Although concrete clogging has been a problem in the Tokai area, blockage of the actual situation is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to reveal the actual situation of concrete clogging in Tokai area. We conducted a questionnaire survey about actual situation of concrete clogging of pumping constructors in Tokai area. As a result, this paper showed actual situation about such as pipeline and position when concrete clogging has occurred. Also, this paper elucidated that pumping constructors have recognized that quality of concrete is a problem.
Reinforcement placing of concrete buildings are becoming increasingly overcrowded or advanced in response to high earthquake resistance and high durability. Therefore, reinforcement processing and placing becomes more difficult, sometimes interpretation of reinforcement placing varies from each person. However, actual state of reinforcement placing from reinforcement contractor’s standpoint has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the actual state of reinforcement placing by the questionnaire survey targeted to reinforcement contractors. As a result, this paper showed the actual state of reinforcement placing about contract system, calculation, working drawing, construction scheme and construction method.
Load combination of wind load and thermal load is studied using wind speed and temperature data observed at eight cities. A load combination factor for the secondary load effect is affected by the ratio between the principal and the secondary load effect, the temperature at the time of construction and return period. The result of the study is compared with the result using Turkstra’s rule.
The permanent ground displacement adjacent to the seismic fault is of great interest to many earthquake and structural engineers. The thin layer method is one of the advantageous calculation methods for the dynamic Green’s function in layered soil, which can also be applied to the static problem in terms of a summation of the eigenmodes. Evaluation of ground displacement due to seismic faults requires stress component calculation, which is firstly verified. We use improved calculation method to calculate stress components using secondary elements. Finally, permanent ground displacements are verified to show the feasibility of the proposed calculation methods by comparing with rigorous solutions.
A New base-isolation system, Hybrid-Rocking Column, is proposed and described. Several prototype scaled models are manufactured and tested. Shaking table tests are carried out and the behavior of the models was observed. The results of the tests and considerations especially on the effect of friction are reported.
The purpose on this paper is search of design solutions which are excellent in workability by multi-objective optimization of base-isolated reinforced concrete building. This optimal method uses grouping of frame member to search such solutions. Comparing between the ability of searched design solutions and that of the example of execution, the proposed method found the design solutions which have better ability. These solutions had regularity in the arrangement of the member. Consequently, the effectiveness of the optimal method with grouping was demonstrated.
This report describes application and modification of the strong-motion pulse generation area (SPGA) model for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake focusing on strong ground motion simulation in the metropolitan area. Equations for Q values and geometrical spreading are modified to take into consideration far distance from seismic faults, though, resulting in overestimation of the Fourier spectra of ground motions. Finally, the rupture pattern of a SPGA off Ibaraki Prefecture is adjusted from the model by Nozu (2012), leading to better consistency with recorded motions in the metropolitan area.
In the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, a large number of school gymnasia suffered damage. One of the most typical damage observed in steel roof gymnasia supported by the RC frame is failure at the anchored connections of steel roof bearings on the RC frame. In this paper, the practical evaluation methods that we proposed in our past papers, of the reaction forces at the anchor connections, of the displacements at the roller bearings, and of the design requirements for the friction dampers, are compared with the time history analysis results.
In the Part 2, the observed failure behavior of semi-fixed bearings is graphically described and the strength for horizontal force is evaluated according to the AIJ recommendation. The damage of base mortar was very similar to that observed after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. It is found that the ultimate strength is precisely predicted following to the AIJ recommendation. However, the use of the yield strength is preferable in the strength evaluation for use of the facilities after earthquake. Since the damage of base mortar is not severe for the load level at the yield strength.
An exploratory research on a deployable geodesic sphere for a personal shelter that provides final measure to protect oneself in extreme emergencies is reported. C.Gantes has shown that it is possible to make geodesic hemispheres deployable when elastic bending deformation is allowed to the scissors members. The hemisphere has two stable states, one is in the folded configuration and the other is in the unfolded. The authors have successfully extrapolated the same approach to find the possibility of constructing a full sphere, rather than a hemisphere. The paper describes the detail of the approach, model and some numerical results.
Damage to large membrane roof during heavy snow in February 2014 was investigated. The failure of the membrane roof unintentionally avoided the most dangerous collapse of the main skeleton. The membrane roof has functioned as force-limiter. The author recognized this fact and applied this principle to virtual renovation of another gymnasium roof in the same prefecture, which has been actually collapsed by the same heavy snow.
In order to consider the simple method of seismic diagnosis of conventional Wooden House using of microtremor measurements, we investigated 28 two-storied houses. By this investigation, we proposed the formula composed of the natural frequency of microtremor measurements, and the joint reduction coefficient determined by building year. This formula reveals a correlation with the evaluation value of seismic diagnosis.
This is a paper on the plan, experiments and practices of the wooden frame for the exterior parts of the atrium [hereinafter referred to “Wooden Atrium”], which was actually adopted to the building completed in October 2013. The paper consists of three items, (1) [Plan] Background of using and structural planning of the Wooden Atrium, (2) [Experiment] Experiments conducted in the Wooden Atrium, (3) [Practice] Construction process and result of the Wooden Atrium.
A number of Japanese cedar, which ought to be used to buildings or other structures, would increase rapidly in a few years in Japan. However the stiffness and strength of the Japanese cedar’s timbers are much less than other timbers in North-America or Europe. In this paper, the construction approach to improve the weakness of the beam’s bending behavior are presented. Four 1/2-scale simply-supported beams, were tested to clarify the bending behavior and the measure to predict them. The construction approach means to use steel-reinforced lamellas made of the Japanese cedar’s timber, in tension zone and compression zone.
A moment resisting joint with lagscrewbolts shows good mechanical performance and aesthetic view due to not exposing the connectors to the outside. However, the beam and column joints rarely showed a brittle shear failure at the panel zone of the column surrounded by the lagscrewbolts. In this research, a joint system reinforced by long wood screws was confirmed to improve the strength properties and prevent from the failure at the early stage. As the results, the maximum shear strength and stiffness increased with increasing the number of the screws embedded with a comfortable space between each lagscrewbolts and edge distance.
We developed an embedded stiffener for joints of Shinkabe wooden frames. This paper describes functions, installation method of this stiffener and results of repeated loading tests. The main results of these experiments are as follows. The energy-absorbing capacity and load-bearing capacity of joints using embedded stiffeners are large compared with joints using Hagoita bolts. It is expected the embedded stiffener make Shinkabe wooden frame high-function and high-strength.
The aim of this research is to make a design method for the beam-column joints using coupled columns. This paper is mainly focused on the behavior of the joints after the yield point. Two main factors, shear resistance of dowels and embedding to beam with columns, resist to moment, but the limit state of the joints is dominated by dowels. By considering dowel’s shear resisting properties after yield point, the limit state of the joints can be predicted. The results showed good correspondences with the theory. In addition, the availability of the joint was verified by a series of experiment.
This report describes height-wise distribution of maximum interstory drift angles in super high-rise RC buildings based on earthquake response analysis models for structural design. Yielding loads in the restoring force characteristics are almost consistent for plural buildings when normalized by base shear coefficients. The height-wise distributions of interstory drift angles mainly depends on characteristics of input wave motions. As a result of the response analyses using various pulse waves and harmonic waves, the maximum interstory drift angles in low level floors occur when predominant period of input wave is longer than first natural period of the building.
The authors clarified ultimate strength and ductility of R/C beam using reinforcement couplers on the basis of test. However, arrangement of circular opening between upper and lower reinforcement couplers is demanded regarding architectural planning. This paper shows the design criteria for ultimate strength and ductility of R/C beams using reinforcement couplers with circular opening by test.
In the Great East Japan Earthquake, some buildings with the damage of non-structural walls were unable to be used continuously or demolished after the earthquake even if residual structural safety performance of those buildings was enough. In this paper, analysis for SRC building considering the modeling of non-structural wall is performed and the result of repairable evaluation is shown. Specifically, the maximum response deformation of the buildings is computed by the dynamic analysis and predicts the damage state, the validity of the prediction is shown. Furthermore, the relationship between repair time and post-earthquake functional use is discussed.
In this study, the loading test of precast concrete beam-column joints using DFRCC in joint panel is conducted to evaluate effect of preventing crack widening and structural performance of joint panel with DFRCC. The experiment factor is shear reinforcement arrangement in joint panel. The test results are compared with those of conventional concrete specimen with same reinforcement arrangement in previous experiments. From the experiment results, it can be recognized that DFRCC improves the shear performance of precast concrete beam-column joints and confinement effect of DFRCC is the same or higher than that of shear reinforcement.
In the past study, authors have conducted the fatigue performance tests of the buckling-restrained braces using high-performance type and the basic-type specimens, and discussed the fatigue performance in the large plastic-strain amplitude. In this paper, the fatigue performance tests of the buckling-restrained braces are carried out in the small-plastic strain amplitude. The linear relations from the small plastic-strain amplitude to large plastic-strain amplitudes of the buckling-restrained braces have been shown on a logarithmic scale from the test results. The fatigue performance of the buckling-restrained braces is able to be evaluated on the basis of these relations.
S-wave velocity of soil layers is needed to calculate earthquake ground responses, but the cost of observing S-wave velocity is high. Therefore, it is often estimated from various soil data such as N-value. However, the variation in the S-wave velocity measured from N-value is very large. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of this variation on the earthquake response of base isolated houses using a stochastic method. Results show that a soft ground surface leads to a larger the variation of the displacement response.
A standard loading protocol for bi-axial loading test of U-shaped steel dampers using simple orbit is proposed. Proposed loading protocol consists of an elliptical orbit with aspect ratio of 3:1 and corresponding shear deformation angle of the major axis equal to 135%. The targeted cumulative damage is set at 1/3 of the limit state of U-shaped steel dampers under bi-axial loading. The values of the cumulative damage index D2 and sway index Jf are selected based on analytical results obtained for extremely severe earthquakes.
The purpose of this research is to grasp the number and information of seismically isolated buildings (SIBs) that are expected flooded by a tsunami that is generated due to the Nankai Trough earthquake and to show the relation between the expected flooded area and SIBs. We gather information about SIBs in Japan and research the expectation of tsunami inundation in the Nankai Trough earthquake. In addition, we research the SIBs that are expected flooded by a tsunami due to this earthquake based on those results and compile these information.
This paper reports the case study of performance based fire safety design of office building with step voids. This was designed by voluntary fire safety engineers of Japan association of fire safety engineers (JAFPE) and presented at international conference of Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE). First, fundamental fire safety strategy is proposed and following performance are verified by not only usual methods but also some progressive methods; smoke control, evacuation behavior, fire spread prevention and fire-fighting strategy. Moreover, through comparison with other team’s proposal on the conference, possibility of other design approaches and development of more sophisticated verification method etc. are also discussed.
This research investigated the visual and sound environments perceived at night in 116 open-air cafés. As a result of the investigation, visual elements tended to be perceived stronger than sound elements. Although the sound elements were not perceived frequently, they were evaluated to be comfortable to the same extent with the visual elements. BGM, tableware, lights of the terrace tables, and trees tended to be felt comfortably, and the elements in connection with traffic, such as cars and pedestrian’s voices, tended to be felt uncomfortably. The open-air cafés which continued inside and outside spaces while the pedestrian’s eyes were controlled tended to provide comfortable visual and sound environments.
Landscape survey using Caption Evaluation Method was conducted in station plazas in and around Fukuoka city. The objective of the survey is grasping and organizing users’ cognition of landscape elements in station plazas in order to make landscape quality of station plazas better in the future. As a result, several positive image items and negative image items are found, as well as bipolar image items which are newly proposed.
Aiming to establish a floor impact sound prediction method for deck plate slabs in steel structure buildings, a response analysis of floor vibration by the finite element method with coupling of in-plane and bending displacement was verified. First, damping constants of the actual deck plate slabs were measured. Then, using the measured damping constants, a vibration response analysis which modeled the cross-sectional composition of deck plate slabs and steel H-beams was conducted. The analysis of the vibration response to the standard heavy impact source showed good correspondence with the measurement.
In order to identify the effect of the slat shape and optical property of Gladiation blind on reduction of electricity consumption for ambient lighting, a numerical simulation and measurements were carried out. The result showed the effect of slat shape and optical property of Gradation blind on the reduction of the electricity consumption for ambient lighting. It was also shown that the reduction of the electricity consumption for ambient lighting by gradiation blind was greater than that by a conventional blind with an automated dimmable lighting system.
This research discussed about improving a streetscape together with the street and the surrounding sites at night. Based on investigation of the existing street and interviews to residents, three goals, “pedestrians should be principal in the street”, “coordination of the whole streetscape” and “expression of the characteristics of the area”, were set up as a role of lighting environment at night. The lighting environment according to those purposes was fixed over 29 days. During the experimental period, a large number of low-intensity lights distributed in the low position of 4 m or less. The questionnaire survey to residents or pedestrians was carried out. It was confirmed that the goals set up in the beginning had been achieved.
Installing wood stoves into detached houses is becoming popular recently, and is considered to be one solution to realize low-carbon society. Nevertheless, there is few measurements done in Japan to assess indoor thermal environment by wood stoves, making the proper room size heated by one stove unclear. The paper shows the analysis on indoor thermal environment when a room is heated by a wood stove by constructing a detached house with numbers of sensors installed for detailed experiment. After confirming the validity of CFD, methodology to predict proper room size to be heated by a wood stove is introduced.
The purpose of this study is to get the height information using the ASTER GDEM, and grasp the relationship between climate change and land cover including the height information. Also, verify the usability of ASTER GDEM in urban environmental field. By including the height on land cover information, enables classification in the height direction, for example, are “forest and grassland,” “low-rise cities and high-rise city”. In climate change, shows the highest figure, about 0.06 (℃/year) at the urban classes. Also, confirmed tendency to “Hidamari effect” at the forest class.
The environmental impact and energy consumption database is used for reducing carbon dioxide effectively in commercial buildings. This study is a part of a project that aims at the development of the database for energy consumption of commercial buildings in Japan. This paper describes the correction method for the primary energy consumption reduction rate with consideration of a temperature change at a hospital from 2010 to 2013.
Information on how much daylighting can reduce the electricity used in illumination is useful for designing green buildings. In this paper, concepts of “daylight area” are reviewed considering several guidelines. Daylighting potential in an area was investigated with a metric known as Daylight Autonomy using a dynamic daylighting simulation software. In the investigated cases, the direction of windows had little influence. In addition, although a simple analysis using daylight factor and diffuse horizontal illuminance is not sufficient to simulate sequential daylighting, it may be useful to predict Daylight Autonomy under the climatic conditions in Japan.
In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey to determine the installation state of air cleaners and humidifiers in the kindergartens and nurseries in the Tokai region. The results of the survey showed that the installation of these equipment increased rapidly against a backdrop of the epidemic of pandemic influenza in 2009. As younger children and infants stayed at nurseries for long durations, the installation rate of the equipment was higher at nurseries than at kindergartens. However, open windows for ventilation were used as the principal method of preventing infection of influenza at both kindergartens and nurseries.
In this research, we investigated living style of residents, visualization facilities and energy consumption in houses which were built as leading projects by promotion program for CO2 emission reduction projects of MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism).
The aim of this study is to identify the change of the plan in public condominium for years. One has 48 condominium units built in 1966 and the other has 56 units built in 1956. Those are investigated and the present plans were drawn. And all plans were classified based on the relationship and function between each of rooms. In addition, this classification is compared each other. Then some characteristic feature has been found. These studies make clear that what is a sustainable in houses and how to live in a small condominium unit for long year. And this identification is useful to design new condominiums that live in for over 50 years.
Department of Human Settlement and Housing Development has been working on Public Rental Housing Project, Hut to Apartment Project and Low Cost Housing Project. Public Rental Housing Project had been constructed at 12 sites in Yangon. The building type of public rental housing is wooden row house and detached house, mainly RC twin staircase house. In the dwelling unit of twin staircase house, there is living room, bedroom, kitchen, shower room, toilet, storage and verandah. In all rooms, the window has been reserved. The common and public facilities by DHSHD and Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC), and the living facilities by residents and resident organizations, are established in the site. DHSHD housing office, YCDC township office and Dama Yone have been playing the central role of housing estates.
This study aims to explore the actual situation of rural-urban fringe through on-site survey of alternative greenhouses in Niigata city. The alternative greenhouses are utilized not for agricultural use but for living, entertaining use and so on. Changing of a form and use of the alternative greenhouses are influenced by pragmatic way for a resident such as self-repairing and availability of materials. As a result, the study reveals that the form of the alternative greenhouses and the surrounding environment are mutually related. Furthermore the alternative greenhouses play a key role in adjusting the resident’s demands between urban and rural area.
In cold region, houses without fence are well seen. The aim of this paper is to grasp the actual conditions and inhabitant consciousness about living outdoor space with house’s fence or not. The result of surveying in Muroran City, becomes the following. 1) Houses without fence increase. 2) There is a little difference of the actual conditions and inhabitant consciousness between houses with fence or not. 3) Houses with fence have a feature not as privacy but as ornamentation. 4) Almost residents with conditions of no fence do not have a will to set fences.
This study aims to clarify the characteristic of the actual usage of K Center, located in a super-aging housing facility outside a hospital in Shinjuku, Tokyo. K Center was modeled after Maggie’s Centres, which originated in the United Kingdom, and provides counseling support and a home-like environment to users. In this study, we conducted observational research at K Center for 16 days. We recorded the usage of the interior facilities and the behavior of users, and asked staff members about individual users’ attributes at the end of each research day. Furthermore, we conducted an interview survey with the director of K Center regarding improvement of the center.
This paper examined management and actual activity of afterschool day care services for special-needs children. Effects were verified through renovation of the environmental setting in one facility. From interview conducted with the after-school-day-care service in A wards, environment setting were lesser in quality. Observation surveys noted problems in safety and calmness of children with disability. To solve this problem, the environmental setting was modified, allowing children who would like to calm down to choose a static space. Environmental setting is effective in improving quality of support and activity in after-school day care services.
This report verifies the achievements of a refurbishment project intended to change the family private room into a multi-use common space in terms of its use and function recognition. The findings, after the refurbishment has evidenced that the common space is mainly used by patients and their families as a calm place for chatting and rehabilitating. However, there are several cases of nonuse and lack of function recognition particularly from part of the hospital staff. Consequently, the efforts to increase the function recognition are focused on promoting an active participation of the hospital staff during future refurbishment processes.
This paper aims to analyse the changes in pupil numbers and resulting school closures. From 1959 to 1968 the sharp decline in the number of children resulted in the amalgamation and reorganization of schools apace. Between 1969 and 1982 pupil numbers increased and many new schools were established. But after that pupil numbers started to decrease again. As the large scale merging of municipalities took place from 2003 to 2010, many schools shut down. We classified municipalities into 9 categories according to the fluctuation of the number of pupils and schools in them and analysed characteristics of the types.
Ogi-island in the Seto Inland Sea has a unique landscape with stone retaining walls and alleys. With depopulation and aging, the quantity of open spaces increased. As the stone wall degrades, the landscape heritage is threatened. We clarified the characteristics of the landscape by its facade and alley configuration. The study finds that the stone wall has a high heritage and aesthetic value, but is threatened by modern repairs. Three alley types were identified namely, V Alley, U Alley and L Alley.
A system that is implemented into a home robot for human chasing and walking parameters acquisition is proposed in this study. This system will be a key component of our biofied building that interfaces residents and buildings so that the building spaces can be safer, more comfortable and more convenient. The human chasing algorithm is able to estimate aging status of a resident by acquiring walking parameters while the robot is chasing the resident behind. The walking parameters include knee joint angle, stride time, stride length and walking speed.
This paper aims to analyze the transitions in pupil numbers and resulting school closures. From 1959 to 1973 the sharp decline in the number of children resulted in the amalgamation and reorganization of schools apace. Between 1974 and 1982 pupil numbers increased and a number of new schools were established. But after that pupil numbers started to decrease again. As the major merging of municipalities took place from 2000 to 2010, many schools shut down. We classified municipalities into 7 types determined by the fluctuation of the number of pupils and schools in them and analyzed characteristics of the types.
We developed Post-Occupancy Evaluation system based on the behavior monitoring logs of facility users. Using this system, we could put equal questionnaire survey into practice. Investigating habituation of and affection for facility with the same condition of user experience provides more comparable results than the conventional survey. This report explains summary and property of system, and demonstrating the system in the educational facility of new university.
In this study, we focused on the large-scale wooden public buildings in Shimane Prefecture, and researched on wood procurement and production system. As a result, the following findings were revealed. 1) For wood preparation, local governments provide the preparation period by publishing the information of building. 2) For the preparation of drawings and construction suppliers, production systems are different depending on the size and the person in charge of local government. 3) For corresponding to the demand of locally produced material, regional organizations must increase the stock of wood, and it is necessary that various timber factories work together.