In this experiment, the strength development in structure specimens of high-strength concrete using the blast furnace slag fine aggregate was studied. As results, it is less than specimens of standard curing that the proportion of mixing the blast-furnace slag fine aggregate influences the deterioration of strength about structure specimens. In period of curing, the temperature of concrete using blast furnace slag fine aggregate is slightly higher than concrete using sand in structure specimens. Strength correction value (S value) of the concrete using the blast furnace slag fine aggregate is smaller than the concrete using river sand in structure specimens.
In this study, a new simple method was firstly developed for measuring the thermal conductivity of concrete. Then we measured the residual compressive strength and thermal conductivity of a series of specimens after heated at different high temperature levels, which were produced with different raw materials and had different strength grades, and examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and heating temperature. Furthermore, the relationship between residual compressive strength and thermal conductivity is quantitatively discussed and modeled. Based on this model, we proposed a method for estimating the compressive strength distribution in heated concrete member.
As the result of the research of the literatures on concrete strength correction value of CFT structure, we have found as follows, 1) The result of test calculation of strength correction value Sd shows that the appropriate value for the concrete lower than Fc60N/mm2 should be 5N/mm2. 2) The result of test calculation of strength correction value Sc amounts to 7 - 12N/mm2 recommended by Association of New Urban Housing Technology (ANUHT). We have confirmed that the value of Sd, 1) above, is larger than the value of Dp, Diaphragm effect coefficient, proposed by ANUHT.
In case of use for recycled coarse aggregates produced from demolished concrete, a large volume of fine aggregate is generated. To use the fine aggregate effectively and safely, it is required to understand the leaching characteristics of Cr(VI) leached from the fine aggregate, and to execute a measurement to reduce Cr(VI) leached when the volume of Cr(VI) leached exceeds the limit of soil environmental standard.
Recently, the number of extensive repair work in high-rise building increases. Assessing the degradation state of sealant in high-rise building is usually performed by visual observation used by gondola that provides only a cursory evaluation of the product. In this report, we investigate to establish the method of evaluating the degradation state of sealant by gathering small samples. Concretely, we investigate whether assessing the degradation state of sealant is possible even by the chemical test besides the visual observation and the physical testing.
A questionnaire survey was conducted to the inspectors, aiming to confirm the situation of inspection of the bar splice. According to the answers of the questionnaires, about 50% inspectors had the experience that were not able to specify inspection. It is important that the inspection schedule should be correctly built into the construction process, for the good quality of bar splice.
We developed steel pile that installed the screw made of the casting in steel pipe. This report intended for steel pipe pile which we developed, and we performed a bending test, a torque test and a load test. In various test results, 1), 2) became clear. 1) As a result of bending test, the permission load became 222kN by a normal type, and it was it with 170kN by the large wing type. 2) As a result of load test, Ap of the calculated support power became a value to take 0.75 for a screw cross section.
In Shimonoseki, there is a building of former telephone office. It was constructed in 1914, and it was a RC rigid-frame structure, using brick wall. This is a renewal project of this building to a museum and seismic retrofit in the same time. Base on result of 2/3 scale experiment, limit criteria of combined steel shear wall and former brick wall is decided. In this report, structural design method of this building and using style of 2/3 scale test result is reported.
There are about 10 million existing non-conforming wooden houses today in Japan, and upgrading the seismic performance of such houses is essential for disaster mitigation. However, most of them remain untouched partially because the effect of upgrading is not quite clear for the owners. The owners might ask “is it necessary to upgrade to the level required by the current seismic code?” “what if the upgrading is carried out not now but a few years later?” In order to answer such questions, the authors developed a tool on a web to provide seismic risk information. The owners can compare the effect of several upgrading alternatives, and could make a reasonable decision based on their sense of values and their life stage.
To effectively control transient responses, we propose TMDs with initial displacement. The initial displacement can change the phases of beat envelope curves resulting from superposition of two vibration modes with closely spaced natural frequencies. In this paper, we describe the vibration test under impulse loading to verify the effect of the proposed system experimentally and that a model of TMD made on an experimental basis works validly. Firstly, we explain the effect of vibration control of the proposed method to the plate model on the analytical basis. Then, we explain experimental results and lastly compared experimental results and analytical results.
Although it is recognized that a tuned mass damper (TMD) is very effective in reducing wind-induced response of a structure, it is not in reducing earthquake-induced response. This is because a very large supplemental mass is required for seismic control of the structure. The authors have proposed a new seismic response control system, the tuned viscous mass damper (TVMD) that has an apparent mass amplifying mechanism to obtain a large supplemental mass effect enough to suppress earthquake-induced excitations. In this paper, the applicability and effectiveness of the TVMD to an inelastic MDOF system are illustrated by a design example.
A series of cyclic loading tests and unconfined compression tests were carried out for the foamed mixture cement soils with an air containing ratio of less than 50%. As the results, it was shown that the foamed mixture cement soil did not decrease its strength even after 80000-cyclics loading. However, the unconfined compressive strength decreases gradually and the secant modulus of elasticity decreases drastically with increasing number of dry-wet cycles. Therefore, it is important to take the decrease of secant modulus with the increase of dry-wet cycles into consideration in case of usage at the depth of the groundwater table.
We predicted and then measured the settlement behavior of a raft foundation for a 43-story R/C condominium in order to verify the accuracy of the prediction. The soil was regarded as elasticity in the analysis using the Young’s modulus evaluated from shear wave velocity strain-dependent and confined-pressure-one. The following conclusions were reached: 1) The measured maximum settlement of the foundation was 24mm, which was 80% of the prediction in disregard of the water pressure just below the foundation. 2) The accuracy of the settlement prediction improved when the confined pressure-dependent of the soil stiffness was considered in this case. 3) The prediction method is applicable to heavy buildings on raft foundations that have mean contact pressure of 0.8MN/m2.
The Tokyo sky tree is supported by the pile group foundation using under-reamed diaphragm-wall-type piles with different sizes. This report describes the outline of the foundation design, the evaluation method in design of the effect of pile group and the analytical results of FEM. The results of this study are shown as follows: (1) The pile group efficiency is 0.58, 0.49 and 0.68 - 0.73 respectively under pushing, pulling and lateral load. (2) In case of the lateral loading, the pile group efficiency changed according to the direction of the load and the position of the piles.
Two new low-cost shear walls have been developed, to effectively strengthen a conventional wooden structure without any change in the foundation of the house. The sheathed shear wall with a 330 mm height wooden beam does not require RC beam foundation. The brace shear wall has “all-threaded steel” bars and so-called “hole-down joint metal”. Furthermore, a 46-year old wooden house was retrofitted using the two newly developed walls as well as other conventional strengthening’s. It was confirmed that after strengthening, all indices are greater than 1.00 and the natural period becomes shorter.
In this paper we conducted shear-type tests with initial cracks on block-shear-specimen or not. For block-shear-specimens without initial crack, the longer the shear length is, the smaller the shear strength. It is difficult to evaluate the real shear strength based on JIS methods. For some type specimens with initial cracks, we defined maximum load as crack starting criteria and calculated energy release rate in theory. As a result, type 3 specimen named in this paper is useful for evaluate mode 2 fracture toughness.
In order to establish a method to evaluate the seismic performance of existing wooden houses by microtremor measurements, we studied the possibility of using natural frequency as an index. We could obtain a higher correlation between the natural frequency of a house calculated from the stiffness of the walls and the weight of the house, and the natural frequency from microtremor of the house, by using the stiffness acquired without applying reduction factor with joints, foundation and deterioration. The correlation was also improved greatly by using the stiffness in the microdeformation instead of that which is currently used for seismic diagnosis.
In order to achieve the reasonable and economic aseismic reinforcement for old wooden houses, it is very important to clarify the seismic performance of the quake-resistant shear walls with opening in structural plywood. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate strength and stiffness of the wooden shear walls with panel opening. Twenty three types of test specimens with various shapes of opening on the structural plywood are employed as a load-bearing tests under cyclic loads. Based on the experimental results, the paper proposes the useful evaluation sheets for an economical aseismic reinforcement.
We experimented on the shaking table of the 1/6 scale models of slip hysterisis characteristics that assumes the timber structure. And, we experimented the addition of the damper to those models. This report verified the influence that the slip characteristic, the modulus of eccentricity, the floor stiffness, and the oil damper exert on the seismic peak response displacement. As a result, the seismic peak response displacement in the influence of the modulus of eccentricity and the floor stiffness is 3.0 times as large as that in the influence of the non horizontal twist behavior. Moreover, the oil damper had a large effect of the decrease.
Cyclic loading tests of two columns and three beam-column subassemblages using currently developing cement, named Energy CO2 Minimum (ECM) cement, were carried out. Galvanized steel wire mesh was used for transverse reinforcement. The test results showed that for all specimen AIJ (Architectural Institute of Japan) criterion value of shear strength was exceeded. Test results also proved that structural elements using ECM cement and galvanized steel wire mesh for transverse reinforcement can be treated the same as using normal cement and normal reinforcement.
Short-span beams that connect core walls in super high-rise apartment buildings are subjected to high stress and deformation during a great earthquake. An attempt is now being made to use strain-hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) with great shear strength and high ductility in short-span beams. Loading tests for SHCC beams have revealed the following points. 1) SHCC beams suffer flexural failure at a shear redundancy of 1.25 or higher. 2) Critical rotation angle of member R exceeds 1/20 rad and SHCC beams provide sufficient ductility at a shear redundancy of 1.35 or higher.
In this study, pullout loading test and simple beam test is conducted to investigate bond splitting behavior of SHCC (Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites) members with small reinforcement spacing. As the results of the experiments, the brittle behavior due to bond splitting is restrained by the confinement of fibers. The experimental bond strength shows higher value than calculated strength by conventional formulas for concrete members. The bond splitting strength of SHCC can be evaluated by the thick cylinder model assuming that SHCC around the reinforcement is subjected to “plastic stage”.
In order to reduce the weight of buildings, the lightweight sandwich slab system consisting of an ALC (autoclaved lightweight aerated concrete) core adhesively bonded with steel skins was proposed. In this paper, two hour fire resistance tests under constant dead loading have been performed. Subsequently, structural behaviors on the four-point bending tests against these specimens subjected fire heating are studied. Each test results reveal that the steel/ALC sandwich slabs have fireproof qualities with almost the same level as ordinary ALC panel.
Existing outer-frame type seismic retrofitting cause problems of daylight, escape route and diminishing property values. Authors propose that outer-frame type seismic retrofitting of Visco-Elastic Damper including Axial Force Transfer Mechanism Method solve these problems. This damper system has features that can bear sustained axial force and variable axial force, and focus shear deformation on Visco-Elastic Damper. Authors confirmed performance of this damper system by biaxial loading tests, and verified the appropriateness of numerical analysis model for damper system.
The Ministry of Construction notification No.1728 was revised in 2009, which shows prescriptions on vestibule pressurization smoke control system. But the notification prescribes only the air flow velocity at the opening to attempt to prevent smoke invasion, and doesn’t explain the calculation method of necessary air supply rate to a vestibule. A working group in Kinki chapter of AIJ examines how to solve problems of the notification to operate the system accurately. As a part of the results of these examinations, this report mentions the interpretation of the notification and the design procedure for the system.
In the new Hakata station building, ‘JR Hakata City’, floating slabs were employed to avoid the influence of structure-borne noise to the hall and the movie theaters. Measurement of noise and vibration was carried out in the building at the time of the completion of construction of the railway tracks. It has been confirmed that the floating slabs performed vibration reduction effects of 15 to 30dB as compared with ballasted tracks using ballast mats and that the measured noise level was smaller than 30dBA in the hall and smaller than 35dBA in the movie theater.
The discussion about indoor humidity has been conducting extensively. This paper examines influence of environmental humidity on thermal comfort based on the subjective evaluation by sensory tests. The neutral range of dryness sensation is marked out at humidity of 42%RH to 58%RH in summer and of 33%RH to 67%RH in winter. Subjects give wide latitude in winter humidity compared to summer.
The purpose of this paper is to improve the performance of the HOT WATER FLOOR-HEATING SYSTEM WITH HEAT PIPE by solving the problems suggested in the previous paper. The problems were uneven temperature of the floor surface and slow temperature rising. THERMO-UNIFORMITY PLATE were developed to solve the problems. Effect of this member was verified in the artificial climate room. The results are as follows; Because of improvement of THERMO-UNIFORMITY PLATE from plywood covered with aluminum foil to Aluminum extrusion panel, 1) The heat transfer from pipe to THERMO-UNIFORMITY PLATE was promoted extremely. 2) Heating performance can be improved by about 30 %. 3) Accordingly uneven temperature and rising speed of temperature of floor surface were improved.
The energy saving technique clearly as energy reduction quantitatively is effectual to promote an application of the technique in the design, execution and operation of the building. In this study, about some energy saving technique, we evaluated the effect quantitatively for the typical office building with system simulation. In addition, we deal in each factor of weather, building characteristic, internal heat generation, operation, and design that affect an energy consumption of a building as a parameter.
In 2009, the Japanese government published their greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target to reduce GHGs by 25% by 2020 and 80% by 2050. To meet this target, formulating suitable policy has become an urgent issue. In this study, we have developed a model for predicting the low-carbon technology adoption rate based on the detached homeowners’ decision-making structures. In addition, we have considered policies for meeting the reduction target. This study aims to propose policies to meet the reduction target, and to contribute to the realization of a low-carbon society.
This research compares two types of hospital birth centers; one is in hospital building and outside those buildings. 1)Architectural demand by midwives who had been involved in giving birth independently from medical doctors generated hospital birth center in hospital building followed by the one outside the building. 2)Midwives try to make different atmosphere from hospital’s one even they architecturally and functionally relate each other. 3)The equipments of the delivery room are decided by the presence of medical intervention besides the intention of midwives. 4)The cooperation between the birth center outside hospital building and its related hospital is different depending on their distance etc. 5)Doctors assists are important to establish hospital birth center. 6)All the 3 hospital birth centers also serve child care.
This study aims to survey birth centers in Tokyo and Osaka, and to understand the actual condition of those centers. 1) Room styles are different depending on when the birth center was established and age of the midwife. 2) Most of birth centers have both delivery room and examination room. 3) Recently, the number of midwives who open their small birth centers increases. 4) There are two main reasons that midwives establish their birth centers. 5) The birth center is a birthing facility specialized in natural delivery, maternal, child health and the policy of each birth center has some effects of the midwife’s age and social environment.
Planning of Outpatient Department (OPD) is becoming greater importance on the result of shorting average length of stay in hospitals. The study aims to obtain key factors to improve the planning of OPD, by analyzing patient’s movement through simulation studies. At the end several simulation models can be presented.
Public cultural halls in Japan need to be reorganized and re-established to adapt to recent social changes, and establishment of theatre law is examined nowadays. In the theatre law it is suggested to classify public cultural halls by the roles such as creativity, appreciation, assembly, etc. The purpose of this report is to elucidate the differences between regions or settlement sizes. We conducted an investigation of 2427 halls nationwide. In this report, we classify public cultural halls from 1207 valid responses by attributes such as sub-facilities, planning of activities, external collaborations and information utilization , and compare them inter-regionally.
In this study, station square (outside-space of station) that links the station to urban space, and outside-latch concourse (inside-space of station) were perceived as one continuous-space. 10 psychological factor axes, which were considered the structure of psychological evaluation of people for the space, were extracted based on the result of psychological experiments using SD method and factor analysis. In addition, the correlation analysis of the psychological quantities and the physical quantities was quantitatively performed and physical quantities of this continuous-space that were thought that have influences on the psychology of people, were concretely clarified.
We carried out a renovation project of an old house in the south of Iwate prefecture during 2004-2009. In this project, we surveyed not only the historic knowledge but also the quantity and quality of old and new materials and works of the construction in order to grasp the environmental load. Finally, we found an idea of reuse flow for the best way to succeed the frame unit and to make good use of the other materials. It is better to use aged materials inside of domestic area than taking them from distant area from the viewpoint of cultural heritage and environmental load.
This study examines the possibilities of the community-development method by the brick replication workshop. In the workshop, the pink brick utilizing the characteristics of a charcoal brick are fabricated. The results showed various possibilities of the brick, such as 1) the ease of the fabrication to upgrade the street corners, 2) the simple method that utilizes the waste materials, and 3) the conversion to interiors by taking advantages of the characteristics of the material. Unlike the progressive method using the red brick which mainly aims for building preservation, pink brick can be used for a new way of community development by its various characteristics to enhance participation.
Reorganizing provision system of community medical and welfare services is crucial in underpopulated areas because these inhabitants are found to be disadvantaged in receiving public services, especially medical and welfare services appropriately. The study aims at finding current problems in these areas and Q/A serveys were carried out on the way of receiving these services in the area. Several feats were obtained on the problems in the areas.
We think there are many valuable techniques which is able to improve the environmental performance in the traditional old house. Therefore, we investigated the space layout and environmental performance of IGURATSUKURI houses in KAMO area. As a result, we clarified some space layout techniques for climate characteristics of IGURATSUKURI houses, as follows: 1) technique to keep out the seasonal wind in winter and let in the seasonal wind in summer, 2) technique to use rooms in winter and summer, 3) technique to control sunlight by a double roof.
This study examined workshop series for earthquake disaster reduction planning, and risk communication effects through these activities. Workshops were implemented in Koyadaira village of Tokushima prefecture in Japan, where is typical mountain village. These workshops focused on isolated area problems after big earthquake. Then questionnaire surveys were carried out among these participants. Results showed that workshop contents were received favorably by participants, and their incentive tended to be increased through these workshops. Another result indicated that motivations for disaster reduction were structurally different between multiple workshop participants and single workshop participants.
This study is aim to consider the factor of forming pedestrian network and of establishing sustainable maintenance and management around Osaki Station. Osaki area has had traffic connection problems around Osaki Station and not had enough area of open space, before the redevelopment project in 1980s. The large-scale pedestrian network formed by pedestrian walkways to overcome the area’s geographic problems. Along with the redevelopment project the varieties of management forms in the pedestrian walkway around Osaki Station were formed.
Developments of landscape related policies in Fuchu City are reported in this study. Eleven examples that were examined by the Urban Landscape Committee are analyzed. The followings are found important. 1. Process of consultation and coordination was executed in two related committees in Fuchu City. 2. When the new system under the Landscape Act was introduced, projects subject to the examination were limited to smaller ones in spite of unification of the systems. 3. Effective areas and ineffective areas were found according to the types of regulated elements. It is important to improve the system more effectively.
The number of more than thirty-year old condominium is predicted to be increasing drastically. The problem is how the independent renovation of these condominiums in the urban area will be attained. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the reconstruction-feasibility of old condominiums by reducing the rate which is calculated from “land price based on street value” and “construction cost”. By using the evaluation model based on the equivalent exchange, the characteristics of Bunkyo and Koto ward of Tokyo on the reconstruction-feasibility are clearly confirmed. The simulation has been conducted on cases of mixing “a self-pay burden for residents”, “alteration in the unit area”, and “the diminishing the ratio of the total floor area”. With time series analysis, the effects of reducing self-pay expense for each area and case have been confirmed.
The study arranged the effect of the project by the case study of the project performance evaluation. As a result, the method for the effective execution of the urban regeneration project could be considered. And, the success case with profitable information could be presented. It was suggested that the urban regeneration project effect not become an economic effect for the regional promotion. But it was confirmed that there was a case where the urban regeneration project effect become an economic effect though the number was little. The content of the project of the case is useful for an effective execution of the urban regeneration project in the future.
The first purpose of this research is to comprehend the actual state of commute to elementary school in a group and adults’ neighborhood watch activities, the second purpose of this research is to gain data for considering about necessary requirement for carrying on the activities. It is necessary for volunteers’ continues activities that they boost exchanges in the community, and they advertise the effect including the improvement of their fear against crime their activities, and volunteers know each other better than they do now, and they create fabric to fulfill the above-described requirement.
This paper introduces an information and assignment system for fabricator of structural steel components based on several bar-codes. The system is useful in terms of the control of manufacturing and support of information production in fabrication plants. Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved. Therefore, attempts are now being made to extend the application upgrade information system, and integrate information in order to support the manufacture of steel components, as well as exchanging and sharing the production information amongst stakeholders.
In this article, the historical change from the single iron plane to the double iron plane was discussed on the basis of literature, archival photographs and actual samples. As a result, the following points were clarified. (1)In the early Meiji period when the western plane was imported, the construction and working of the double iron plane based on the western plane had been elucidated. (2)The double iron plane already existed in the middle Meiji period as a plane for handicraft. (3)The double iron plane is not seen being used by artisans (carpenters) using planes in the Meiji period, but it was used in the early Showa period. (4)The cap iron of a double iron plane with a hole in a fixed position is a re-utilized tobacco mincing blade.
A Research of the situation of Gangi Arcade remained at present time in Japan were analyzed on following 2 aspects. 1. Research by Dr. Takesi-Ujiie (1966-85) showed there were 46 cities which had Gangi Arcades. However, in the 2007-2008 years, there are 22 cities in Japan, which has Gangi Arcade. 2. Gangi Arcade was disappeared by following reason. 1) Gangi Arcade was changed to modern Arcade 2) Gangi Arcade was used by town peoples 3) Removal of Gangi Arcade
Augmented Reality or Mixed Reality is a technology to extend or enhance human senses by putting the CG which is processed by computer into the real world. The authors developed a tool for architectural design, using AR/MR and scale model. This tool enables the review by superimposing CG on the model. In addition, the authors proposed the solution of the problem of occlusion and optical integrity. In this paper, the authors report implementation details and preliminary experimental results of this tool.