In this paper, we examined the best curing condition to manufacture a ultra-high strength mortar of 300N/mm2 class. As a result of the study, the influence that the warm water curing had on the high intensity was the largest. The impact by the pressurizing curing was comparatively remarkable. The ultra-high strength mortar that exceeded 300N/mm2 was able to be made by combining the warm water curing, the heat curing, and the pressurizing curing.
The concretes containing large quantity of fly ash with constant portland cement content were produced at the ready-mixed concrete plants, and placed into full scale formworks. Their fresh and hardened properties were measured and discussed. 1.At various fly ash content per unit volume, for example 455kg/m3, the concretes which have various flowability, such as medium or high fluidity concrete, were produced easily. And they could be filled smoothly into narrow space of wall formworks with reinforcements. 2.The fly ash concretes appeared higher compressive strength from the early age and carbonation resistance than those of the concrete without fly ash.
This report is a part of series of research and the technological development done for the design of the extension of an existing, base-isolated ward in the Machida citizens hospital in Tokyo. This paper reports the practical use of the cooling method for exchanging that can be generally used as an method for exchanging of isolated rubber bearing.
A case study on various concrete recycling system in demolition of a thermal power plant was carried out from viewpoint of cost and environmental impact. In the study, one of the life cycle impact assessment method developed by Japanese national project “Life-cycle Impact assessment Method based on Endpoint modeling (LIME)” was introduced for the evaluation of effectiveness of the recycling system compared to only reusing for roadbed gravel and/or backfilling material. In this study CO2 emission, crude oil consumption, land use for waste disposal and use of natural aggregate are evaluated.
Various kinds of sheets made of PVC are used as a finishing material for building. These used PVC sheets are dumped voluminously as mixture waste. So the development of recycling system of waste PVC sheets was studied in this paper. Fundamental physical property test such as tension, elasticity, etc. and durability tests were carried out on recycled PVC specimens. The influence of waste PVC compound mixing rate on the quality of recycled PVC sheet was confirmed through those tests. Consequently recycled PVC sheet is deemed applicable to use for the waterproofing sheets.
Using one typical kind of free-access floor specimen, the behavior during seismic excitation by three-dimension input wave was compared with that by horizontal one-dimension input wave. As the conclusion, it was obtained that damage by real three-dimension seismic excitation could be estimated based on the result of the excitation test using one-dimension input wave, which was selected from two horizontal axes as the direction containing the maximum acceleration. The result of this study will be applied to establish the simple method to evaluate the seismic resistance of free-access floor, which will consist of one-dimension excitation test.
The sliding bearings are used for lightweight structures instead of the laminated rubber bearings. In many studies, the frictional coefficients of sliding bearings are assumed as less than 0.1. However, even if frictional coefficient is about 0.2, it may be effective for a big earthquake (max. acceleration > 200cm/s2). In this study, the effectiveness of sliding bearings made of surface-treated steel plates is examined. The reduction effect of response is proved by shaking table test, and the frictional coefficients are identified analytically.
Authors designed the system connecting multi-story shear wall structure with short period and main structure constructed by rigid frame with long period located around it with hydraulic dampers, and applied this system to 45-story reinforced concrete building. By response analysis, we confirmed as follows, reducing response deformation of main structure by connecting these structures with viscous dampers, height distribution of maximum story shear of multi-story shear wall structure was shape like stairs increasing at stories laying dampers, energy absorbed by dampers occupied about 70% for input energy of earthquake.
Web-based animated applications have been developed for effective analysis of observed multi-point, multi-channel vibration data by use of the Flash animation technique. The applications are designed for engineers and researchers in supporting their comprehension and further analysis of observed data on the complicated vibration characteristics of ground and buildings. Web-based interface makes it possible to use the applications in the network environment without any special additional software. The applications are also effective for e-learning on vibration theory and earthquake engineering.
In this paper, the results of PS-logging conducted in Chiba city and the northwest area of Chiba prefecture are used to estimate S-wave velocity of the surface ground. This area consists of diluvial formation, alluvium and filling soil. Based on the regression analysis, expressions that give S-wave velocities of sandy soils and cohesive soils from SPT N-values and depth are proposed, as well as standard values of S-wave velocities for humic soil(peat) and Kanto loam.
A multi-belled cast-in-place concrete pile construction method has been developed in order to obtain a high level of bearing capacity with normal pile. The newly developed multi-belled pile has a shape of some bell enlargements at its axial part and consists of high strength materials such as high-strength concrete of Fc60N/mm2 at its maximum. The investigation of actual-size pile digging out after construction was carried out to measure the dimensions and concrete strength of the pile. The results indicated that this method controls high construction quality of the pile. And the case history applied to super-high-rise building foundation was also described.
This paper reports a seismic reinforce method using inorganic board for existing wood house. To evaluate structural performance shear wall tests consisting of six type details with and without opening was carried out. Shaking tests were also conducted for two story house having insufficient structural performance and two story house with developed shear wall. As the result of tests, wall strength ration of over 7.0 point in seismic diagnosis for existing wood house was calculated from shear wall tests and significant difference between two houses with and without reinforcement was observed in shaking table test.
Seismic damage of a temple of traditional wooden building due to the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake was investigated. Some additional survey on surface soil layers and buildings were also done. As a result, soft reclaimed soil under Hatto, one of the largest temple building in the site, was shown to be one of the dominant reason for the building damage. The Hatto building and its surrounding ground were investigated in detail by microtremor and seismic response observations. Dynamic characteristics of the buildings and ground were shown.
In this paper, we proposed an unique wooden residential house which contains a lot of new structural proposals such as small prefabricated mud shear walls, beam-column frame system in which one direction is composed of built-up beam made of Sugi thick boards while the other direction is composed of traditional insert type Hijiki joint using conventional Sugi girder, improved timber board shear wall system and rigid floor system assembled with thick Sugi plywood and so on. By constructing a real wooden house, possibilities of our structural proposals were examined.
New seismic suppression system has been developed. In this system, the structural elements absorbing seismic energy are provided completely apart from the parts supporting vertical load. Steel dampers and oil dampers are incorporated as the seismic response control devices. In case of earthquake, these energy dissipation devices act effectively and absorb seismic energy. As a result, high seismic performance can be obtained and a new architectural frame can be realized as well. This paper describes the outline of this new system and the application to an office building and this structural design.
This study aims to develop a truss system by precast concrete members using Ultra High Strength Fiber Reinforced Concrete, UFC, which shows ductile behavior and high durability. A pyramid shaped truss with prestressed truss members were designed, and a constructional experiment was carried out. The result of cyclic loading test on the pyramid shaped truss demonstrated that this structure could be applied to an actual double layer space truss structure. Finally, the failure process of the structure was described in this paper.
As seismic retrofit for Aichi prefectural office building, base isolation retrofit method was recognized by Aichi prefectural assembly and we started further study for basic design. We had to budget the seismic retrofit cost for coming year and we investigated important matters for cost such as building foundation level, necessary volumes of soil improving and so on. And we had to decide seismic criterion of retrofit building. We had to study about tender method in addition. This report is summary of basic design.
This study relates to examination technology of a structure check. Since a structure check camouflage case in 2005, a building administration system was argued, and the building-code was amended. In this paper, examination technology was systematized and developed. This examination technology with check lists and calculation tools realizes detection of a camouflaged structure check. And it corresponds to rigid examination by Japanese amended building-code.
This study indicates the influence of the prying action on Web bolted moment joints of aluminum alloy beams and splice plates. In this joints, the gap can be rather narrow between the beam flange and the splice plate side edge because of aluminum extrusion. Web bolted moment joint can transmit the bending moment by bearing of the bolts and the prying action between the beam flange and the splice plate side edge. The bending moment of prying action is neglected usually. In this paper, it is clarified experimentally and analytically that the bending strength ratio of prying action reaches to 60%-90% for the maximum bending strength. After each experiment, the phenomenon of tensile or punching shear fracture has been observed at web or flange portion of beam in a specimen.
To improve disaster prevention performance of wooden densely inhabited district without large-scale urban development, authors are researching and developing The simultaneous seismic & fire-resistive reinforcement. Effectiveness of the reinforcement for the reduction of post-earthquake urban fire hazard is studied using the building data from a historic still crowded “bed town” near Tokyo through the BRI urban fire simulator. From the analysis in consideration of past research1), it was found that the reinforcement has the possibility of efficiently reducing danger of post-earthquake urban fire hazard.
The solar-optical properties of the adhesive films for glazings are measured according to JIS (Japan Industrial Standard) method to clarify the spectral characteristics of them. The measured samples are classified by cluster analysis and the spectral characteristics of clusters are discussed. In addition, the performances of adhesive films for glazings are compared with those of various glazing to find the practical utilization of the adhesive films for glazings.
Thermal insulations of detached houses are much more important in the 21st century, in which the world focuses are paid on the global warming issues. Performances of thermal insulations are evaluated using the Q-value (heat loss coefficients) on desks. However actual performances of thermal insulations are not realized only by insulation thickness, but are also affected by the air tightness of the building envelopes and by the insulation methods. This paper describes a practical field measurement method of the Q-value, developed by the authors, and shows example data obtained in existent detached houses using the developed measurement method.
To achieve the Kyoto Protocol target, the concept of are-wide energy utilization system is proposed. The key items of which are; 1) Electric and thermal load levelling by block-scale load aggregation 2) Installation of decentralized combined heat and power (DCHP) system 3) Installation of private electric wire and thermal interchange pipelines in the block Total energy performance are expected to be remarkably improved along with contributing BLCP within the block. Case studies being conducted to some existing blocks in Tokyo are also introduced.
It is important to recover the function of the building facilities immediately after the earthquake hits from the point of view of business continuity. This paper proposed a practical prediction method for the recovery curves of the building facilities. The method takes damage correlation of equipment into account, which depends on the floor response of buildings, and a numerical technique based on the theorem of total probability was employed. A recovery curve of the plumbing system of the high rise building in Tokyo due to a scenario earthquake was evaluated for applicability.
In order to measure indoor discharge air-flow rate of air conditioners continuously in-situ by measuring rotation frequency of the indoor unit fan, a rotation frequency meter was developed. And then, we measured indoor discharge air-flow rate of an air conditioner in a test chamber by the method defined by JIS with measuring the rotation frequency, obtained the relationship between the indoor discharge air-flow rate and the rotation frequency, and clarified the influence of the operation modes (heating or cooling) and the indoor discharge air-flow direction on the air-flow rate.
In order to calculate cooling or heating capacity of air conditioner, airflow rate and difference of enthalpy between supply and exhaust airflow are required. However, there is no adequate technique to measure airflow rate of air conditioner. Therefore, in this paper, 3 field measuring techniques for supply airflow of air-conditioner are validated in an experimental house.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the actual conditions of energy consumptions in Jin Mao Tower (JM), a commercial building in the centre of Shanghai. The data which is shown in this paper is measured continuously from Jan. 2004 to Nov. 2007. The main conclusions obtained from this paper are as follows: 1. Energy consumption of hotel in JM are most significantly. 2. Compare to the enegy consumption estimates of another cities, power consumption is extremely higher. On contrast, heating, cooling and hot water consumptions are almost as same as the relative data.
We did the survey of the questionnaire of the lifestyle realities of the single-person household. Through the result, we have devised a lifestyle model of the household. This model is composed by the use frequency of home electric appliances and the daily action style. This model will become an effective model for the energy conservation adoption in thinking about the diversification of the home form in the future.
Habitat '67 is an experimental housing complex built as a thematic pavilion of Montreal Expo in 1967. This case study, based on the on-site survey, traced the transition of the management style of its living environment after the housing privatization in 1986, and pointed out that the original architects and the general manager have played substantial roles in coordinating spatial modifications by each residents with keeping its architectural features.
The designer's own research on Yokosuka comprehensive-curriculum high school was conducted in order to find out how their initial concept was enforced. Specifically, studies on how Houses and subjects oriented clusters are used, how curriculum research materials are collected, the entire-school-all day observational study including school hours and extra-curriculum life-style as well as an inquiry on students was also conducted.
This is a study on residents' behavior focused on “interpersonal distances, directions of their gaze and objects in their sight” in group-living homes. The observational investigations at four facilities are carried out and it is found that the furniture settings in which residents can keep 0.6m to 1.0m face-to-face separation encourage conversations. Therefore preparing various environment settings is important because the comfortable interpersonal distances for conversation, dinner, work and other activities have different preferred separations. From the results of the field study, improvements in investigation method for future detail study have been proposed in this paper.
In Yanbian Korean autonomous region in China where 850,000 Korean lives, Korea and Chinese culture are mixed. Generally in a farmhouse growing rice roof over with straw, but with mugwort in some riverside areas. Even though, there is a difference in a structure of the thatched roof depending on a race, it is seen blended structure by an interaction in ethnic groups. There are compromised elements in maintenance and construction, even mutual aid, the time and technique are different by ethnic groups and materials though. This study aims to make clarify the characteristic of structure for the thatched roof in the Yanji area and document the technology of the maintenance.
This study evaluates the comfort for the parent and its child to stay in an industrialized house designed by the concept to take the most advantage of the natural wind flow and natural daylight. The authors suggest the differences of the attitude to find out the most comfortable space among the examinees.
In Tsushima Island, characteristic wooden Folk houses are distributed. They are constructed with pillars shaped rectangle section. The detail of the structure is investigated on this report. As a result it was realized that componentry of Daidokoro is different from other rooms. Design characteristics are changed by placement and the size of the Hirabashira. Structurally, Hirabashira is used as a bearing wall. And the building becomes strong because of big timbers are put together rigidly.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze in chronological order how condominiums investment type be constructed and spread in the central area of Kyoto city, and arranged the building situation, and research the situation according to the management type of them. The following have been obtained from the survey: Condominiums investment type be constructed a lot for a bubble period of the latter half of 1980's, of the thing which decreased once, in late years it being built constantly. More than 10% of condominiums sold in Kyoto city are investment type. About 70% of condominiums investment type are distributed over the business district, they concentrated Tanoji-district and the outskirts district, along a highway. The type of total management support held about 80% of the whole, the type of owner voluntary management was 20%. About 20% of condominiums investment type changed “Weekly and monthly mansion”.
Concurrent with the changes of social situation, for example the aging society and diversity of peoples' life style, the composition and function of Neighborhood Shopping Center is changing year after year. This paper reports the yearly transition and present situation of Neighborhood Shopping Center in Tama-Newtown. And, results of the Attitude Survey to proprietors and neighborhood residents were examined.
The aim of this paper is to survey the environment of narrow pedestrian space besides a highway in the primary school district. The results of the survey are summarized follows: 1) Over 98% pedestrian feel extremely narrow sidewalk. 2) The severe car fumes give students unpleasant feeling. 3) NO2 concentrations of the sidewalk exceed the upper limit of Japan's Environmental Quality Standards on 90% of the measurement days. 4) More women and children use the sidewalk than men. 5) The primary school students are interested in their tiny, but varied scenes in the sidewalk.
It is said the Mid Niigata Prefecture Earthquake caused extensive damage to hilly and mountainous areas and broke traditional houses in 2004. However traditional houses are needed to investigate possibility to repair before their broken. In such circumstances, specialists have knowledge and techniquees about repairs worked, so victims choosed repairs for their housing reconstruction at Mushigame. Based on surveys, it find that broken houses can be repaired even if they have total collapse judgement and specialists work as a coodinator so they induce to repair with regional carpenters so on. From now on, we need to have some information about specialists.
This paper examines how quality of life has improved in Denmark after an introduction of new public transportation system. The system was adopted through local reform policy implemented in January, 2007, which regionalized local governments for improved public services and administrative efficiency. The reform reduced 14 counties (Amt) into 5 regions (Region) and 271 cities (Kommune), into 98. Each 5 region established a new public transportation company and plans regional bus services. Moreover, they have started “complementary transportation services” in cooperation with local taxi companies for everyone, especially for residents in rural areas.
This study investigated the system of the factory closedown in France. There are three procedures in the factory closedown. That, dismissed person with the enterprise concludes a social plan. And, the region in which factory closedown influences it concludes the revitalization plan with the enterprise. The enterprise bears cost necessary for these plans. The result of the survey is brought together as follows. (1)The procedure of the factory closedown is clear. (2)Information is shared and disclosed. (3)The influence of the factory closedown is investigated, and forecast. (4)The enterprise supports the reinvigoration to the region.
This paper shows the importance of planning and management in the process of community based planning. As a successful example of the planning and management, the case of SUNAGAWA City in Hokkaido is reviewed in this study. After analyzing this case, four points became essential condition: 1)tying between project of Community Renovation Grants and planning of community design, 2)be connected with physical planning and management program, 3)relationship between civic organization, public authority and third-party, 4)interactive discussion between these three organization need to make newly proposal of community design.
Specialty contractors' survey has been carried out and the reinforcing bar subcontractor A's curriculum vitae has been obtained. Statistical analysis of 650 contracts information for the past ten years is conducted. Although subcontractor A is comparatively big, and so the analysis results can not be generalized, many interesting points are made out. The authors have tried to examine such analysis as following: the major client's features, the time series transition of unit prices, the merit of quantity in dealings, the seasonal fluctuation of work load, etc.
Recently, our action against global environmental concerns including global warming is high priority issue. Then an energy saving, effective use of the resource, the reduction in the construction waste and the reuse of the material are important problems in the architectural production field. In a word, it is necessary to review the architectural production method. The authors are researching the timber house rebuilding system that uses the used structural members again. This rebuilding system dose not apply the steel joint to raise the reuse rate of wood members. To facilitate the construction work, the demolition work and rebuilding of the timber house, a built up system with continuous beam is adopted. The case study house was constructed to clarify the effectiveness of this system. In this paper, the outline of this rebuilding system, the results of construction, demolition experiments and re-construction are described.
Technical requirements based on the Building Standard Law (BSL) have become more complicated and difficult to understand. The author proposes how to analyze the contents of these requirements and the form to describe them in a manner easier to understand for the designers, building officials and other practitioners. The form contains items to clarify the subject of each requirement and necessary basic information for judging conformity with them. The results of the analysis of the BSL requirements for reinforced concrete structures are shown.
A temporary theater has been constructed by the villagers for the New Year Rite of Damine Kannon Temple using bamboo and Hinoki logs since the end of Edo Period. This article surveys the building construction system and construction process. Bamboo construction easily sags down as time goes by although the theater roof must be maintained in a certain height. Estimating the sagging, the villagers has devised the suspending structure by balanced Hinoki logs. The theater is really instant building as it is easily built by a several hours and dismantled soon after the rite.
This paper tries to consider the urban architecture of the Japanese colonial period seen in a small and medium-sized city in North East (East-North) area of China. The author collected a certain material and information by doing field work on the architecture of the Japanese colonial period in Yanbian Korean autonomous prefecture (old Kandao) about two months. In this paper, the architecture of the consulate general of Japan in old Kandao (in Longjing, China) is reported.
This study is to construct the GIS database on the modern architecture and industrial heritages in Kyoto city, and analyze the disappearance of the last decades. The GIS database system is effective to understand the historical environment in the city, because this database is available to search, analyze and illustrate on a map. By using the database, this report investigates the stock of cultural properties in the modernization period.
This report analyzes the conservation works for the historical reinforced buildings on the architectural magazines and studies the tendency of the change of conservation works for promotion of the conservation works for the historical buildings of Showa period construction. The result of the analysis revealed that the conservation works had changed on reaching the beginning in 1980's, the middle in 1990's and the beginning in 2000's. The change which can also be called the turning point when the conservation works are placed aggressively from the beginning in 2000's seems to happen.
The cost of conservation works of historical buildings is one of the important subjects for the conservation of historical buildings. However, excluding the cost of conservation works of heritage-building, present situation of the cost of conservation works is not enough obtained. This report analyzes the cost of conservation works for the historical buildings on the architectural magazines and studies the tendency of the cost of conservation. The result of the analysis revealed that the conservation like maintaining formed the low price range, and the aggressive renovation and the conservation like a heritage-building formed the high price range.
In the preservation of Japanese historic architectures with roof tiles almost old roof tiles were disposed because they were badly damaged. In this study we examined the new construction method to reuse the damaged old roof tiles. We reinforced the damaged ones by the polyester cross and the epoxy resin. By this construction method we were able to conserve the old roof tiles and aging landscape.