In the construction of the underground station, super workable concrete was used for filling concrete into 63 steel tubular columns, in which "push up concrete" method was applied for 49 steel square tubular columns. As a result, quality of concrete changed after pushing into columns compared with that measured before pushing. Flow decreased about 10 %, amount of coarse aggegate increased 12 〜 15 %, and compressive strength decreased about 1 %. In addition we could control the filling of concrete into steel tubular columns by monitoring with a micro video camera.
In the construction of Higashi Shimizu Substation, artificial bedrock were first built using a concrete containing a high volume of fly ash. This paper describes the preliminary examination of the replacement ratio of fly ash and the quality control of fly ash concrete. As a result, fly ash concrete could prove that it was meeting a design condition and that the compressive strength dispersion showed normal distribution. It could be confirmed that fly ash concrete had enough quality, and that it is possible to control quality like ordinary concrete.
A low heat cement high-fluidity concrete was applied to the abutment test wall and bed of our research institute in order to confirm the applicability of high-strength concrete to the mass concrete constructions with a highly crowded rebars. As a result, the high-strength high-fluidity concrete using low heat cement showed good fill capability and no cracks after the hardening. It can be concluded that the application of high-strength high-fluidity concrete with low-heat cement to a mass concrete construction, whose compaction is almost impossible due to a crowded rebar arrangement, was quite satisfactory.
Seismic isolation retrofit of existing two buildings was completed first in Japan at the end of April 1997. Isolation works were done at mid-story in one building, and at the base in another building. These buildings were originally built in 1964 and have been used as the training-center of Taisei corporation. Seismic diagnosis revealed the poor seismic resistance capacity of both buildings. Seismic isolation retrofit was chosen as the best counter measure compared to scrap/build and conventional strengthening from the view point of budget, work time and unspoiled usage of buildings even under construction. The planning and work procedure are described.
Mid-story seismic isolation method was adopted to a 16 storied SRC building whose seismic resistance capacity turned out to be very poor. The building is the training center of Taisei corporation which was built in 1964. On the eighth floor, columns were cut apart to install isolators. In addition, the vertical shafts like equipment piping, elevator and staircase was slitted horizontally as well as the interior and exterior walls. In case of great earthquakes, maximum 18cm horizontal relative displacement occurs on the isolation floor. Vertical shafts and walls should follow such amount of relative displacement. In this report actual details and performances are described on each system.
This paper describes about vertical transportation of building materials using high-speed temporary elevator for highrise office building construction. Surveying and analysing of the past constructions, a new method to estimate the times of vertical transportation for building construction was proposed. Applying this method to some current constructions, it is confirmed that this method is available for practical use.
In this study, we conducted interviews with building managers as well as on-site surveys with regards to snow accumulation on the roof of membrane structures for the purpose of collecting data that may be used as a basis for appropriate evaluation of snow load on the roof of membrane structures in regions with heavy snowfall. The results showed that for a membrane structure, a V-shaped roof of membrane panels is effective for reducing snow load on the roof.
Seismic isolation retrofit of existing two building was completed at the end of April 1997. Structural design and construction of isolation system are reported in this paper. Seismic diagnosis revealed the poor seismic resistance capacity of both buildings. In order to improve seismic proformance, isolation works were done at mid-story in one building and at the base in another building. Structural planning and analysis against both isolated buildings are described. And construction method of mid-story isolation is developed.
There is an interesting analytical method of simultaneous equations with constraint conditions by BOTT-DUFFIN inverse matrix. This thesis applied BOTT-DUFFIN inverse matrix to the dynamic control analysis. In the paper the derivation of basic equations, the numerical method and some illustrative examples are presented. This method can analyze the dynamic responses and the control forces to vibrate with keeping the prescribed displacement mode by actuator arrangement in the structure. When the control force analyzed by using supposed stiffness occurred to the system which had real stiffness, the control error was examined by Montecarlo method. If the coefficient of variance of stiffness was about 10 %, it was cleared that dynamic shape control was practically possible.
To obtain seismic response characteristics of high-rise buildings with base isolation system, dynamic response analyses have been conducted using lumped mass model consisting of two masses. In this study, influence of natural period of a superstructure on reduction of lateral seismic force and seismic response drift of isolation interface was examined. As natural period of a superstructure becomes longer, reduction effect of lateral seismic force decreases. But this reduction effect is still more than 50 % for superstructures with natural periods of 3 to 4 seconds. In this case, response drifts of isolation interface are less than response drifts of low-rise or middle hieght buildings.
We measured micro-tremors of a high-rise steel building to research detailed vertical dynamic characteristics. In this paper, we make clear that there are some vertical modal shapes: axial extension mode of column, beam vibration mode, those coupled of each other, in a narrow frequency band. Furthermore, we verify our results by modeling comparisons of seismic motion results recorded in this building and eigenvalues by a 3-dimensional frame model. We conclude that it is necessary to propose a new analysis model to simulate vertical responses of buildings accurately.
The laminated rubber bearing is the most important structural member for seismic isolation system. The basic characteristics of a rubber bearing have been confirmed by the compression test, the compressive shearing test and the creep test. This paper presents the results and the analysis of the creep test for the full scaled laminated rubber bearing under 110 kg / cm^2, 150 kg / cm^2 and 200 kg / cm^2 axial stress at our laboratory. The creep test has been continued for about 2 years. From these results, the maximum creep deformation was about 0.15 - 0.6 % of total rubber thickness.
A computer program which is developed for the optimal design of reinforced concrete buildings is presented. By using this program, it is possible to design of the sections of RC frame members under constraint conditions of new seismic design in Japan. Fairly good results are obtained through calculation example which is referred from the Japanese standard for structural calculation of RC structure.
A new sounding technique, measurement-while-drilling (MWD) logging, using a rotary percussion drill has been devised for quick in-situ soil profiling work. The logging produces a continuous soil resistance index, called Np-value, calculated from the drilling energy and a conversion facto which makes the Np-value close to the SPT N-value. The conversion factor is found to be affected by difference between conditions with and without percussion. The Np-values are compared with the N-values at six sites. he results show good agreement and demonstrate the validity of MWD logging for profiling soil resistance.
Recently, even slopes are being built upon as never before. In such cases, designers need to take special measures to cope with the special conditions of slopes. However, there is no systematized database to help designers formulate such measures. Therefore, the Architectural Institute of Japan set up a working group to collect and analyze data from existing literature and summarize the latest technical information. This paper (Part 1) reports on the results of the analysis conducted by the working group and makes some proposals relating to the vertical bearing capacity of shallow foundations in and on slopes.
The surveyed building consists of a 234 m high skyscraper, which is connected to two 30m-high low-rise structures. The total area of the building is 200 m × 84 m. The high-rise part is supported by a spread foundation on the Tokyo Gravel Stratum at GL-29 m and the low-rise parts are supported by pile foundations with the lower end of the piles on the same stratum. This paper describes the results of the field measurements of the ground heave and settlement on the bearing stratum during construction period, and compares the results with the predicted ground heave and settlement.
On the basis of the investigation results of building foundations and restoration of the damaged buildings during the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, the classification of damage level is proposed, and the relationship between the damage level and inclination, settlement, restration of damaged buildings are shown.
The Tajima dome (a tentative name) is to be build in Hyogo prefecture, with 59.4 m in height and its roof is 75m long. The roof is movable roof type and consist of materials 4 fluoride ethylene resin coating glass fiber cloth, fixed roof section are gal barium fluorine steel plate. This area belongs to a heavy snowfall area, and due to Japan architecture society building load indicator/the commentary (1993), reproduction expected snow depth value becomes 2.91 m in 100 year return period. Accordingly evaluation of snow load on the roof become a big problem. From such background, This paper analyze the weather data, and the rational roof snow load estimate by new method of Tajima Dome.
After the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake on 17th January 1995, which brought about enormous damage to Hanshin area, many large span roof spaces were converted as temporary refuge spaces for numerous refugees. In this report the results of investigations, carried out by spatial structure researchers, of damage to large span roof structures of about four hundred and thirty school gymnasiums and public sports halls are summarized. Types of damage to large span roof structures are classified and distribution of damaged structures is shown. Special remarks are put on the damage to suspended non-structural elements, such as ceilings, lights and acoustic facilities.
The new type connecting system, which is called as the connection composed of metal connector and adhesive, is developed by the authors. The advantages of this system are as follows. 1. Easy control of strength, 2. Easy assembly, 3. Fire resistance, 4. Corrosion resistance, 5. Fine appearance, 6. Saving material, 7. Wide use for various kind of materials which can be drilled. The horizontal loading tests are carried out to confirm the effect of this system on strengthening of wooden frame with braces. This system is applicable to various kinds of connection in timber structures. The application examples in timber structures are presented in this paper.
In this study, based on findings and lessons from past earthquake damage, methods of reinforcement corresponding to different building plans which have openings are suggested. Several types of simple frame to which reinforcement is applied according to the suggested method are tested, and their earthquake proofing capability is examined experimentally.
The dimensioning design of the nuclear reactor building is based on the elastic analysis. But the real stress is different from the elastic situation. A rational dimensioning procedure that considered the stress redistribution due to plasticity is expected. A new approach for the dimensioning on Finite Element Method (FEM) was presented by Anderheggen and et. al in 1994. Its main idea is to impose dimensioning constraints not on the stress components by FEM, but directly on the nodal forces. This paper is about the investigation on the application of the procedure to the practical design.
This precast system consists with precast columns, precast beams and precast shear wall panels that are combined between upper and lower beams using horizontal dry joints by prestressing. This panels are separated the precast columns. In conseguence, the system provides easy exchange of damaged panels in case of earthquake. To confirm the excution of this system, various models are tested whether the connection of prestressing bars exist or not, the windows of jacking space exist or not, the frames are damaged or not. The results shows that this system can be excuted with an ordinary management, and the damaged panels can be easily exchanged for new panels by adapting to the relative story displacement. Most of prestress transfered to the precast shear panels and didn't effect to the frame at the excution of new frame and the exchange of panels.
A damage tolerant structure (DTS), which is primarily aimed to control structural damages during large earthquakes, has been developed as a new seismic-damage-controlled structure. A practical design application of DTS to a high-rise steel building in Oita city, Japan is investigated. DTS has a main frame whose allowable elastic-deformation is aimed to be larger, and also has seismic control panels using low-yield-point steel as dampers. As results of response analyses on DTS against large (level 11) earthquakes, dampers can well work to keep main frame within elastic response and also can exhibit enough energy absorbing capacity to sustain required performance even after earthquake.
This report describes a risk assessment method with an engineering method of fire-safety design for existing buildings. It is composed of an event-tree and simulation systems of burning area and smoke spread, and fire risk is evaluated with expected value of loss. Fire protection measures of existing buildings are evaluated in relation with the building regulations and those amendment. We apply the assessment method to some types of building according to the regulations, constructed in different year. Fire risk decreases in consequence of amendment of the regulations, and existing buildings is classified into 5 from the viewpoint of fire risk.
A pilot case study of a performance based fire safety design method was carried out. This method intends to give more flexibility in building design, without changing the level of safety that is implied in the current building standard law (BSL) of Japan. The comformance verification was made to each performance criteria using simple evaluation formula. In doing so, practical design would be feasible. The method was applied to a four storied multi tenant office building with atria. By applying this design method, rational and possibly economical design solutions were derived. One example is that the fire shutters around the atrium could be removed by accounting for the possibility of fire spread toward the upper floor through atrium.
In a previous work, it was shown that attaching small weights to a membrane improves the sound insulation in a low-frequency range. This mechanism can be applied to a plate under the condition that the thickness of the plate is thin. This paper is concerned with the development of a sound-insulation board using the steel plate with additional weights, and result of a preliminary examination for the confirmation of mechanism, sound-insulation examination in reverberation rooms, and an application to practical noise control are shown. It is then verified that this material is useful for noise control in a low-frequency range.
This paper shows several experimental results concerned with the utilization technology of damping materials. And the following conclusions were obtained. First, the acoustic and vibration characteristics of damping materials for building haven't been examined fully, and so the damping materials haven't come into wide use in building. Secondly, the experiment aimed at the acoustic and vibration characteristics of damping materials was able to confirm the effect of the damping materials.
Impulsive sound from aluminum sashes and interior finishing materials generated by sunshine and temperature change both inside and outside of the room in residential and office buildings has already known. However systematic research and survey with regard to the relevant noise sometimes occured from the building has not been done in official. This report mainly summerizes the results in respect of Impulsive Sound generated by thermal Performance in High-rise Residential Building obtained through artificial thermal exposed tests and natural thermal exposed tests both in site and laboratory.
On-line real-time vibration monitoring system was developed in the Higashiyama campus of Nagoya University for environmental vibration caused by construction activities and traffics. 40 sensors are installed on the buildings with vibration-sensible facilities such as high voltage electron microscope and micro-circuit manufacturing device. Vibration data observed by the sensors are quickly transferred to EWS through LAN and stocked by the relational database management system. Wave figures are immediately sent to constructors' offices by a facsimile modem. The system is also effective as the highdensity earthquake observation system for relatively concentrated area with different soil conditions.
Shielding daylight by the use of cloths and to expelling warm stagnant air at the ceiling level by buoyant convection are widely used to prevent a Glass-Covered Space (GCS) from overheat due to excessive daylight transmission in summer. In this report, some shield models and cloths for controlling the luminous and thermal environment in the GCS are discussed. To clarify the effects of shield on the thermal and luminous environment of a GCS, the distribution of luminous intensity on wall surfaces were numerically calculated by using Monte Cairo Methods. The results shows that shield cloths, especially the hanging type, are effective for controlling daylight conditions and can improve the thermal environment of a GCS.
A series of numerical simulations and model experiments were carried out to search the most effective ventilation system which could protect the working space from dusts and odors in a separated refuse disposal facility. Besides the basic ventilation system which introduces the outdoor air from the one side of the working area and exhausts the contaminated air through the opposite side of the refuse stock yard, an air curtain system and a wind-shield plate are installed on the ceiling to separate these two areas. System performance was measured with the newly built facility. The measurement proved that the system needed only additional 3 % of total flow rate to protect the working space from contamination.
During cooling operations, short-circuited flow can occur when multi-layered outdoor air-conditioning unit set up on a balcony re-absorbs its own high-temperature exhaust. In such a case, operation of the air-conditioning unit may stop as refrigerant pressure rises. In this study, with the aim of finding a method for setting up outdoor air-conditioning unit in an appropriate manner, problem points were determined by taking on-site measurements and phenomena were clarified by performing model experiments. In addition, and approximate expression for the rise in suction temperature was prepared, and on the basis of model experiments, accurate prediction by this expression was verified and the relationship between the rise in suction temperature and unit setup conditions were studied.
In this paper, newly constructed two multi-family houses are surveyed. The concentration of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) was 3,000 μg / cub. meter and 1,200 μg / cub. meter in House-T and House-H respectively. Formaldehyde concentration was 0.12 ppm and 0.07 ppm respectively. Furthermore, volatilizing rate of VOCs and formaldehyde from each part of the finishing materials are quantified.
The purpose of this study is to quantify the indoor air quality of multi-family houses and to obtain the basic data for the estimation of air quality by using the volatilizing rate of each part of the finishing material. This research aims to analyze temperature and heat distribution characteristics of supplied air in an under floor air conditioning system, and to develop a method for evaluating such processes. In this paper, we 1) present a method for calculating the temperature of supplied air within the raised floor; 2) describe a large-scale experiment that we performed, and by comparing the results of this experiment with those of calculations, demonstrate the usefulness of the above temperature calculation method; and 3) propose a simple evaluation method by clarifying the relationship between parameters like the thermal characteristics of the material used to construct the raised floor, amount of supplied air, etc., and the temperature distribution of supplied air and distribution of heat supplied inside the room.
According to the building management and sanitary law, large office buildings of which floor area exceeds 3000 m^2 are to be maintained so as to keep indoor environments with high quality. However, small buildings have been exemplified. In this study, large buildings and small buildings were investigated on air quality and thermal environment. It was then found that both thermal environment and air quality in the small buildings were necessary to be improved due mainly to insufficient ventilation.
This paper is on the development of a new model of mixed use apartment house. This model is a mixed use building of apartment house and "Residential-inn". Residential-inn is one kind of small hotel which is near by apartment house in the same site. These two types of building have strong connection, in development, construction, use of space and service, and building management. This character realizes the good effect to each type of building. And the good expectation on evaluation of the apartment house's residents and Residential-inn's business are confirmed.
The requirement for comfortable life in condominium is steadily increasing. This is largely caused by development of building equipment and change of sense of values for condominium. It is necessary to grasp general condition of condominium. But there is no published data about the present condition of condominium. The purpose of this study is to fill up basic information for planning of condominium. In this study we surveyed the tendency, equipments of present condominium, by collecting catalogues of condominium, which were sold in 1992 in Tokyo metropolitan area.
The purpose of this survey is to grasp the present condition of heaters and electrical appliances which were sold in 1994. In this study, we investigated 369 tipes of electrical appliances which were sold in 1994 by collecting catalogue. The items were sizes, necessary spaces, capacities, and consumptions of electric power, etc. And we analyzed and grasped the present conditions of 520 items. In addition, we have taken the data of air conditioners, refrigerators and washing machines every year or two since 1985, and we surveyed the changes of them.
Interviewing questionnaires to riverside residents of Mishima, governments officials and a designer of the riverscape have made clear that various projects proposed have been carried out for improvement of the river environment since 1990. These projects have produced not only favorable effects but also unfavorable ones. One of the unfavorable results is that residents' periodical river cleanings sometimes have taken away all aqua plants which are essential for aqua animals. Studies on aqua plants and animals including ecologists of different fields seem to be necessary for solution of this problem. This was one of the 5 results obtained in this study on the projects' unfavorable effects and the solutions.
In the occasion of setting up of local community facility, it is important not only to give it fashionable currently figure but also a new form emblematizing cultural resources of it's located town. We designed a monumental observatory tower considering a figure of the watch-tower of historical medieval mountain castle once built and ruined just on the site, and arch shape of stone-bridges widely distributed in this town. In addition to those consideration, we tried to realize the participation of the inhabitants in the decision process of image design.
This report deals with the "MASTER ARCHITECT" method as a means of collaboration in the design. The purpose is to make clear the profession of the "MASTER ARCHITECT" through the case study of the campus design of the University of Shiga Prefecture In this study, we set aim at the "DESIGN CORD" adopted in the designing process. We examined and analyzed the interpretation of the "DESIGN CORD" by the participating architects and also the results in their works. The analysis shows the function and the effect of the "DESIGN CORD". With the result of this report, we are able to acknowledge the professional character of the "MASTER ARCHITECT" being responsible to the variety and unity of the spacial environment.
Sorachi Area in Hokkaido, public housings rebuilt of coal mine workers houses are located outside of urban area and many houses are unoccupied. But Chikuho Area in Fukuoka prefecture, many coal mine workers houses and public housings are located inside of urban area. Authors proposed that in Sorachi Area many public housings have to be rebuilt and replaced into the urban area. In Chikuho Area, those wooden housing estates developed for coal mine workers have to be improved to public housings and developed open spaces for neighborhoods.
In this study, assessment of historical architecture scenery by evaluating historical architecture as cluster units with the adjoining buildings is presented as a new key to restoration method. Actual application of this technique is illustrated through the research work of Yamachou-suji street, Takaoka city, Toyama prefecture. By assessing the Dozouzukuri houses with its absolute and relative values, a preservation method for the historical street is proposed on its basis.
Street trees are expected to play an important role in making fine townscape in the Master Plan for Townscape in Muroran City. This study investigated street trees at 16 main arterial roads and made their characteristics clear. Natural landscape in Muroran is quite nice but townscape, especially in built-up area, is relatively poor. One row of street trees at both pedestrian ways is not so enough that combination of street trees and other elements is important. Others mean trees at roadside building sites or parks, hedge or flowers at residential zone and street furnitures or street lights at commercial zone.
The aging society is gradually coming and barrier free society are requested for everyone. The Heartful Building Act was enforced in 1994. The specified buildings are expected to be barrier free and if they satisfy desirable standards, they become "the approved buildings" by the act. On 1 April 1996, there are 130 approved buildings in all Japan and the half is occupied by retail shops. This study analyzed characteristics of the above mentioned barrier free retail shops. This study also investigated 13 large retail shops in Muroran City Planning Area and showed proposal for barrier free shopping zone.