Applicability of molten slag originated from domestic wastes to fine aggregate for concrete was studied. Monthly changes in quality of the molten slag were taken into account and the quality of the resulting concrete, when applied to a full-scale structure, was examined in terms of fresh and hardened properties. It was found that the quality variation of the molten slag, as a fine aggregate, was sufficiently small during 8-month inspection and was within the range of TR A 0016: 2002. A molten slag fine aggregate concrete, with a water-cement ratio of 0.45 and Air Entraining and high-range water reducing agents, showed nearly the same performances, Including pumpability, compressive strength and concrete quality in structure, as those of the normal concrete.
The recycled aggregate concrete produced by the aggregate replacing method was applied to the actual structure. This paper describes various properties of recycled coarse aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete produced by the actual concrete plant. Specifically, long-term properties of recycled aggregate concrete and normal aggregate concrete, such as strength, elasticity, and durability, was confirmed in duration of two years. As a result it is confirmed that recycled aggregate concrete has the performance equivalent to regular concrete made of normal aggregates, at in situ condition during two years.
This paper reports the results of 17-years outdoor exposure test of asphalt thermal insulated exposed membrane roofing. Tensile strength of built-up membrane, tensile strength of desaturated asphalt roofing felt, penetration and softening point of asphalt were evaluated. Tensile strength of built-up asphalt roofing and desaturated asphalt roofing felt didn't show the clear change and trend. The value of softening point increased and the value of penetration decreased with exposure time, respectively. The membrane roofing without silver painting finish presented the larger change. The difference among each layer of asphalt was small.
In order to apply recycled aggregate concrete produced by the aggregate replacing method to a real structure, the quality control method was investigated, and this paper describes various qualities of the recycled coarse aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete produced by the actual plant. Specifically, the control method of an alkali-silica-reaction and chloride content for recycled coarse aggregate, and the control method of a length change and neutralization for recycled aggregate concrete were considered. Results confirmed that the demand quality of recycled aggregate concrete could be maintained according to the part to be used by the shown quality control method.
Collapse or falling of rainforced masonry walls due to heavy quake followed by a big earthquake is a widely noticed problem all over the local community area. Therefore, some task forces in local administrational organ have inspected the safety level of existing masonry walls by means of appearance examination, and established the grading of safety. Their adequacy was investigated after the big earthquake has hit. The tracing survey reached the conclusion that the established grades have certain reliability but should continue to be used with some cautiousness.
The concept of completely recyclable concrete, refererred as CRC hereafter, was introduced in the year 1994. Since then, researches have continuously been conducted for the purpose of putting it to practical usage. There are two types of CRC ; one is "Cement-Recovery Type" which turns all materials of concrete to raw materials of cement after demolishing. The other is "Aggregate-Recovery Type" -By coating the aggregate, it enables us to recycle high quality recycled aggregate after demolishing. In order for the CRC to take root as one of the basic techniques necessary for sustainable construction, it is important to verify the production process used in building an actual structure. We, therefore, produced a standard mixing of CRC based on the concrete mixing specification of AIJ. And by utilizing the standard mixing, we actually produced the CRC at a ready-mixed-concrete plant and used it in the foundation of the SPRH. As a result, we confirmed that the CRC can be put to use as same as normal concrete and that the quality of the concrete is more than sufficient for construction material in general.
The pressed bleeding test was considered as a method of evaluating filling situation inside concrete filled steel tube. The pressed bleeding test was performed for the concrete which was confirmed filling situation inside CFT mock-up models 10m in height, and the coefficient of water permeability of fresh concrete was evaluated by applying the theory of consolidation. Consequently, The coefficient of water permeability of the concrete which was inferior in filling situation, was evaluated most greatly. The pressed bleeding test could evaluate filling situation inside CFT in advance.
The purpose of this study is to clarify seismic performance of non-structural elements such as external walls, partition walls and ceilings. Firstly, literature on seismic resistant tests of many kinds of non-structural elements are reviewed. Secondly, the non-structural elements are classified into four groups based on those earthquake resistance efficiency. And representative seismic performance for each group is expressed using relationships between the classifications of damage of non-structural elements and interstory displacement angles of buildings.
Color properties of external finishing materials on the apartment house in Tama new town area were surveyed. Colorimeter was used for the measurement of material surface color and color values a^*, b^*, L^* of external finishing of various apartment house were cleared. According to the results of the survey, it was found that the major hue value is yellow-red, lightness becomes low and a* becomes high with the increase of a construction period, total number of used color increased until the 1990 period.
The characteristics of wind forces on an external sunblind and the characteristics of the vibrations are investigated through full-scale measurements in natural wind. The sunblinds are installed on the outside walls of a building. The results obtained from this study are as follows: 1. The maximum peak force coefficient is about 1.0, and acts upward on the sunblind set on the windward wall. On the sunblind on the sidewall, the maximum peak force coefficient was the same but acts downward. 2. The maximum displacement of the blind can be obtained by quasistatic assumption which used the peak wind force except for the case of the slat angle 0 degree of the windward wall. In the case of the slat angle 0 degree of the windward wall, it is necessary to take the effects of a response into account.
The purpose of this study is to understand and to predict the influence of snow sliding down from sloped roof on necessary distance from a bottom of roof to boundary line of lot in a region of heavy snowfall. Therefore it is necessary to get basic data to calculate the range within snow sliding down from slopped roof. Then we observed and measured the state of snow sliding down from sloped roof. The results tell it necessity to take care as is shown below, when calculating the range within snow sliding down from slopped roof. 1) In the case of step roofing with sheet-metal, it is important to estimate the velocity of snow sliding down with much care. 2) It is necessary to take the velocity of snow sliding down into account, then to set the coefficient of friction (=μk) to an appropriate value for calculating. According to this survy, it is advisable to set μk to a value less than 0.1.
This paper describes unique ideas and devices to accurately measure cable tension of ultra high voltage transmission line. The authors developed a manpower exciter named "YUSURU," which is characterized by light-weight, non-power, and application of bicycle mechanism. In a vibration test, the exciter was used to swing a transmission tower. A sensitive tension meter with the special specification was also employed to measure the cable tension. Based on the data obtained in the test, a numerical analysis was made into the dynamic properties of the transmission tower and line. It was revealed that the analysis result was nearly coincided with the vibration test result.
Various measurements of soil improvement for detached houses are proposed against non-equal settlement of foundations in ground settlement regions. To clarify dynamic properties of foundations on the improved soil deposits, oscillator tests for block foundations are carried out. Resonance curves and impedance functions of foundations are compared aomong different foundation types and various methods for soil improvement. The difference of dynamic properties between continuous and mat foundations is little. Effects of improvement methods on horiozntal impedances are not so remarkable, while those on rotational impedance are remarkable. The effect of soil improvement on real parts of impedance is corresponding to the effect on average settlements of foundation due to long-term loading.
A long-term dense monitoring system of seismically isolated tall building in Tokyo Institute of Technology is introduced. Recently, the number of monitoring reports of seismically isolated building is gradually increasing. In this monitoring system, the acceleration at the ground surface, 1st, 2nd, 7th, 14th, and 20th floor is recorded in detail, as well as the story drift and acceleration at the floor where the base isolators are located. Using the data, it is expected that the propriety of the current seismic design be verified.
At the September 11, 2001, New York World Trade Center Towers did not collapse immediately after the aircraft impacts, despite the localized damage. Thus, the reserve capacity to the phenomenon besides assumption was called "redundancy", and after the WTC two towers' collapse, when taking the safety of a building into consideration, it had been recognized to be important property. In order that a building structure could not collapse and be secure safety to the load beyond anticipation on its structural design like the impulsive load by a collision, explosion, etc., it is important the building structure possesses structural redundancy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the overall damage and the local damage and its structural redundancy against the aircraft impact equivalent to that in WTC for the Japanese typical 50 story high-rise steel building.
This study deals with a new database of building foundation damages due to 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake and a seismic index of building foundation based on the database. The new database is restructured by adding new factor of seismic intensity and liquefaction potential at the site, to the published database of foundation damages after the earthquake. The proposed seismic index of building foundation is calculated by simple factors and correlates to seismic damage level of building foundation.
A field study of 20m-span ice dome (17m base diameter and 6.5m height) was developed in the year 2000. The test-dome showed a high structural efficiency, so in the following winter of 2001, the experimentation was taken a step further by carrying out a field study focusing on both the construction and creep test of a 30m-span ice dome (25m base diameter and 9.2m height). Based on the findings from these studies, it can be concluded that the application of a 20〜30m-span ice dome should be feasible.
Four thatched roofing wooden houses yet remain in Minehama village of Akita prefecture. The authors investigated the woods used for those houses and examined how to use woods in construction of modern rural farm houses. The results are summarized as follows: ・To select a wood with appropriate dimensions suitable to each member out of available ones had frequently priority over the important principle that suitable wood must be used for suitable member when considering both characteristics. ・Reused woods were often utilized, and thus to build structures adjusting to reused wood dimensions took often precedence over the mechanical rationality of frames.
In this paper, the static collapse limit and the stress properties of each member on the two-story timber shear wall structure with eccentricity were discussed. A static collapse test was carried out using specimen made from traditional timber frame construction with columns and Shin-kabe walls. The dimension of the specimen was 3.64m × 5.46m in plan and two-story in height. Through this experimental testing, the following results were obtained. 1) The static collapse limit unconsidering P-Δ effect was about story drift angle 1/3rad. 2) The influence of the additional shear force Q_Δ produced by P-Δ effect becomes large in the large displacement region exceeding story drift angle l/10rad. 3) In the ultimate state, when the loading orthogonal walls are not under yielding by large torsion, the torsion of the structure becomes smaller.
The structural performance of traditional timber buildings in Vietnam have not been studied thoroughly, although there have been many studies from the viewpoint of architectural planning or architectural history. In order to investigate the structural performance of these buildings, two kinds of experiments have been carried out on a full scale frame model. The experiments ware a vertical loading test and a horizontal loading test. Material tests have been also performed on specimen of timbers prior to evaluation the results of the experiments.
In this paper, a simple column base system in steel structures is proposed and the structural performance is experimentally examined. The column base is encased by filling steel fiber reinforced cementitious composites. In the test, cantilever column specimens are employed for both the proposed system and the ordinary column base embedded in normal concrete base, and cyclic load is applied. The results show that the specimens of proposed system give relatively ductile hysteresis characteristics for the limit drift ratio of 0.01-0.02(rad) in comparison to the specimens of the ordinary column base. It is concluded that the proposed simple column base system is applicable.
A new type of steel column base system with improved soil cement has been developed. In this study, lateral loading test was carried out on two case of spacemen in order to investigate the behavior of the new steel column base. The crack pattern, strain distribution and history curves were discussed.
The two adjacent houses built by different constructions were only judged as fully-collapsed ones hit by the 2003 Miyagiken-oki Earthquake. The factors in damage of these houses were investigated through micro-tremor and forced vibration measurements. Because those houses were located on a hilly area having shallow soft deposit, the site ground motion might be amplified due to soil and topography interaction effect. The predominant frequencies of damaged houses were so close to those of earhtquake ground motion that the frames should be eggectively shaken. The twisting behavior of the houses enhanced by ground failures and structural destructions would accelerate the enlargement of damage.
On the occasion converting office into apartment, the authors propose to improve performance for vertical vibration by jointing to up and down floor by vertical supports equipped viscous-elastic materials, and for sound insulation of floor for heavi-weight floor impact sound by floor framing supporting sleeper with viscous-elastic materials on beam. By vibration analysis, we confirmed these methods are effective as follows, vertical maximum response displacement decreases to about 55〜75 percent, floor response acceleration decreases on all frequency of 1/3 octave band by using vertical supports, and driving and transfer impedance level increase in the frequency range of heavy-weight floor impact sound.
In a previous paper, it was shown through the eigenvalue analysis that the finite element method with coupling of the in-plane and bending displacements (called CIB-FEM) is useful for the calculation of floor impact sounds of void slabs. In a present paper, the heavy weight floor impact sound is directly calculated by the dynamical analysis of void slabs based on CIB-FEM and the characteristic function method for the sound space analysis. As the results of this study the followings are revealed. The results of analysis on the void slab agree well with the measured values. The change in the acoustic radiation efficiency considerably affects a level of the floor impact sound of void slab. The floor impact sound of the void slab is approximately determined by the weight of void. A conversion formula of void slab into the equivalent slab thickness and unit weight gives the accurate results on the calculation of the floor impact sound.
We have been trying to improve the floor impact sound insulation of heavy-weight impact source of half PCa rectangular void slabs by making voids in the slabs to lighten the weight of slabs in spite of increasing the thickness of the slabs. However due to the resonance phenomenon of the thin concrete plates of the upper and lower parts of the voids, the rise of sound pressure at 1000Hz was recognized especially in light impact sound level, and in order to control the rise, we have made many experiments using small models of void slabs. This time we produced four types' slabs of life size models including standard rectangular voids and made experiments to confirm the effect, installing the voids to the existing floor of the collective housing. The best result was recognized in the case that the improved voids were shocked on the bare concrete and vinyl sheet finishing by the light impact source, but we could not get clear differences in the case of sound proof floorings or dry processed double floor finishing.
Presently the room sizes of the houses using the 280mm thick Half Pre-cast Concrete void slab tend to be larger than the illustrated floor space of the Evaluation Standards notified by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure & Transport. This is the report on field measurement of the heavy floor impact sound insulation and its analysis in such rooms as a result, the heavy floor impact sound level tends to increase the level as the area of the sound receiving room becomes larger in the case of the floor supported by one side or parallel two sides.
In the building of 'Hokkaido northern regional building research institute', daylight is used for indoor lighting positively. In the winter, so much daylight reflected on snow come into the room. The rolling screens are closed in the case of the vertical illuminance out of window is over 100001x, and the artificial lights are switched on in the case of it is under 200001x, gradually by human. More than half of daytime, illuminance on main desks is over 10001x. Electric power consumption for lighting is very small in this building.
A numerical calculation model of ALBEDO being applicable for real complex urban surfaces was developed, which is derived from 3-dimensional calculation. The model takes into account the building height distribution, as well as the effects of multiple reflections, shading within an urban canopy and arbitrarily changing solar position. In addition to that, being based on this numerical model, a set of application tools was developed in a GUI environment that serves a more comprehensive and intuitive framework for application users. These advenced tools are separated into 2 parts; the Albedo Calculator version 0.11 and the Albedo Viewer Web-application. The former deals with a user's demands for a particular input condition, in short a detailed calculation, whereas the latter responds very quickly if the user wants to use an input condition that is contained in the database.
A thick concrete wall for solar radiation heating in a building with attached greenhouse and outside insulated enclosure was studied. It was shown through a long-term study that heat flowed from the wall surface to the room in winter. The room temperature was controlled because of 2 reasons. Firstly, it was becasuse of the external thermal insulation of building enclosure. Secondly, it was bacause of the thick concrete wall and the greenhouse. The thermal environment of the room was evaluated by measuring distribution of the thermal radiant temperature.
The purpose of this survey is to look into the actual conditions of the residential indoor air quality in urban areas in China. In this survey, the concentrations of about 16 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and 2 carbonyl compounds were measured at 75 residences in 7 cities of China, which were Urumuchi, Harbin, Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Chongqing, and Kunming. In this paper, the measurement result of 6 VOCs and 2 carbonyl compounds' concentrations were summarized. It was found that the average concentrations of benzene, toluene, and formaldehyde were relatively high.
We developed a new measurement method for formaldehyde emission and examined its accuracy and measurement procedure. In this paper, results of the experimental examinations are described. Through the experiments, we have found that this method will be applicable as a new, simple and quick method for formaldehyde emission measurement. Major results obtained from the experiments are as follows; 1. Environmental factors, for example, temperature, humidity and other VOC levels affect the measurement results very little. 2. The necessary time required for the measurement is rather short, within 45 minutes, and is therefore considered easier in use during site measurement. 3. As the measurement procedures are very simple, this method can be used by a person without professional experience and expertise.
In order to clarify IAQ problem of detached houses located in cold climatic region, particularly well-insulated airtight houses, measurements were conducted in the winter since 2001. The formaldehyde concentrations in most houses were found to be lower than 100μg/m^3, but the TVOC concentrations in most houses including a conventional house that has low insulation and airtightness without mechanical ventilation system were higher than 400μg/m^3. Materials used in daily life as well as building materials might lead to emission of VOCs. It was suggested IAQ problem in cold climatic region would be serious in not only well-insulated houses but also ordinary houses.
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport provides "Ventilation for 30 minutes" and "Seal up for 5 hours or more" before it begins to sample the air. However, a simpler procedure is hoped for on the business. Then, we showed the following three kinds of simplification method. 1. shortening or omission of "Ventilation for 30 minutes" 2. Change in passive sampler installation time 3. Conversion of concentration measured at shortened sealing up time Afterwards, we confirmed the effectiveness of these methods with measurement of the contaminant concentration in the room under sealing up.
Decrease of environment loads for protection of the global environment is our immediate task. In this report, author proposed the simplified evaluation method for thermal design of building envelopes at building planning stage. Moreover, as an applying example of the method, this paper described essential difference of thermal design at Tokyo and central Europe.
The subject of this study is passive ventilation system, for apartment house, supplying fresh air to rooms via the outside-insulated staircase equipped with a heater and a space over the ceiling. The result of the measurements of the properties of airflow and thermal environment shows that fresh air heated enough to be comfortable was supplied stably to residential room in winter. By numerical simulation, heating energy of this system is estimated 10% of supplying fresh air directly.
A new floor heating system that the most part of the circulation pipe was substituted with a midair pipe made of copper was developed. The advantage of this system is 1) shortening of the construction period, 2) shortening of the pipe diameter and 3) the reduction of the load which hangs on boiler. Firstly, to examine the heating performance and the operation optimum condition, the comparison of the radiation performance was done by using the flux for parameter. Secondly, the comparison of heating performance of standard circulation-type system and the new system was done. As the results, about the flux, it found that 2.5 l/min was effective in case of this system and it became clear that the heating performance of new system was equal to the standard system which is in the market.
In order to evaluate the effects of mitigating urban heat island by light and thin type rooftop greening system which could be applied in existent buildings, basic experiment about thermal characteristics of greening system were carried out. The results of heat balance analysis show the latent heat consumption of evapotranspiration at greening system to prevent increase sensible heat. But mitigating effects by greening system were varied in kind of plants, water condition and so on. Using evaporation efficiency as an index of evaporation ability, it is able to evaluate the difference of the effects by plants and water condition.
In this research, the characteristic of air temperature distribution in summer was considered based on air temperature data observed for three years in Osaka city. Although the average air temperature had transition, the relationship between every observation points was same for three years. The influence of the sea breeze is dominant to daytime air temperature, from around 10:00 when the sea berrze begins to blow to around 19:00 when the sea breeze becomes weaker. The influence of the land use around the observation points is dominant to nighttime air temperature. High correlation between the ratio of natural covering (green, bare, water surface) and nighttime air temperature was accepted.
This paper digests outcomes of the Working Group on Humanizing that was organized in 2002 in All The descents of related disciplines were traced, and definition and background of 'humanizing' were discussed in the group. And a draft of "Four principles for humanizing the built environment" were made. Related techniques and methods were gathered and listed through some case studies.
In this study, the assessment results of a high performance building by four environmental assessment methods: BREEAM, LEED, GBTool and CASBEE are compared to understand the similarities and the differences of the assessment methods. In addition, to compare the assessment results in detail, three high performance buildings and a low performance building are assessed by four environmental assessment methods. Thereby, this study specifies the similarities and differences of each assessment methods.
New assessment system for buildings known as CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency) has been developed. In CASBEE, two environmental aspects i.e. environmental load (L) and quality of building performance (Q) are set as the major assessment targets. BEE (Building Environmental Efficiency) is defined as Q/L, following the concepet of eco-efficiency. This assessment structure is the most unique point of CASBEE compared with existing assessment tools. With the increasing BEE value, total environmental performance of buildings is labeled as any of Class C (Poor), B-, B+, A, and S (Excellent). This paper describes the CASBEE for existing buildings.
Authors are developing a software tool, Keity, that is an educational tool for undergraduate students to start studying architectural environment engineering smoothly, and opening it to the public through internet. This paper reports purpose to develop Keity, outline of the system, and major algorithm of program function. Currently textbook is the main educational tool, but computer software will become important tool for education as spread of computer in the school. Through developing Keity, we aim at proof of possibility of software as educational tool.