High-flowing concrete having fluidity and material separation resistance was developed using a new fluidity agent. Adding it to normal concrete of slump 18cm in an agitator truck provided by a ready mixed concrete, high-flowing concrete of slump-flow 60cm could be manufactured in the construction site. Our Flowing concrete was examined for the applicability of the pump injection method for CFT(Concrete filled steel tube) using an actual-sized CFT. And it was applied to the building. It was confirmed that the developed flowing concrete using a new fluidity agent had the applicability of the pump injection method for CFT.
The tensile creep test of the post-installed anchor was carried out by the improved spring type creep test equipment. The measurement of creep deformation from non-load and creep fracture time was possible over a long period of time by this equipment. The creep deformation at about 1/3 load of the maximum load increase slightly for the duration of 90 day, but the creep deformation is very small, and creep fracture will not occur in 50 years. And at 80% of the maximum load, creep fracture occurred in 168 days.
Slabs should be moderately flat according to users’ requirement. From this concept, experiment to construct slabs under different labors was carried out at an actual building using 36 N/mm2 concrete. When required flatness were shown to finishing workers, they proposed adequate techniques to achieve them. After being approved by construction supervisors, slabs were constructed under those techniques and were measured their flatness. As the result, it was shown clearly that tamping works of unsuitable timing and displacing level pointers invent bumps very much, areas where are hard to use trowels (e.g., at pillars) are difficult to be made flat.
Earth materials have great possibility of saving the burden on global environment. However, the utilization ways of earth material are limited within traditional clay wall and earthenware products. This paper reported the results for the experiments that aimed to use the non-burnt earth blocks as the masonry units for the load-bearing exterior wall of small scale detached house. Magnesium oxide was used as the additives to enhance the compressive strength and water resistance based on the experiment, and then the influence of the mix proportion and manufacturing conditions assuming outdoor and handmade were investigated.
Field measurements of thickness of a polyurethane membrane applied on an actual building by four kinds ofmeasuringmethods such as ultrasonic wave measuring, eddy current measuring, needle penetration and direct measuring of cut-out specimens were first carried out, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method were discussed. As for the technique to collect a cut-out piece from a membrane, a new one of capable of reliably collecting using a punch of 10mm in diameter was developed. The specimens of various compositions and wide rage of thickness were prepared and their thickness measured carefully in a laboratory, and the accuracy of thickness by each measuring method was discussed. Finally the suitable combination between various thickness measuring methods and polyurethane membranes of different thicknesses and compositions was proposed.
Injecting resins into crack is a generic method for repair of concrete members. Assessing in advance the injection behavior is important to decide the repair method in actual construction. In this paper, specimens that simulated an actual crack of concrete were produced using a 3D scanner and a 3D printer. One of a pair of the specimens was made of a transparent material, therefore it became possible to estimate the injection behavior by visual observation. In this experiment, it was possible to evaluate the initial extent of injection and the dribble of the repair materials in the same shape crack.
In Japan, the number of external insulation renovations has been increased because it is expected not only that the living environment will be improved, but also that the cost of heat and electricity will be cut and the life span of the building will get longer. While there are many researches about saving energy after construction, there are few researches during construction. This research deals with the work efficiency and man-day survey about external insulation renovation of an existing apartment. Each processes was subdivided from preparation to cleaning up, and we measured how long it took to complete these steps. In the man-day survey, the number of worker who engaged in each kind of construction process was calculated and the relation between some features of the building and the number of worker was also revealed.
This paper describes the results of research study on closed recycle of high strength prestressed concrete pole. As the result, the main conclusions are as follows. 1) The quality of recycled coarse aggregate made from used concrete poles corresponds to the recycled aggregate class M. 2) The quality of recycled fine aggregate made from used concrete poles corresponds to the recycled aggregate class L. 3) There is a possibility that recycled aggregate made from used concrete pole can be applied for new concrete pole, if natural aggregate is replaced with a part of recycle aggregate.
In the Great East Japan Earthquake, many suspended ceilings were damaged and fell down. If ceiling systems are attached to its surrounding walls and beams, in-plane compression strength of ceilings can be a primary factor of seismic design. By the results of compression tests, the strength is often limited by the buckling of ceiling as a composite plate. In this case, bending mechanical properties of ceiling system can be major factors of fragility against earthquakes. In this paper, bending stiffness and strength of steel furring suspended ceiling system are clarified by static bending tests.
This article examines the optimization method for the timber-framed houses ally regarding the rain leaking caused by the inappropriate construction. Using the database of 6000 cases obtained by the dwelling inspection of 11 years, the rain leaking and condensation cases are extracted and categorized into the region and construction method. Having a questionnaire survey, 35 cases became the comparative analysis data for the inappropriate construction. As the result increase of multi function worker against to mono function worker are often to be the cause of inappropriate construction because of the shortage of experiences and literacy for vocational ability and domain.
In order to clarify the damage to ceilings as nonstructural element on school buildings due to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, total 205 school buildings were investigated according to documents for disaster restoration work. Damages to ceilings are concentrated on the top floor of the buildings. Bend-form ceilings tend to be damaged more than flat ones. Falls of ceiling with furrings are approximately 40% of total falls. There are many damaged ceilings even the building have enough seismic strength for current standard.
Risks for long-period structures due to long-period strong motion has been a challenge since damages occurred during 2003 Tokachi-oki Earthquake. Although PML is widely used as a seismic performance index, conventional methods cannot be applied directly to those. A new PML evaluation method is proposed. Ground motions for inter- and intra-plate, and crustal earthquakes are predicted using attenuation equations of response spectrum and group delay time. 3D elasto-plastic response analyses are employed and earthquake loss is calculated based on ductility and cumulative plastic deformation ratio of each structural element. The proposed method is illustrated with examples in Osaka and Tokyo.
The wind pressures on the upper and lower surfaces of the modules indicate negative values where photovoltaic modules are installed on the roof of buildings. Therefore the mean wind forces on the modules are relatively weak. On the other hand, the peak wind forces on the modules become severe due to the differences of fluctuating wind pressures on the upper and lower surfaces. This paper presents the design wind force coefficients for photovoltaic modules installed on the gable roof of low-rise buildings, based on the peak wind force coefficients which are measured the wind tunnel experiments.
It is extremely important to obtain reliable information about actual structural and dynamic properties to evaluate the earthquake-resistance performance of a structure. However, examples of vibration experiments performed for a lighthouse are scarce. This study focuses on estimating the dynamic parameters of the Ujina Lighthouse by performing microtremor measurements and forced oscillation experiments. Although some variation is observed between the damping factors obtained from the measurements and experiments, the natural frequencies obtained from both the methods agree well up to higher modes of vibration. Therefore, microtremor measurement is a useful method to obtain reliable dynamic properties simply and easily.
In order to examine the effectiveness of non-destructive inspection of concrete using supersonic waves, we carried out several experiments. The transmission method was used for the specimen for static loading, and the reflection method was used for specimen for dynamic testing. For the static loading, the propagating speeds of supersonic waves decrease with increase of maximum hysteretic strain level. However, for the dynamic testing, there were no clear correlation between the velocities of supersonic wave and the maximum hysteretic strain level. This may be due to the fact that surface wave amplitude is considerably larger than that of reflection waves.
This study investigates fundamental properties of the pulse-type earthquake motions adjacent to a vertical strike-slip fault using the dynamic rupture model based on the slip-weakening law. Surface-rupturing leads to large final slip in the surface region which has less influence on amplification of velocity pulse in fault-normal direction. It is inferred from parameter study that large stress drop and small critical slip result in large velocity amplitudes as consequences of the faster rupture velocity and increase of slip rate. Peculiar spatial variation of pulse velocity is also discussed in related with a supershear rupture.
This study developed an image processing technology which was capable of data extraction of the digital information out of topographic maps of analog paper. Applying this technology for the purpose of seismic risk analysis in Sapporo urban area and the suburbia in the time series from 1940s to 1990s, we are able to cultivate an understanding in the field of social geography; with the addition of the comparative analyses of estimated seismic intensity maps of these areas. We are able to propose a safety design of city planning of Sapporo area from the point of view of earthquake engineering.
There were several cases reported the damage to precast concrete piles during the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. To estimate the strength and deformation characteristics of precast concrete piles against big earthquakes, data of existing load tests were collected and analyzed. The characteristics obtained by calculation used cross-sectional correspond to the results of the load tests.
Bearing capacity of piled raft foundations in clay soils was studied using elasto-plastic three-dimensional FE analysis. The numerical analysis was carried out by varying ratio of pile length to raft breadth and distribution of soil strength with depth. The analytical results about the bearing capacity of piled raft foundations were compared with that of raft foundations and pile foundations. Consequently, it was found that the ultimate bearing capacity of a piled raft was approximately equal to or larger than 0.8 times the sum of the bearing capacities of a raft alone and a pile group.
Many types of structural panels are used in the shear walls of conventional Japanese wooden houses. They are not only wood based but also non-wood based panels. However, the properties of these panels have not been adequately studied. We therefore conducted tests using seven types of commercial panels: four wood-based materials and three fireproof materials. We analyzed the similarities between the panels and the test results for each of the panels to uncover the relationships between these materials.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of properties modification method (PMM) to nuki-column joints of Japanese traditional wooden frames. The basic analysis model of joint consists of three kinds of non-linear rotational springs, whose properties were determined based on the experiments conducted before. The properties of basic analysis model were modified to meet the conditions of each specimen by PMM. It was confirmed that the analysis results of hysteretic energy dissipation of hysteresis model obtained by PMM showed good agreement with the experiment results.
The objective of this study is to analyze influences of details of traditional wooden frames on their restoring force characteristics and following conclusions have been drawn. 1) We evaluate how details of traditional wooden frames such as nonstructural elements, kind of hanging walls and so on affect the maximum restoring force and stiffness of specimens. 2) Equivalent natural frequency from shaking table test can be estimated from static loading test because restoring force characteristics of static loading test and shaking table test are almost same. 3) Dynamic deformation characteristics of all specimens are represented by one regression equation.
The authors have developed a seismic retrofitting method for existing RC frames by framed steel braces partially and concentrically jointed with anchors. As the primary purpose of applying this method to existing frames of low strength concrete, the short span, and SRC structure, loading tests of new five specimens were conducted. In this paper, the details of the test results are reported, and the validity of the proposed evaluating method for the lateral strength of the retrofitted frame in the horizontal joint failure mode is verified using the test results of eleven specimens including six specimens in the previous studies.
In-plane stiffness of dryly built-up steel floor made of flat and corrugated plate is evaluated with using theoretical formulation and physical test. They indicate, 1) dryly built-up floor alone can satisfy required stiffness; 2) it is difficult to satisfy required stiffness when the floor is connected to beam by self-drilling screw; and 3) stiffness of built-up steel floor can be estimated by theoretical formulation shown herein with the accuracy between 0.8 and 1.4 as the ratio of test result to the theoretical value.
We proposed shear wall with shear panel for Light Gauge Steel Framed House, which has hysteresis damping mechanism. The shear panel makes an acute angle between flange and web. In this study, three different types of the shear panel were tested under static and cyclic shear loading. To the results, deformation capacity of proposed shear panel in the range of large deformation is superior to normal shear panel. And, it can evaluate characteristic of low cycle fatigue by Coffin-Manson rule.
A great variety of earthquakes such as the long period and long duration are predicted in the future. A high-performance buckling-restrained brace that is effective for those earthquakes is necessary. The authors have studied the buckling-restrained brace that has high-energy absorption capacities even in the high strain amplitude domain. However, not only the energy absorption capacities but also the fatigue performance is important. Therefore the authors confirm whether the buckling-restrained brace that had high-energy absorption capacities would become high-performance in the fatigue life. As a result, this buckling-restrained brace shows the high fatigue performance at the high strain amplitude domain.
Recently, it is highly important issue that the aging degradation of the structural members caused by corrosion and/or fatigue cracks. Therefore, repair and reinforcement method by using CFRP have been developed in many years. However, in the case of galvanized steel members, it is not recommended that removing the galvanizations to ensure the adhesion strength of the reinforcement material because of occurrence other corrosions. Based on these, the adhesion strength of galvanized steel and CFRP is investigated without removing the galvanizations through tensile shear test in this paper.
Sprinklers systems are well known as one of the most efficiently suppression tool in building fires, however it is apprehended that sprinkler sprays might disturb the stratified smoke layer during initial stage of fire. On the other hand, mechanical smoke exhaust system also is used to delay the descent of the interface between upper and lower layers and to secure the evacuee’s safety in fire in the high-rise and large scale buildings. In this study, a series of full-scale experimental study was carried out to unveil the effect of the sprinkler sprays, the mechanical smoke exhaust system and the length of smoke curtain on the smoke layer height. As a result, the useful experimental data on their relation was reported for applying to a simulation model related to fire.
Fire-resisting wood structural elements for building were developed. It is composed of three layers made of glued laminated timber, “a load-bearing part, a self-charring-stop and a surface layer”. Tree species of load-bearing part is limited to the only kind. In order to enable a species different, this research was carried out. Fire resistance test was performed to demonstrate the effect on fire resistance of the wood density. The relationship of fire resistance and wood density of the load-bearing part was clear. Usage of high wood density of the load-bearing part was obtained a conclusion that is advantageous to fire performance.
Dual-purpose sprinkler water piping system which is combined with radiant air conditioning system has been developed. The system is applied to the high-rise office building in Tokyo and certified as the “special fire defense equipment” according to the Fire Service Act of Japan. Heat resistance test of the equipment and system operation test were carried out. As the result of the tests, it is confirmed that the system has the performance which is equivalent to the sprinkler system.
Using wood as construction materials is important for sustainable living, and Japanese government has been promoting extensive use of wood as building materials recently. However, wood is a combustible material. Therefore, extensive use of wood in buildings also involves fire risks. On the other hand, the construction of larger-scale timber building is enabled recently in some foreign countries. In this study, we would like to examine the requirements of external fire spread between buildings by comparing methods and basis of their safety codes.
An in-situ measurement method using ensemble averaging technique, i.e., EA method, is applied to evaluate absorption characteristics of multi-functional interior materials using porous mortar in development phase. First, absorption characteristics of small specimen are measured by EA method in a reverberation room, and the repeatability of the measurement is confirmed. Next, absorption characteristics of eight kinds of porous mortars with different fine aggregate and porosity are measured by the method, and their absorption characteristics are compared with each other. Finally, the effect of finishing material on absorption characteristics of the porous mortar is examined.
The natural frequencies and the mode shapes of deck plate slabs in steel structure buildings were measured. An eigenvalue analysis was carried out on the measured slab by the finite element method with coupling of in-plane and bending displacement, and the result showed good correspondence with the measurement. By using the eigenvalue analysis by the finite element method, conversion of deck plate slabs to flat plates were studied, and relation between ratio of side length in mode shape component and converted plate thickness was shown. The conversion method was verified in the vibration analysis of the actual building floor.
Annual air-conditioning loads of office buildings were calculated from both future reference weather year data (FRWY) and future weather data (FWD) based on GWP6. The following results were obtained. 1) FWD can be used as an input weather data for future annual air-conditioning load projection and as data source of FRWY. 2) Annual air-conditioning load calculated from FRWY is close to long term average of future annual air-conditioning load. 3) It is possible to search present location with annual air-conditioning load which is similar to future annual air-conditioning load using present and future reference weather year data at 833 locations.
This paper aims to measure the insulation performance by an actual proof test using the opening which has been developed and to calculate the effect of the opening improvement. The result shows that the building frame and opening improvement enable to reduce over 70% heating load under the conditions of 25 degree indoor and outdoor temperature difference. Furthermore, the opening improvement enable to reduce large heating load in the small scale construction.
This study aims, through a proposal and drainage performance verification of a new disposer drainage stack system which is applied to kitchen drainage systems of super high-rise business buildings, to obtain knowledge which contributes to the planning and design method of such a drainage system. The first report proposes a new disposer drainage stack system which employs the combined use of speed reducing fittings and a yoke vent pipe and reports on the application of the proposed system to an actual building. The report then aims to understand, at a pre-completion stage, the drainage performance and vent characteristics of the proposed system.
Recently, it is predicted that internal heat gain reduced because the efficiency of OA equipment is will be become high and the consciousness of energy saving is increasing. And it is effected on reducing of internal heat gain on HVAC system and indoor thermal environment. For example, operating efficiency of HVAC system will be exacerbated by increasing of partial load operating. So, this study makes survey of internal heat gain. To circumstantiate change of energy consumption and offer fundamental information about internal heat gain. In this study, effect of air-conditioning load influenced by change of internal heat gain was investigated.
In this paper, we introduce activities of a working group entitled “Working group for investigating countermeasure guideline against urban heat island of each city in East Asia”. This group has been established in the subcommittee on urban and climate adaptation, research committee on global environment, AIJ, since 2012. In the former part of this paper, we outline existing countermeasure guidelines for urban heat island in Japan, Japanese local governments, and East Asia countries, while we investigate detail comparison of targets and countermeasure menus included in each countermeasure guideline in Japanese local government in the latter part of this paper.
In this study, we evaluated the potential of the installation of distributed power generators toward emergency response and energy conservation in the Tokyo area. In this regard, we first selected the facilities installed with Co-generation system (CGS), such as government administration offices, medical facilities, head offices of private companies, and railway stations, which are the most essential places to be functioning immediately after a disaster, thus requiring the most power at this time. Then, we selected the high-density area and planned to install CGS in the above-mentioned buildings. The results of this study indicated the effects of the installation of CGS on both disaster management and low-carbon city planning.
The amendment and adoption of new criteria for the Energy Conservation Act in 2013 as a short term initiative and the formulation of a Net Zero Energy Building (ZEB) vision as a medium and long term initiative have been included within the “Schedule for Promotion of Housing and Methods of Living for a Low Carbon Society” adopted by the government. As there is an even greater need for energy conservation and lowering the peak electricity demand after the Great East Japan Earthquake, the need for electricity conservation in existing buildings, which has not been positively implemented very much in the past, and energy conservation and converting existing buildings to ZEBs in the medium and long term is increasing. Various energy efficiency technologies were introduced into the K Building,1) which was constructed over 20 years ago, to convert it into a ZEB, and the effect was quantified in the operational stage with the aim of generalizing the technologies used.
We conducted a survey in a plywood mill in Niigata Prefecture for the purpose of environmental impact quantification. We calculated the yield and measured the energy used at the plywood mill. Then we calculated the CO2 emissions per cubic meter of plywood production. We also measured the volume of by-products from the plywood mill. After that, we calculated the carbon balance by subtracting the carbon emissions from the amount of fixed carbon. Finally, we determined the environmental impact of the plywood with LIME.
In this study, it aimed to clarify about the housing problem and the residents association in order to grasp the present condition and the measure in public rental housing by Hong Kong Housing Authority. In HKHA public rental housing, the residents association mainly working has shifted from KFA, MAC to EMAC. KFA which has worked from the 1950s to the 1960s was established by initiative of Hong Kong Colonial Government. MAC which was the arbitrary residents association formed for every blocks was established by influence of HKHA in the 1970s. by the deterioration in the security situation of high-rise building at public rental housing. From the 1990s, EMAC was established by initiative of HKHA.
This study aims to collect memories of Danchi life about the first-generation people in Senri New Town. The results are as follows; 1) We figured out the typical Danchi life in the 1960s through interviews. 2) The first-generation people took the new lifestyle regardless of whether the floor plan of the apartment fitted or not. Therefore, some troubles were occurred in the apartment. However, they dealt with their troubles and they enjoyed their Danchi life. 3) We were also able to hear variety of Danchi life episodes in the 1960s.
This article is research on the characteristics of contract and management of self-renovation by tenants in rental apartment houses. We interviewed real estate agency and building owners about a lease contract, business feasibility and condition of dwelling units. Based on hard aspects, such as planning of dwelling units, soft aspects, such as contents of contract and business feasibility, we raised desirable system of contract, space of dwelling units and succession of dwelling units for business operators who manage the self-renovation by tenants in rental apartment houses.
This paper is part of a study to analyze the relationship between nurses’ burden feeling and ward plan. For this purpose, in this paper, the relationship between nurses’ burden feeling and nursing travel distance was analyzed in 3 deferent departments’ wards that have same ward plan (double corridor type). As a consequence, correlation was not observed in the nurses’ burden feeling and nursing travel distance on same survey date. On the other hand, it was founded that there was a strong correlation of busy feeling and physical/mental burden feeling.
Since the Ministry of Education started Eco-School Pilot Model in 1997, eco-schools have increased to over 1450 in number. This study clarified the installation status of ecological equipment and the ventilation and natural lighting of classroom planning through an actual survey of seven elementary eco-schools in Tottori. The results are as follows. 1) The main eco-equipment comprises photovoltaic panels, wood interiors, balconies, top-lighting, material reuse, and biotopes. 2) Maintaining natural ventilation and lighting is important in ensuring that classrooms provide a comfortable environment. 3) Open-style classrooms with multipurpose space have issues with deep recesses, but top-lighting helps improve natural lighting.
The present report comprises a facility investigation of 11 guide dog training facilities run by 11 corporations as guide dog training facilities authorized by the National Public Safety Commission in Japan. The layout of each facility and the scale and configuration of the various rooms within are clarified based on categorization of the rooms into the kennel, joint-training, and administrative and management offices divisions, and the diversity among the facilities is discussed. Specific examples are cited to analyze the characteristics of the kennels and joint training rooms.
Harmonious care is a developing welfare system started in Toyama Prefecture in 2003. Similar centers recently spread throughout Japan and this study aims to clarify the comprehensive situation of these centers. Finding are as follows; 1) Harmonious care centers offer appropriate services for everyone, however social welfare and insurance systems lead the uneven users’ attributes. 2) Services include day care, nurture and short-stay. Some centers introduce job opportunity for handicapped. 3) 58 centers were purpose-built and 102 centers were renovated architecture which might be related with subsidies. 4) In purpose-built centers, the unity-type of space composition which is suitable for observing users is more. However, some centers have difficulty because of furniture layout.
This study aimed to clarify the management situation and space planning of cancer salons in Japan. Data were collected as follows and analyzed. 1.Data on 233 cancer salons in 25 prefectures were collected from the website of the Center for Cancer Control and Information Services. 2.Data on 88 cancer salons held by 22 prefectural and city governments were collected by a telephone-based survey. 3.Interviews and participant observation at 9 cancer salons in Shimane prefecture were conducted to clarify in detail the current communication support systems and the space planning for their provision.
This study quantitatively examines the behavior of pedestrians moving close to a person with a trolley bag or baby stroller. The data will prove useful in estimating how much extra space needs to be allowed for those with such gear, for example in a railroad station or other transport facility. The experiment was conducted on a crowded street in a Tokyo business district during the morning commute. A male assistant hired for the experiment was asked to walk in three directions with respect to pedestrian flow in four conditions for a total of 12 experimental situations. The study revealed how large evasive space is required in each situation.