated facade system using horizontally arranged louvers. Considering the safety, not only the structural aspect but also fire safety is important. Especially verification of the ejected plume behavior from opening is important to prevent fire spread. The full scale fire experiment, which attached opening with the louver system, was carried out. The ejected plum behavior from this opening was confirmed through temperature around opening and louver, shape of plume, and radiated heat.
We have developed an evacuation calculation tool “stairs simulator”. This is a tool for dividing the space in stairs with a small space where has the capacity for “the number of the people who can move inside the stairs within one minute”, (which this paper calls cell), and calculating the events which mean the residents’ entrance into the stairs on every floor, the confluence with the evacuators from upper floors which occurs when they enter the stairs and going out of the stairs on the evacuation floor by using time-history in sequence. It can show the floor direction distribution of evacuators within the facilities and the influence on evacuation of distribution in the horizontal direction in graphs and animations by using short-time input and calculation time.
In cold climatic region, more and more detached houses were getting to be thermally well insulated and less infiltration. On the other hand, quality of indoor thermal environment in apartment houses which would have lower thermal insulation and infiltration than in detached houses is likely to be not good. Measurements were carried out to evaluate indoor thermal environment during winter and energy consumption of eight apartment houses located in Akita Prefecture.
In order to evaluate thermal environment improvement on the Fukuoka City Hall Square, a field demonstration experiment was carried out using water retentive materials. The materials applied were natural grass sheets and water-retainable artificial grass sheets. These materials were installed temporary on the square made from white artificial stones, and the thermal properties were observed in summer season. Thermal radiation on the human body was improved on each material in the daytime, but the atmospheric heating by sensitive heat in the daytime was increased on the artificial grass, because of the surface temperature rising.
A new dehumidification filter using natural mesoporous material, Wakkanai siliceous shale, was developed for effective treatment of the latent heat load. The dehumidification ability of the developed filter was evaluated. It was demonstrated that this filter performed as an air-to-air heat exchanger under high rotating speed. The total heat exchange efficiency was 80% at 22 rpm. This filter removed 3.3 g/kgDA of water vapor at 1 rpm when the regeneration temperature was 40°C. Moreover the rate of energy reduction to remove outdoor air load was estimated to be 56% by a combination of this filter and a sensible heat exchanger.
This paper reports the results of small scale wooden biomass Co-Generation System (we call it WBCGS) that had been introduced into S Prefecture T city in 2007. WBCGS uses LPG to start the gas engine and produce heat and electricity sent to the demand side. The fuel of the engine is a wood chip. The raw material of the wood chip is local thinned wood, forest reminder material, and mill ends. As the result of the yearly total efficiency was 62.9%, the power generation efficiency was 10.6%, and thermal efficiency was 52.3%. After WBCGS had been introduced, 101 t- CO2 a year was reduced 88.6% has been reduced compared with conventional system.
In this paper, we described architectural useful way of abundant solar energy in Tibetan plateau of China and the solar potentials of various places are analyzed. Especially, the floor materials of the apartment houses and tradition residence in Lhasa city are examined, the living environment is improved using direct heat gain system with simulation soft. In addition, the condensation function of solar cooker is used effectively in the local area, selecting the most suitable materials. Also the power output performance of solar cell using portable sunlight concentrator which made up compactly proposes characteristic application methods to Tibetan residence.
Indoor sources, such as human bioeffluents, tobacco smoke and building interior materials, have been implicated as air pollution sources in built environment including car compartment. For assessing perceived air quality polluted by bioeffluents, the author had used occupants as judges. In spite of relatively high CO2 concentration, the occupants did not complain for the indoor air quality. Lower value of odor intensity voted by the occupants could have been caused by olfactory fatigue. Therefore the author tried to assess the indoor air quality by using visitor’s sensation. Then the assessing system for perceived air quality by using olfactometer was developed.
This paper reports design method of office HVAC system utilizing radiant ceiling panel, natural ventilation, under floor air-conditioning. Performance of radiant panel and acceptable dew point in the office are studied. PMV control method applies for the office HVAC system in order to consider radiant environment and keep the office thermal environment comfortable. HVAC operation modes are defined considering outside air condition and dew point in the office toward energy conservation.
From the viewpoint of indoor environmental control and CO2 discharge reduction, it’s necessary to evaluate the air-conditioning system in life cycle. And the system simulation is effective for evaluating an air-conditioning system. We compared “DeST” with “LCEM tool”, which are the air-conditioning system simulation program, in the characteristic, calculation algorithm, function and result of simulation for the model building. They have some difference of handling components and the calculation algorithm. However, we showed we can get almost same result when we adjust points that we can.
Precise measurement has been carried out on a sustainable office building in Tokyo for five years. Energy evaluation shows that the primary energy consumption of the building is about 57 to 61% of bench mark building and life cycle CO2 emission is about 32 to 35% smaller than bench mark building. Monthly weather data and consumption of service water and natural gas for five years are also shown.
The present paper describes the evaluation of Free Cooling System by analyzing its operating data from the factory constructed in cold region. Result from this evaluation, the most appropriate way of the operating system is proposed. It is based on past operating data and the weather information. Moreover, after the system has been operated by this method and the result is examined, the accuracy of the selected procedure will be increased by tuning parameters. It is expected that this operating method will be more effective for the facility management and also Free Cooling System will become popular in cold region.
These years residential energy consumption has been increasing sharply in China along with the high economic growth. Thus people pay much more attention to the issues of reducing the energy consumption and CO2 emission. This study chose Shanghai, a big city of China as a subject, and developed a Macro-model to forecast the CO2 emission of residential buildings up to 2050. By combining such Global warming count measures into the Macro-model it was able to forecast the CO2 emission of Shanghai’s residential buildings in several energy-efficient scenarios.
An optimal building design aid system which integrates CAD, various building performance simulations and optimization algorithm, is proposed in this study based on the concept of Building Information Modeling (BIM). Building information modeling is a process of generating and managing data during building life cycle. It can be used to demonstrate the entire building life cycle, including construction and facility operation. It is verified that the system can get data from CAD, run various simulations and find out pareto optimal solution automatically by a case study.
We developed a new type home energy management system, that is a home environment and energy information system. This system focuses on the indoor and outdoor climate, environmental amenity, and total energy consumption, and supports smart lifestyle by providing various environmental information. This paper represents the effect of the operation of the system which was installed in a environmental symbiosis type apartment, and shows some effect of the environmental enlightenment and energy saving.
Eighty ornamental plants, such as perennial plants, bulbous plants, and shrubs, were planted into the experimental rooftop garden made of the rain water storage type planting base, and the growth experiment was conducted. The selected species differed widely in their form characteristics and weatherability. As a result, the following things became clear. (1) Various vegetable kinds were able to grow over four years, even under growth condition of thin substrate depth of 10cm. (2) The vegetable bloom time and flowering period have been confirmed. The vegetable selection which can enjoy plants in blossom may become easy. (3) Even at the thin layer planting base, control of maintenance which reduced irrigation frequency was completed by adopting the rain water storage type planting base.
This study aims to clarify the location of shops in concourse and platform of railway stations in Kansai area. The data collected from the investigation conducted in 2008 are compared with those in 1999. It is found out that even though the situation in Kansai area has changes dynamically, it is smaller than that in Tokyo area. We interviewed some railway companies about location of shops in station to find out that the actual locations of shops are depended on their dispositions for business in stations. Finally, characteristic variation in human behavior in front of shops newly located in stations is discussed by three types of shops.
Many of municipal Art museums have painful finance now. Muroran museum of Art was established in October, 2008 by the citizens and it has been managed by themselves, too. Muroran museum of Art will show a good reference in other municipal museums. Because we were related to establishment, we will report the establishment process. As a result of investigations, the following features are reported. 1) In Muroran City, there were two museums related citizens cooperative business. 2) The civic group that established the museum has long history of activity of establishment. 3) We proposed designs that citizens easily stay in museum. Moreover, the museum has the overall plan for the future. 4) After the establishment, the museum makes many good activities in Muroran city.
It is expected that hospitals, especially base hospitals for disaster medicine have to accept a number of injured persons in a short period after an occurrence of big earthquake. The situation will be serious enough to maintain medical care function in these hospitals because of structural and nonstructural, including life lines, damages in the area. The aim of the study is to explore effective ways to cope with the situation. Questionnaire survey was carried out to all the base hospitals in Japan asking their precautions and preparation to mitigate the damages and to keep medical function in disastrous situation.
In the current laws and ordinances, the matter to accommodate the tuberculosis patient who is an airborne infectious disease is not exhibited. In this study, we discussed the building standard of the medical institution which accommodate tuberculosis patient, for the purpose of showing recommendations. The medical institution to accommodate tuberculosis patients needs to keep building facilities corresponding to the airborne infection, and it is necessary to perform use based on the latest scientific evidences.
The aim of this report is to propose the plan requirement for a “Free school” type of junior high schools through the verification of the process of planning and designing Tokyo Shure Katsushika junior high school that the one side corridor type of schools was converted to. The contents are as follows; 1) Extensive spaces and small spaces are made from classrooms, and a spatial difference is invented in the whole of the school building. 2) The corridor was caught as a “Long and slender room”. The space was imaged by the size, and the space that students and teachers exchanged easily was conceived. 3) A related-making with the vicinity region was considered, and in construction, a necessary tool and construction materials obtained as much as possible in the vicinity region, and received guidance of the characteristic of construction materials how to use of the tool.
We classified villages in Amagasaki City in four types due to the situation of each accumulated farm, and described each spacial feature. From analysis of farmer’s intention, it was cleared that there were correlation between village typology and farmer’s intention. It is important understanding the tendency of farmer’s intention about usage of their farm and Planning the way of use and conservation depend on their spacial and social feature.
A construction industry is very important in Japan. But those show a tendency to be bad. By the way, the project called Community Type Construction Creative Enterprise is being held in Sapporo City. This project is the activity by the construction industry which made community a theme. Through the activities of that for five years, management of the companies which participated showed a tendency to be raised, an enterprise from the citizen’s point of view has been developed. And, it was recognized again that it was important to be general such as trust and a period for the construction industry.