Molten slag recycled from domestic wastes can be used as a fine aggregate in concrete but not currently applied in practice. This may be attributed to the lack of example concrete structures built using the waste slag fine aggregate. In this report, a construction experiment of full-scale concrete structure built with the recycled aggregate concrete is studied. It was shown that the recycled aggregate concrete can be applied to the concrete pumping construction under the same condition as that of the normal concrete and the resulting concrete quality in the structure was satisfactory. Practical application of the waste slag fine aggregate was proven to be promising.
Collapse of reinforced masonry walls due to heavy quake followed by a big earthquake is a widely noticed problem all over the local community area. A follow-up survey for collapsed masonry walls is therefore of great importance. Such a practical survey was performed right after big earthquake that hit Miyagi-prefecture area at 26 July 2003. Through the survey, many findings for studying how to cope with the situation in existing masonry walls and gateposts were obtained. Several common situations are detailed and many defects due to construction error are disclosed.
12 types of the measuring method of water content in fresh concrete were tested in the laboratory. Result, A measurement error increases in order of water < cement paste < mortar. By the capacity method, density of aggregate is important information and by the heating drying method, absorption of aggregate is important information.
Water content in concrete is measured by 8 types method. As the result, the more water content, the more increasing the value of survey. But using little sample needs measuring several times in order to decreasing the difference between presumed value and measured value. In the field work using the sample avoiding the first 50 1 from agitate car has no problem.
In order to construct foundation beams using half precast concrete technique, authors have investigated to confirm the uniformity in the process of execution and the uniformity of structural members as finished products. The square test speciments without joint of the precast concrete forms have been manufactured by techniques of half precast concrete and in-site concrete, and its uniformity has been shown only by bending test. In this paper, bending test results and shearing test results of rectangular beams joining the part of precast concrete forms are discussed for test speciments manufactured by techniques of half precast concrete and in-site concrete. As the results of comparison, it is obtained that structural property of the test specimens with joint manufactured by technique of half precast concrete is very similar to the test specimens manufactured by in-situ concrete technique under the shearing force or the bending-shearing force. And also, it is not until reinforcing bars yield that the structural property is similar under the pure bending condition. Therefore, results of various tests of rectangular test specimens with joint using half-precast concrete technique are shown the uniformity of the half-precast concrete part and other part.
conventional application. Pre-installation of equipments such as electric boxes into the panels is exercised. Unification of quality due to prefabrication, time reduction and site labor reduction were the estimated advantages of partition panels. Due to application, reduction of 22 percentage of labor, reduction in number of workers and avoiding work repetition are mainly practiced. Besides, waste and noise reduction on site are achieved due to precut of the panels and not using compressor respectively.
A linear formula on the amount of thermal expansion for the membrane and frame, which are used for waterproofing roof made of stainless steel membrane, was theoretically developed and the accuracy of this formula has been confirmed and verified by means of computation using the finite element method. As a result, it has been verified that the calculated result of this theoretical formula duly coincides with that of computation by the finite element method. By the application of this formula as well as the finite element method, the displacement of stainless sheet, frame and clip can be estimated and the tensile force produced in the axial direction of membrane, as a form of internal stress as well as the evaluation of maximum length can easily be estimated and evaluated.
This paper describes the feasibility of recycling of aged waterproofing materials, which are an EPDM sheet-applied membrane, two kinds of PVC sheet applied membranes, a fluid-applied polyurethane membrane and a silicone-modified polyether sealant bead. We were tried to make recycled waterproofing materials through some techniques. The former four membranes could be reproduced to the same quality as the materials satisfying Japanese Industrial Standards. As for the last one, we couldn't find any recycling technique except usage as adding material at mixing. Finally, we pointed out the importance of development of the techniques for separating aged membranes from concrete substrate, and also extracting resin from fiber reinforcement type sheets.
In recent years, the contents of education/research institution are being complicated by university reform or environmental change. In this research, the management actual condition of a stock institution is grasped and the view of the strategic new facility management technique which is useful to management is proposed based on the example of an actual institution.
Specified strength of 100-80N/mm^2 high strength and highly fire resistant concrete was applied to a high-rise reinforced concrete building. Based on field experiment, mixture proportions of high strength concrete was determined. Variance of quality of fresh concrete and compressive strength of structural concrete was comfirmed to be controlled within allowable range. Properties of concrete before and after adding organic fiber for improving fire resistance showed nonsignificant level.
The pourpose of this paper is proposing the method that evaluates the risk of stone trouble for floor material. First, the water penetration speed was measured regarding floor stones of several thicknesses through four hours each. Second, I propose the method of the reappearance test that is able to reappear of stone trouble acceleratory. Finally the relations between the penetration speed and the results of the reappearance test were studied and revealed the potentiality of stone trouble.
The life span of external insulation building which is related to the speed of concrete's neutralization has connection with the air permeability of external insulation method. This study generally measures the air permeability of external insulation method, and examines the restraint effect of neutralization in external insulation method from the accelerating test of concrete's neutralization. And it described the relations between the air permeability of external insulation method and the restraint effect of neutralization. Again it is compared with the result of investigation of concrete's neutralization of insulation building and the result of accelerating test of concrete's neutralization.
The purpose of this survey is to clarify the roof snow accumulation of mid-to-high-rise buildings in heavy snowfall cold region. We investigated roof snow depth distribution of residential buildings with flat roofs in Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan. The following results were obtained. (1) The measurement showed that roof snow accumulation and plot of building placed to the wind direction were relatively high. (2) Insulation properties of roof have a great effect on the roof snow depth distribution in the early snow days. (3) In case of the short axis of building placed parallel to the wind direction during snowfall, the ratio of snow depths on the ground to that on roofs was 0.32〜0.38 at the time of maximum snow depth. In case of the long axis, the ratio of snow depths was 0.42〜0.58.
We investigated ultimate properties of rubber bearings for building. For natural rubber bearing, high damping rubber bearing and lead rubber bearing, we researched the data for ultimate properties that rubber bearing manufacturer owned. Also, experiments for ultimate properties of these rubber bearings were conducted on a large scale. From these research and experiments, we verified the presumed formulas for ultimate properties of rubber bearing that were proposed for ISO by Japan.
Generally, it is important to minimize unfavorable effects of torsional response to seismic actions in designing building structures. On the other hand, however, this requirement often hinders free architectural planning. An application of hysteretic and viscous dampers in a middle-rise building with large eccentricity is introduced in this paper. Efficiency of the dampers in reducing horizontal and rotational displacements caused by intense seismic actions is verified with time-history response analysis.
Computational morphogenesis technique is one of the newly developed computational methods for structural design, which is based upon the structural optimization methods and has recently begun to be used for structural design process of the actual buildings. In this paper, one of the actual examples of their application is reported, where the extended ESO (Extended Evolutionary Structural Optimization) method is used for the wall design of an office building. It has been found that the computational morphogenesis scheme can be effectively used for examination of the structural form especially in the beginning of the design process and the organic form of the structure generated through the usage of the computational morphogenesis scheme has not only the structural rationality but also a fresh appearance not easily acquired through the usual designing process.
A combined foundation method consists of small size steel piles and compacted gravel on the top of those piles is proposed as foundation works for residential buildings. A series of field tests are conducted to clarify the structural behavior of such foundation system, and the spring constants used in design calculation are studied. Tested parameters are the diameter of steel pile and the thickness of compacted gravel. In general,, the ultimate bearing capacity of the specimen becomes large with the increase of the diameter and the thickness. As a result, well compacted gravel with the thickness more than 50 mm realize a rational structural design, reducing the stress concentration in footing beams, and at the same time, enhancing the bearing capacity of the foundation works.
Up to now, no systematic literature on the damping performance of space structures has been available. This paper outlines the damping performance required in current seismic design and the status of vibration measurement, and represents the results of analysis on collected vibration measurement data. The analysis revealed that the friction damping due to slippage between connection bolts and structural members was found to be the major cause of the damping of space structures. Furthermore, it was found that the design of space structures needs to take into consideration that the damping ratio is not proportional to the frequency.
In this paper, we discussed the repair and the effect of decompression filling of epoxy adhesive of GLT beam-to-column drift pin joint. We applied same cyclic loading schedule to the joint before and after repair. As a result, strength and the absorption energy was the same or getting better compared with before and after repair. And after all loading programs was over, we dismantled the repaired joint. Therefore we confirmed the adhesive was able surely to be filled by the decompression technique. After the repair of this kind of epoxy, strength of joint has the possibility to go up more than it is built because three (bonding the crack, gap filling and the gluing members) were included in the effect of the repair.
In this study, bending strength of the joints and, relationship of rotation rigidity and moment of the joint were evaluated through bending-shear test of the 3 types full scale joints using large diameter bolts, and it was made clear that bending strength of the joints and, relationship of rotation rigidity and moment of the joint were able to estimated from results of rigidity and strength in simple tension tests of the joint using large diameter bolt.
Seismic retrofit of existing vulnerable buildings is important to reduce damages during earthquakes. In this paper, seismic performance index, Is, of school buildings, which were seismically evaluated and/or retrofitted by Sendai city, were analyzed and Is-index distribution for all the reinforced concrete school buildings was estimated. Improvement of seismic performance as a result of retrofit and mitigation of predicted damage ratio were presented. Moreover, retrofitting cost and expected loss were compared and validity of seismic retrofit was discussed from the point of cost effectiveness.
The present paper discusses on the mechanical behaviors of the continuous prestressed concrete hollow core slabs with connection of coupling reinforcement and joint concrete. The mechanical behavior of continuous PC hollow core slabs was investigated by shear test using the test specimen with real scale. On the basis of the test results obtained, the evaluation formula for the shear transfer capacity is proposed for structural design.
The present paper discusses on the mechanical behaviors of the continuous prestressed concrete hollow core slabs with connection of coupling reinforcement and joint concrete. The mechanical behavior of continuous PC hollow core slabs was investigated by flexural and shear test using the test specimen with real scale. From this data, it was found that the length of coupling reinforcement in the hollow core slab gave the great influence on flexural behavior and the connection capacity. And also, it was recognized that analytical results obtained from proposed design formula capacity with test data.
This is a technical report for the structural properties of capsule-shaped void slab, which has been developed and introduced to actual buildings in order to eliminate beams at slab ceiling. This void slab has two characteristics. One is high void ratio to provide one of the lightest void slab in Japan. Two is its isotropy nature which enables to design variously outlined slab. Both are verified by the isotopic round shape voids around which concrete is easily cast against their narrow gaps contributing its high void ratio.
Damage controlled building incorporating dampers has been popular in Japan, however, few numbers of low-rise buildings are applying this concept. One of the reason is such buildings have difficulty for incorporating brace or wall dampers. To solve this problem, authors have proposed elasto-plastic damper at beam ends, which can be replaced after large earthquake. In this paper, the varidity of this damper is velified using two practical building models, followed by the proposal for simplified response estimation method, which requires no time-history analysis.
The plastic deformation capacity of steel beams is regulated as restriction on the depth-thickness ratio by the Japanese building design codes. The capacity is, however, determined not only by the depth-thickness ratio but also by the collapse mode of the beams. Controlling the collapse mode improves the plastic deformation capacity of the beams. In this paper, difference in plastic deformation capacity and collapse mode is evaluated by the ratio of the shear strength to bending strength of beams and an example of rational design of steel beams is introduced.
This report describes development of a complete set of building envelope components of Kyoto-style traditional townhouse which have been recently approved as Fire Protective Construction or higher. The developed components include facade and partition walls, eaves and timber lattices for facade windows. This development will enable new building and overall renewal/restoration of traditional style townhouses in Kyoto. Discussions are offered for the improvement of fire test protocols to assess more correctly traditional load bearing building components.
The purpose of study is to clarify the plume above induction heating and gas cooking stove by measurement of the temperature distribution above cooking stove and an indoor temperature distribution. Furthermore, it aims at clarifying the difference in the plume to various room arrangement by changing the connection form of a kitchen and living room. The results are as follows, 1) With existence of the wall on the back of a cooking stove the plume above cooking stove changes. 2) When there is no wall in the cooking stove back, depending on the cooking stove to be used, the plume flows out indoors.
The thermal environment and energy consumption of 13 residential buildings (including 9 detached houses and 4 apartments), which are situated in the northern region in Japan, have been investigated since the fall of 2002. Result of this survey, In a detached houses, the largest energy consumption is 121. 6GJ/a, the least is 38.6GJ/a, and the average is 60.0GJ/a. In contrary, these values for the apartment case are 62.2GJ/a, 34.9GJ/a. and 49.73GJ/a. In compared with the average value, the consumption of detached houses is 19. 3GJ/a more than that of the apartment. In other words, the consumption in the detached houses is about 1.4 times more of the apartment.
Since the wind power generator system making use of wind flow around the building may be used effectively in an urban area, we developed such system that is assembled with a micro wind turbine of 500mm diameter and small generator. The basic performance of the element of the turbine was tested and installed at the field near a building for 13 months. The wind power generator system showed the following properties that could have high power coefficient. When the fixed directions of each micro wind turbine were optimized based on the predicted result of the wind environmental assessment at the installation site, it was confirmed that the amount of power generation for a micro wind turbine was 7% of the total wind energy on site through one year practical running.
A large chamber for measurement of VOCs emission rates from building materials and furniture was developed. The chamber system is consisted of a stainless inner chamber operated slightky above atmospheric pressure, an outer chamber, which controls temperature of the inner chamber, and an air control unit, which supplies purified air. It is able to control humidity and ventilation rate of the inner chamber. The measurement of YOCs emission rates from system kitchen units were performed using the large chamber.
Based on the measurement result of a building thermal mass storage system with air insufflations in use, a method to approximately calculate the charging/discharging rate of heat was worked out. Simulations with this method were carried out under various conditions of air insufflation, operation hour, etc., and have given approximate expressions, which can be applied to most cases to calculate the stored amount of heat. It has been found out that the discharging rate of heat at the corresponding time is almost the same, regardless of charging conditions, and it is utilized to generate a daily profile of heat load.
In this study, the houses in the northern region of Japan had been investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the ventilation rate using three different methods, via the constant concentration method, measurement of airflow at inlet/outlet and PFT method. This paper shows the relationship between the measurement results of ventilation rate via these three measurement methods. It is found that the amount of outdoor air introduced was insufficient in many houese and some ventilation systems are not operated properly. The relationship between the measurement results of ventilation rate via the three different measurement methods is clarified in this study.
The objectives of this study are to evaluate the drainage performance of the forced drainage system with a compact drainage pump, when it is installed during the conversion of office buildings for residential purposes as a replacement for the conventional gravity drainage system, and to indicate points to keep in mind when planning and designing facilities. This paper discusses the case where the forced drainage system is applied to a small five-story office building and the subsequent results.
The Purpose of this study are to grasp the impact of the forced drainage system on the drainage capacity of the drainage stack system. This paper focused on the performance evaluation of the forced drainage system of water closet and carried out the comparison with the conventional gravity drainage system in terms of the impact on the drainage capacity. As a result, the basic data with respect to the characteristics and the performance evaluation of the same drainage system were collected.
We held a workshop of Klimaatlas on 23th and 24th November 2003 in Sendai. This workshop was held for examinations of making process of the climate analysis map and the recommendation map based on climate analysis data at summer. We took up 3 areas, near the seashore, residential sections on hill and central district of Sendai city. Through three sub-committee meetings, the maps were made based on various data, for example climate analysis data (include the results of numerical analysis), land use maps, and city planning data and so on. After that, we discussed about what is urban environmental problems in Sendai. As the result, it is cleared that we must consider characteristics of regional climate when we design urban planning.
The performance of newly developed water retentive pavement was tested in field experiments. For the evaluation of water holding ability, on site estimation methods of evaporation efficiency was developed in this study. At first, convective mass transfer coefficient at experimental site was measured by evaporation rate from a filter paper test piece on the ground near pavement sample. Next, using analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer, sensitive heat flux at pavement surface was calculated using convective heat transfer coefficient. Finally, evaporation rate at pavement surface was estimated as a residual of surface heat budget.
In recent years, China has had significant development on construction sector. An enormous amount of the building, particularly residential building has been constructing. However, many of the buildings have poor insulation and poor thermal environment. Increasing of the air condition usage will cause large energy consumption and urban heat island phenomenon. In the face of these problems, China has revised the residential building energy code and standard for the energy efficiency design of building envelope and space heating for new construction and expansion of residential buildings. In this research, the authors have carried out the research to investigate the characteristics of building energy standards of the residential building in China, Efforts have also been made to promote a better understanding of the energy policy and relevant standard for architects and building designers to achieve optimal energy efficient building design, and also for assuming the building energy consumption, assessment of the thermal environment in China.
This study developed an environmental design tool by combining an outdoor thermal environment simulation with 3D-CAD system performed on personal computer. The outdoor thermal environment simulation applied in this development is able to predict surface temperature distribution of urban blocks taking the spatial form and materials into consideration. Pre- and Post-processing methods were developed considering actual design process. This development actualizes the input and output process using GUI function. The CAD models created by ordinary drawing process are automatically transformed into the mesh model for the calculation. Also the design parameters, inputted in the CAD model drawing process are converted to the parameters used in heat balance calculation. The output of surface temperature distribution is visually displayed onto CAD model.
New assessment system for buildings known as CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency) has been developed. In CASBEE, two environmental aspects i.e. environmental load (L) and quality of building performance (Q) are set as the major assessment targets. BEE (Building Environmental Efficiency) is defined as Q/L, following the concept of eco-efficiency. This assessment structure is the most unique point of CASBEE compared with existing assessment tools. With the increasing BEE value, total environmental performance of buildings is labeled as any of Class C (Poor), B-, B+, A, and S (Excellent). CASBEE is going to provide four tools according to the lifecycle of a building.
A calculation tool is developed to estimate reduction in CO_2 emission from Governmental facilities and schools constructed according to Aomori Prefectural Guideline on Environmentally friendly Architectural Design. This simplified LCA tool, that also calculates initial and lifecycle costs, is so easy to operate that user only select measures to reduce environmental loadings through planning process. CO_2 emission from governmental facilities by the year 2010 was predicted with combination of the environmental techniques used in new construction, existing buildings and renovation projects. The Aomori government increased its budget as additional cost to introduce these measures for new construction of governmental facilities
The tool which can easily estimate LCCO_2 and LCC of houses are developed in this study. CO_2 emissions from energy consumption are modeled by means of dynamic heating and cooling loads analysis. This tool includes the LCCO_2 and LCC for design, construction, re-construction, repair, renovation, maintenance and CFC gas emission by means of analysis of real houses. The tool is used for the architectural direction by Iwate Prefecture.
The Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell system is now under development for detached houses. Because the system is able to supply not only electricity but heat, it has high energy efficiency. The environmental load of the system can estimate by using the hourly schedule of electricity consumption, hot water supply and gas consumption. The model house of this study is a Japanese standard wooden house in Fukuoka. We compare the conventional system with the FC system from its consumption of energy and discharge of carbondioxide. In addition, the power generation capacity and the operating scheme of the FC have been changed to analyze their effect. As a result of this study, energy requirements of the FC system is lower than the conventional system, and carbon-dioxide emissions are also small.