In the ready mixed concrete producer in Okinawa Prefecture, fly ash exhausted from the thermal power plant in Okinawa Prefecture was slurried. Simulated column specimens were made by concrete using high volume fly ash slurry. And property of strength in structure was clarified. The conclusions are as follows. It was able to be confirmed the concrete using high volume fly ash slurried by 60wt% in the concentration was able to mix by an actual size mixer at ready-mixed concrete plant, and was able to make simulated column specimens by using it. Compressive strength of core concrete cylinder using fly ash content 50kg/m3 or more per unit volume of concrete after the 28th age was higher than standard curing cylinder on the 28th age.
This paper describes the results of experimental study on the estimation method and control for temperature of concrete, which is mixed and agitated in hot weather. Regarding the coefficients of equation to estimate concrete temperature, we could show an example of the actual data of ready mixed concrete. Through an actual building, we could verify that the temperature management by this equation was effective. On the other hand, the concrete cooling method which was adopted in this technical report was one of the effective methods in a ready mixed concrete factory.
RFID technology is useful for developing a rational building information traceability system. IC-tag is an important vehicle of RFID technology. Several methods of installing IC-tags on building materials and components exist. One method is to install an IC-tag inside concrete material without a screw and an adhesive. This paper describes a study on the communication performance of several types of IC-tags installed inside concrete. Communication frequency of IC-tags and readers used in the experiment were 13.56MHz, 2.45GHz and UHF band. In addition, the influence of a reinforcing bar in the concrete on communication performance of IC-tag was studied.
The cold weather concreting recommandation for practice of AIJ is utilized by many practical persons. However, about mixing plan or curing plan, estrangement from the field results data was pointed out, and so I carried out a survey for the purpose of grasping the actual situation. In addition, as for the compounding plan technique, it turned out that in Hokkaido region they had much adoption of standard curves of sixth document in the recommendation for practice. When I compared this standard curve with the field results data and the laboratory data, I pound the estrangement at early age was wide, so it is necessary to review this curve.
The top-down construction method using pre-cast concrete for basement columns is more effective in improved quality of concrete, shorter construction time and economy of labor compared with traditional top-down method, requiring no column construction under the ground floor after excavation. This paper first describes the production planning and the implementation of the top-down construction method applied to an actual high-rise building using pre-cast ultra high-strength concrete with a design strength of 100 MPa for basement columns. The paper then proceeds to report on the results of the quality control tests of the high-strength concrete.
In case that a geodesic dome is constructed using wooden panels, the frame section of each panel becomes a parallelogram. Therefore, when constructing frames, it is necessary to obtain angles of the member section and cutting angles of the edge. We attempted to determine these angles by an illustration method using Japanese stereotomy traditionally used by carpenters in Japan. We examined an alternate 2v-type geodesic dome and consequently established the correspondence between results of geometric calculations and those of the illustration method. Further, a prototype dome was built on the basis of these results.
IC-tag assisted building information recording and tracing system was developed to record the inspection information of the building structures. The system was composed of two tools. One is the tool to record and search the inspection results of the building structures and the other one is the tool to record and search the inspection results of the building materials and components installed in the buildings. The system was applied to the construction process of the newly built laboratory in the Building Research Institute. The IC-tags worked well as to give index for the information.
We developed a remote system to remove and collect dry sprayed asbestos that consisted of a remote control robot that effectively and safely removed asbestos using jets of water and mixed air. The asbestos was collected in bags that, when filled, were quickly removed by the robot. Laboratory tests confirmed that the system removed and collected asbestos with a high level of safety and efficiency. In addition, we introduced this system into the asbestos removal construction spot for the first time and demonstrated it and examined it.
This report is a part of series of research and the technological development done for the design of the extension of an existing, base-isolated ward in the Machida citizens hospital in Tokyo. This paper reports the practical use of the cooling method for exchanging that can be generally used as an method for exchanging of isolated rubber bearing.
To reuse waste concrete form plywood (hereafter, waste plywood) as core of plywood, the author investigated various properties of waste plywood. A significant positive correlation between the density and shear strength was evident in the cyclic boiling test in the case of new plywood, but the correlation was low in the case of waste plywood. The EB0 (MOE parallel to grain) of waste plywood was lower than that of new plywood, but EB90 (MOE perpendicular to grain) was equal to that of new plywood. Therefore, there was no deterioration of bending properties of waste plywood in crossband and core veneer.
This study is to assess the impact of damping models of superstructure on the seismic isolation effect of High-Rise buildings. First the setting method of damping matrix on seismic isolation structure is shown, and then based on it, relationship between earthquake responses and structural properties; natural period of superstructure, initial stiffness of Bi-linear damper and natural frequency dependence of damping ratio is analyzed by focusing on deformation and absorption energy of isolation story, shear coefficient and acceleration response.
We have been developing disaster prevention products for education and enlightenment. We developed the small 2-axis shaker, structural vibration models and room and furnitures models. This 2-axis shaker is small, lightweight and easy to carry. Structural vibration models are available in a variety of experiments, and can return from the collapse immediately. Room and furnitures models reproduce the situation of a room on earthquaking. These products are easy to experiment, and possible to reproduce the collapse of a building and a furniture.
A portable microtremor observation and analysis system has developed for on-site evaluation of dynamic properties of buildings and ground. The system can evaluate the soil period from the H/V spectrum and the building period and damping using the Random Decrement (RD) method. The software is designed with real-time data processing and easy operation using a graphical user interface (GUI). All of the system components such as sensors, a touch-panel PC, butteries and cables are packed in a carry case. The system is useful especially for easy evaluation of existing buildings with possible resonance which are important for structural design of seismic retrofit.
This study is to make a seismic design database of mid-story isolated buildings based on performance evaluation sheet of 60 buildings. From information provided by this database, following tendencies are confirmed; 1) The mean value of the 1st natural period is about 0.5 seconds longer than that of base isolation buildings. 2) The maximum deformation of the isolation story is about 6cm larger and maximum responses of the upper-structure are larger. 3) The tendency of the mass damper effect and modal coupling effect are confirmed as compared responses of the design cases and the response prediction method.
A computer program for assisting of seismic isolators layout-planning was developed. Isolator data base which include dimensional characteristics and performance such as stiffness and damping ratio, was prepared in the program. Once the design conditions, such as soil condition, characteristics of super structures, coordinates and load of columns are given, the isolators are automatically selected from the data base and the seismic response is computed by both response spectrum analysis and time-history analysis. Furthermore, the optimization of the isolator size is conducted according to genetic algorithm. In this paper, the feature of the program including genetic algorithm function was introduced.
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the influence of ground motion predicted for Uemachi Faults to the response of buildings. Time history response analysis was performed on SDOF system equivalent to 5-story to 50-story buildings. Then, we compared response of the equivalent SDOF system with that of the MDOF system. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained. 1) The seismic motion characteristic changes depending on the strong motion prediction techniques, and so does the number of building stories with especially large response. 2) Most of the response to the predicted ground motion is larger than that to the seismic design motions, but it is the same level as that to the observed motions. 3) The maximum response of the MDOF system is larger than that of the equivalent SDOF system.
The beginning of Showa era was the reconstruction period from the disaster due to Kwanto earthquake occurred on September 1 in 1923, and many geological soil surveys were performed systematically in the eastern part of Tokyo and Yokohama city. Kitazawa2)-5) studied the relation between the resulted soil condition and driven tests of timber piles, and proposed the design formula of bearing capacity of the piles. This paper reviews Kitazawa's papers from the point of view concerning sharing ratio of point resistance and skin friction of timber piles. As the conclusion obtained from the review, sharing ratio of point resistance is almost less than 30% and timber piles can be estimated to behave as a piled raft foundation.
In this paper, the piled raft foundation is supported with thin cement treated soil layer below the raft and various length of friction piles. The part of this raft has a possibility of rising to the surface by over-turning moment of the tall building during a big earthquake. The authors present the outline of designing the foundation, the comparative studies on estimated settlements and measured results, and the analysis results of the lateral resistance of the piled raft which considered the rising zone of the raft from the surface.
This paper presents the results of the static load test of three-story full-scale wooden building with SIP shear walls. SIPs consist of two outer skins and an inner core of insulating material to form a monolithic unit. Structural panels use Oriented Strand Board (OSB) for their facings. The core of a SIP is made from Expanded Polystyrene (EPS). SIPs are used in exterior share walls of the wood-framed construction. The test indicated the basic performance of the construction with SIP shear walls. In addition, the result clearly shows that the performance of shear walls in a building is higher than the performance of unit shear walls.
Recently, our action against global environmental concerns including global warming is high priority issue. Then an energy saving, effective use of the resource, the reduction in the construction waste and the reuse of the material are important problems in the architectural production field. The authors are researching the timber house rebuilding system that uses the used structural members again. The wall of an earthquake-resisting element adopts the wood siding wall and the mud wall that is composed by Kikomai, Nuki and mud. The case study house was constructed to clarify the effectiveness of this system. In this paper, the indoor thermal environment performance and the air tight performance obtained from the environmental measurement result are described.
In this report, the decision making tools for choosing seismic reinforcement method of old wooden house is proposed. The tools evaluate the aseismic performance, cost, ease of construction and visual quality. The evaluated methods of reinforcement are nine newlyproposed method and four traditional method. All newly-proposed methods get certified from the Japan Building Disaster Prevention Association and the four traditional methods contains the method using plywood with opening for more convenient works. The proposed tools can help a rational decision for both structural designers and house owners, and can promote the aseismic reinforcement of old wooden house.
In order to estimate the rotational stiffness caused by perpendicular compression at sashigamoi joints, we carried out experiments with some kinds of sashigamoi joints. The main results obtained from these experiments and analytical investigations are as follows. Under about 3/100 rad. of joint translation angle, slip displacements are caused at joints. Destructive patterns are divided into three groups based on appearing parts of destructions; first, at pillars which sections are under 120mm square, second, at tenons with pillars section of which are over 135mm, and third, at shachi-wedges which used with strong woods such as D. Fir. We estimate the rotational stiffness of sashigamoi joint oweing to experiments and analytical investigations.
The weight measurement was carried out to accurately evaluate the weight of a conventional newly built two-story wooden house. This house is a full-scale specimen for shaking table tests to be carried out by the E-defense. From direct measurements of the whole house, it was found that the actual weight of the specimen is 317.43kN, and unit area weight 2.1kN/m2. Itemization of the specimen weight is, roof tiles:16.0%, walls:25.4%, floors and ceilings:13.7%, timber:19.1% and other members:25.8%. Weights obtained based on the floor area and the Building Standard Law were different by 6.2% and 3.2% respectively, from those of the actual weight.
A new earthquake resisting wall using the “KAGOME-unit” was developed to improve the earthquake resistant performance of timber frame. The advantage of the KAGOME-unit is superior constructivity because of light-weighted, and that it is able to improve the earthquake resistant performance keeping open space because of transparent and permeable. To evaluate the earthquake resistant performance of the earthquake resisting wall which built KAGOME-unit into timber frame, horizontal cyclic static loading tests has been conducted. As a result, it could be verified that the earthquake resistant performance of the earthquake resisting wall was about that of so-called “MITSUWARI” diagonal bracing.
In order to investigate the most suitable tenon size of the mortise-tenon joint with pin, we carried out the static horizontal loading tests. The main results obtained from these tests and analytical investigations are as follows. Mortisize-tenon joint thickness of which is 45mm improves the stiffness and strength by about 50% compared with that of using tenon of 30mm thickness. The analytical model shown in Fig. 19 expresses the stiffness and bearing force after yielding point.
A head-bar is a plate-anchored bar for shear reinforcement. Head-bars have been higher resistance to earthquakes than standard shear reinforcement bars, but because head-bar has a semicircular hook, it's efficiency compared to other types of shear reinforcement bars has been questioned. In this study, a shearing experiment using base slab specimens, verified that the shear capacity of a plate-anchored shear reinforcement was nearly equal to that of a standard shear reinforcement.
To consider the damage limit state for RC buildings, the limit value of design shear force should be established to limit the residual crack width under the boundary after an earthquake. In this paper, linear multiple regression analyses were done on the relation of crack width and shear force level for test data. Obtained estimate formulas using major parameters can estimate the residual crack width well. The relationship between the shear force level normalized by the AIJ standard capacity formulas and crack width was also examined. It is founded if the shear force of a member is limited less than the damage limit state shear force capacity, the residual crack width settles for less than 0.3mm.
Experiments were carried out to examine the anchorage of column rebars for RC buildings with pilotis floor where the column depth greatly reduces. All the specimens failed in raking-out before the flexural yielding. It is important to avoid greatly reducing the column depth. When it is unavoidable to reduce the column depth; to transfer the column stresses to other members surely, note that: (1) the depth of beam over the pilotis floor should be as large as the column rebars are developable, (2) the beam bottom should be reinforced longitudinally enough.
In the most advanced manufacturing facilities, required environmental specifications are become strictly and more complex. We proposed brand-new high rigid pedestal flooring for precision device such as photolithography equipment. The foundations are adhesively-bonded with cuneal steel chips, so that a high positioning accuracy can be achieved easily. A high stiffness and a high strength of the binding site are shown. All materials employed in the foundations are free from chemical contamination, which is one of the big problems for producing defectives in the clean rooms.
The previous papers reports the characteristics of vibrations measured in a wooden house located beside rail tracks when trains passed by. A predominant frequency component of the floor vibrations was found at a frequency around 63 Hz, while the AIJ guidelines for the evaluation of habitability to building vibration covers the frequency range between 3 and 30 Hz. The Subcommittee on Measurement Technique of Environmental Vibration of AIJ, Naruse Laboratory at Aichi Institute of Technology, and Goto Laboratory at Hosei University jointly implemented an experimental study of the house vibration. This paper reports an experimental modal analysis of the floor of the house and discusses the mechanism of the vibration modes at around 63 Hz.
The thermal properties of the greening of the rooftop and walls were investigated through the comparison with non-green walls and walls covered by shade cloths in the experiment conducted using two experiment buildings with thermal thin walls. Also, the cooling load reduction effect of the green roof and walls was quantitatively evaluated. The obtained results were as followed. 1) The room temperature of the green building was lower than that of the non-green building because of the sun-shielding effect by plants. Electrical power consumption for air conditioning was also lower in the green building. With green roof and walls on the south and west sides, 40 to 45% energy was saved compared to the non-green building. 2) The coefficient of overall heat transmission of the green walls calculated with the power consumption by air conditioning was estimated 1.09 [W/m2 K].
The urban heat island is mainly caused by increase of air conditioning load with increase of surface temperature and heat radiation in the night related to large amount of absorption of insolation radiation in the daytime on the external surface. As a method of mitigation of these effects, covering building envelopes with high reflection materials is effective. In this study, on-site measurement is made for cool surfaces covered with painted layer and waterproof sheet with high reflectivity for the insolation. Calibration of reflectivity including the influence of the surroundings is performed by using standard reflecting plates with known reflectivity. Error factors in the measurement are evaluated.
In recent years, volatile organic compounds have caused chemical sensitivity by increasing indoor air pollutant concentrations. In order to solve the problem, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japanese Government established the guideline values for indoor air concentrations, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, toluene and so on. However it is not clear that accuracy of the measurement method for volatile organic compounds in indoor air is sufficient enough to judge the indoor air quality of the room to the guidelines. This study aimed at investigating precision of the analytical method using DNPH cartridge for indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. Sample cartridges of the blank, standard and indoor air were prepared. The 5 kinds of DNPH cartridges were used to analyze dispersion of the test results, and the samples for laboratory tests using HPLC were sent to 11 laboratories. Since the CV values were under 20%, the dispersion was not too large. The dispersions found in data were considered to be caused by accuracy of cartridges and analyzing performance of each laboratory. We should recognize that data for indoor concentrations by DNPH cartridge could be fairly dispersed.
We constructed the operation control system of radiant cooling and heating system by using ceiling panel for the purpose of providing indoor environment with thermal comfort. The control system, which controlled the supply temperature or the flow rate of heat supply water for radiant panel optimally, was able to maintain the constant mean radiant temperature and to improve the follow-up ability for heat load fluctuation. In this paper, we reported the results of field measurement in our demonstration room and we described the effectiveness of the system from the viewpoints of indoor thermal environment and energy efficiency ratio.
A series of experiment for building thermal mass storage system was carried out using the real-scale experiment unit which can reproduce the real condition. The experimental condition varies direction of blowing, flow rate, installation density of diffuser and flow temperature in order to clarify their characteristics of charging and discharging thermal storage into the slab. The result shows that the rate of charge to the building materials including slab is between 70% from 80%. And uniformity of supply air blowing is effective for charging to the slab.
This paper presents a numerical simulation method to predict and evaluate the thermal environment in the developed urban locations where void-brick walls with evaporative cooling effect were applied, using the 3D CAD-based simulator developed by the authors. The thermal modeling of a void-brick wall was proposed from the experimental data and calculation algorism of its surface temperature was integrated into the simulator. A case study was carried out to quantify the thermal improvement of the void-brick wall applied to a bus waiting arbor. The simulation results show that the developed simulation tool can be used as a design tool to evaluate the thermal effect of the void-brick wall on the urban built environment.
In this research, we investigated the accessibility of newly-built house in Hokkaido for the elderly. Residential accessibility for the elderly varies greatly from site to site. There is a low level of adoption of designs which take into consideration needs such as bathing, toilet use, and in-room mobility. There are almost no residences which were built to accommodate wheelchair use or assisted-living needs. For the widespread of residences accessible for the elderly, it is necessary to undertake an overall outfitting of these residences in terms of mobility and security, as well as needs arising when assisted-living care becomes a requirement.
New types of public space are produced. Many of them are remodeling of private houses and shops and are managed by residents. They are called small public space as compared with governmental or municipal facilities. This paper reports an academic-industrial collaborated experiment with prefabricated units, which is to be useful to urban design in both contextual infill and leading impact.
Examples of the composition of community facilities have increased with the high use of land and the diversification of citizen's needs. Shared space takes an important role when the facilities are compounded. Shared lobby space in each of the facilities, how to share rooms and so on have become concrete problems when they are compounded. In this research, the knowledge is investigated by turning attention to these problems and the security measures for sharing space.
The purpose of this paper is to report the survey of a long-term-care hosipital implementing extension and reconstruction for nursing care facilities. Some results show as follows: (1) Policies of transition to nursing care facilities with downsizing-care -with-private-room are decided in anticipation of institutional change in the near future. (2) By adopting steel construction, the hospital's buildings are relatively easy to extend and reconstruct. (3) One of the factors enabling the hospital to make a newly investment is favorability of the hospital's financial status.
The old-fashioned orangutan house in Sapporo Maruyama Zoo was renovated with a concept of “environmental enrichment” in 2008 spring. The concept was stretched for not only the orangutan but also visitors and a zookeeper as well. In the outside field for the orangutan, there are soils, many natural plants, and some play equipments such as ropes, beds, seat swings, and ponds. On the other hand, at the observation area for visitors, they can see the movement and the condition of the orangutan at close range through the full-height glazing. In summer solar shading strategies as Sudare and louvers can provide the cool spots for the orangutan, visitors, and a zookeeper as well.
In NIIZIMA Island, we can see characteristic stone constructions of MINKA that had been built until the 1930's. We researched 62 cases in NIIZIMA HON village, and measured 18 stone constructions. As a result, we got 13 typology of stone construction.
The Community-Based Welfare Plan is required to integrate various social welfare needs to support such as elderly people, disable people, and nursing children with in the community. The case study was conducted in a rural town of Minabe with 14000 populations. The plan was established in basis of the following three phases. Phase 1: analysis of community social welfare database Phase 2: collecting welfare needs by questionnaire method Phase 3: grasp of community social needs and the opinions by citizenparticipatory workshop The plan considered various characteristic such as the population scale, an extent of community, urban or mountain areas et all in arch district ofthe town.
Today, buildings with monotonous façade fill the city. However, many buildings which the elements constituting their façade are changed, were seen in work designed by architects. This paper aims at examining the potentiality of automated fluctuating design creation focused on architecture façades, by analysing the design trend of architectural fluctuating designs and creating fluctuating façade automatically based on the analysis.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the prediction performance and practical usability of Multi-agent pedestrian simulation system. As an example, evacuation flow of about 10000 people from large-scale assembly facilities is simulated. Major results are as follows; 1) At the seats lined up orthogonally to the aisle, farther seats from egress of aisle remains to the last. 2) At the point two pedestrians flow merges, the flow become more densely. 3) In case flow become densely, if there is extra space, pedestrians expand the walking area and decrease density to walk by maximum speed. Those features are described quite obviously as movies and a lot of perceptions are acquired which cannot be acquired by conventional evacuation calculation methods.
The shallow inland earthquake of Mw 6.3 occurred in south-southeast of Yogyakarta in Java on May 27, 2006. Residents in the rural villages around Yogyakarta had severe damages. In recent years, many natural hazards attacked Southeast Asia region, and there are many rural villages in this region. Therefore, reconstruction process should be recorded for the future reconstruction. In this study, authors actually made the village reconstruction GIS database for recording the reconstruction process in the case village (Plembutan). And authors also analyze their reconstruction process by using this database.
The main purpose of this study is to develop a “Water Budget Model” for basin regions and consider its potential application to the Ise Bay Basin Region. The model is developed based on watershed and river system and takes into account land coverage, water use and precipitation. As a result, the model could roughly explain the actual river flow and the characteristics of water budget in relation to watershed and river system. The model showed that urban coverage in urban area particularly has a great influence on water budget.
In this research, we aim to consider the relation between the land use around the campus and resident satisfaction and to obtain the suggestion for the ideal future of the university town seen from both the students and the local residents. The number of apartments for student increases and the agricultural land decreases in all districts in case study area. When the satisfaction to the residential area of the students and the local residents are compared, one is satisfied with their living conditions in a residence that is nearer from the university, but the other is not.
The following paper deals with the method of research in landscape, through the production of Community Landscape Plan and Guidebooks in Shinjuku ward. This is aimed to develop or control the urbanized area, to suit the character of each landscape unit, and to encourage grass-roots movements. The overall workflow: 1) Grasp the features in landscape 2) Abstract the landscape units 3) Determine the border of each area 4) Establish the guidelines for each area 5) Produce the guidebooks
Recently, the garbage littering problem is widely pointed. From the long term point of view provisions against littering are necessary not only in soft side but also in hard side. In this study we defined strength which littering is caused, as “Poisute Potential (=PP)” and tried to analyse the spatial distribution characteristic especially about cigarette butt. We examined the influential factor to such as crossing, shop entrance and street furniture. From this analysis, we can say that centralization and the reduction of the littering garbage should be able to be expected by proper installation of street furniture.