This paper describes the result of crack-inducing experiment on real building RC wall. Compared to conventional crack control joints, the proposed crack control joints with crack-inducing bars was no influence by the difference of crack-inducing bars. A crack width estimation method proposed by Ohno et al. it tended to correspond roughly to the maximum crack widths of the initial material age of actual building. There was a difference between the experimental values of the crack width afterwards.
This report deals with consideration in compressive strength and Young’s modulus of concrete on different slump in identical with water-cement ratio. This paper investigates mix-proportions of ready-mixed concrete, compressive strength and Young’s modulus for test piece of making production control of ready-mixed concrete. As a results, compressive strength show a tendency to get bigger when slump is bigger in identical with water-cement ratio. Young’s modulus show a tendency to get bigger when slump is smaller in identical with water-cement ratio.
The unique exterior wall framework system, using the unique shaped transoms and the fastener was developed to have a high following performance for relative story displacement. This system will make it possible to construct various walls corresponding to diversity of design and ensure safety for earthquake at the same time.
Tiles used inside and outside of buildings with high cultural or historical value are required to be reused. We have developed a method to reuse those used tiles using acid. In this method, we remove mortar from the tiles by dissolving mortar itself with acid. In this paper we report the results of the tests conducted for two purposes. The first purpose was to find particular conditions of acid that can dissolve mortar quickly. The second purpose was to ensure the adhesion quality of the reused tiles.
Traditional architecture are subject to a wide variety of damage. However, it is difficult to repair maintaining damaged parts. The authors developed a method of repairing lath and plaster members using acrylic resin. This repair method is applied from the back side of the plaster member, so appearance of the finish material is maintained. In this paper, we applied this repair method to Iwate Bank’s plaster ceiling. As a result, it was found that this method can repair a large area with compact equipment and materials and can adapt to wide variety of damage.
Wood, steel, aluminum, stainless steel, PVC board and cement mortar were exposed to outdoor, indoor and underground for 10 years to provide the relative comprehension for some building materials degradation. It was obtained that the progression degree of degradation differs depending on exposure place. For example, in the case of wood and steel, degradation in the underground is the most progress, and in the case of aluminum and PVC board, degradation at outdoor is the most progress. It is useful to understand intercomparison of building materials degradation.
In the Great East Japan Earthquake, many large-scale partition walls made of stacked ALC(AAC) panels were damaged. Those walls are constructed with intermediate sub-beams. Strong motion observations and shaking table tests by authors clarified that large vibrations in out-of-plane direction can occur in those walls during earthquakes. A countermeasure to suppress vibrations is to select stiff members enough to keep high frequencies. In this paper, simplified formulas for calculating out-of-plane natural frequencies are established based on the results of shaking table tests. According to the formulas, we propose a practical selection method of structural sub-members as in a tabular form.
Vibration record before and after The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake was obtained at the low-rise reinforced concrete building in Miyagi Prefecture near the Pacific. This study focused on analyzing dynamic characteristics of the building by using a series of ambient vibration data which was obtained before and after The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and during 2009-2010 and 2014-2015. It is important to obtain various knowledge about dynamic characteristics for SHM, and in analysis of this building, the recovery trend after the big earthquake and temperature dependent of resonant frequency were clearly recognized, for example.
As a provision for excessive inputs, effect of cushions installed in a seismically isolated high-rise structure was studied. Results were as follows; 1) Though optimum parameters for various types of cushions were different on their restoring characteristics, effects of them were similar. 2) Common appropriate parameters against 3 kinds of inputs considered can be found. 3) Required force of cushions was not more than 5 % of the building weight. 4) Energy absorption of cushions was slightly effective. 5) The effect of cushions could be seen as increasing of 7-8 or 10-odd% of damping factor of seismic isolation layer.
In this paper, we build an experimental environment based on real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) technique in order to examine the robustness of tuned viscous mass damper (TVMD) against variation of supporting spring stiffness and damping coefficient. A full scale rotary inertial damper specimen is employed as the physical substructure in the experimental set up. Pure numerical analysis results validate the proposed experimental method.
This paper shows the shaking table test with the large scale test models which assumed over-track buildings reinforced with knee brace dampers. From the test results such as responses or hysteresis loops, we confirmed control effectiveness by knee brace damper. In addition, we grasped variation of vibration characteristics by estimating natural frequencies and damping factors with ARX model.
According to the new standard for specified ceiling, it is recommended to separate adjacent ceiling zones at step parts. In specified ceilings, conventional continuous step parts may not be damaged because of small deformations by bracings, but the requirements are not clear. In this report, static loading tests are conducted to clarify mechanical properties of step parts of steel furring suspended ceiling systems. The required displacements are calculated by numerical analysis and compared with the experimental results. Integration of the step part can be allowable by properly selecting combination of the natural period of buildings and adjacent ceiling zones.
A new concept for long-stroke-damper, Torus Damper, is proposed and explained Plastic deformation of tin torus is employed as the source of the damping. Fundamental mechanical relationships are considered, several prototypes are manufactured and tested. Static elongating tests are carried out and the results of the tests are reported.
Grid-type system ceilings are widely used in Japan, but those seismic performances have not been clarified sufficiently yet. In this report, static loading tests are conducted to clarify in-plane shear behaviors and collapse states of system ceilings. Based on the test results, an analytical model with corresponding restoring force characteristics is established. Seismic response analyses under moderate earthquakes show that in-plane deformations are less than about 20% of the one corresponding to maximum bearing capacity in the test. It is noteworthy that brace layout and number of earthquakes can be factors to increase shear deformations.
In existing mid-rise RC buildings, there are many non-structural walls. Non-structural walls are generally thought to be collapsed early, and be with strength reduction. Static nonlinear analysis considering strength reduction is conducted in part by research, but it is not established. In view of this, as a relatively simple static nonlinear analysis method considering strength reduction, “stepwise strength loss analysis” is proposed and examined.
A simple seismic isolation system by leveraging buoyancy has been devised for spread foundation structures. Through dynamic centrifuge tests, it is shown experimentally that a sliding isolation effect arises during seismic loading if a buoyant force of appropriate magnitude is applied to the base of the foundation. It is confirmed that seismic isolation performance tends to improve as the buoyancy-to-weight ratio increases. Performance when the buoyancy-to-weight ratio is 90% or more is particularly good, and the maximum response acceleration of a structure can be reduced to below 100 cm/s2 against a sinusoidal wave with a maximum acceleration of 500 cm/s2.
It is common to use the Swedish weight sounding test as the ground investigation for small buildings. This investigation method had a problem not to be able to identify the kind of soil, but we reconfirmed the importance of the soil sampling from frequent occurrence of the liquefaction damage with the small scale building by the Tohoku earthquake in 2011. The authors developed the new boring technology that a soil sample to confirm stratum continually by using a vibration drill could be gathered easily. Here, we will report a new device and new investigation techniques that we developed.
Field construction test of cast-in-place concrete piles using high strength concrete (Fc100N/mm2) has been carried out in order to clarify the strength development and the filling ability of concrete. Compressive strength of core specimens sampled from piles was compared with that of simple adiabatic curing specimens and that of standard curing specimens using the same concrete mix proportion. The results indicated that the strength development of high strength concrete constructed under the adequate construction management of cast-in-place concrete pile was very similar to that of high strength concrete of superstructure.
The roof of the Teshima Art Museum’s main building in Teshima, Kagawa Prefecture, is a reinforced concrete shell with a freeform curved surface in the shape of a water droplet, having a maximum span of 41.2m, a maximum rise 5.12m and thickness of 250mm. This paper discusses the structural planning, design and construction methods for implementing such shallow, thin RC shells with freeform curved surfaces. Especially, we described in detail about the stability analysis and the construction methods. This building is a very valuable actual example regarding earthquake-resistant design of the shell structure that is undeveloped in our country.
In this article, design and construction of a temporary pavilion using reed as structural material are reported. Recently, reed is little utilized with the decline of reed industries. The aim of this study is to develop a new effective use of reed as tourist resources. To realize the structure of the building only by reed, a method to make joint between reeds quickly are developed. Because of very light weight of the building, enough rigidity and strength against wind load are required. We applied the dome-like shape and “Semi-random truss” to the building and evaluated its structural behavior and performance.
In this research, first of all, we clarified the tendency of the structural characteristics (i.e. building scale and weight, dimension of columns, dimension of walls) of the existing historic buildings in Tochigi City, based on actual survey data of the past. And the vibration characteristics of historic buildings in the northern Kanto region were evaluated by the vibration measurements. Then we evaluated the maximum horizontal proof strength and this base shear coefficient of the warehouse structures. Finally, we proposed the method for estimation of the maximum base shear coefficient from the natural period.
The authors developed a “twice-turned brace” that would not yield at an inter-story drift angle of less than 1/200 rad. Using twice-turned braces enables the arrangement of fewer braces and one-sided arrangement of braces. A rational brace structure is thus realized. This paper outlines the twice-turned brace. Also, described an example of application of actual building using twice-turned braces. Furthermore, described the structure experiment of twice-turned braces using an actual building.
The Miner’s rule that is used as the damage evaluation method for the random waveform requires time-consuming waveform decomposition. It is effective to estimate the damage index from only maximum amplitude and energy absorption without waveform decomposition. It is known that the relationship between maximum deformation and cumulative plastic deformation is correlated with the repetition number f value that characterizes the seismic ground motion. In this paper, the simplified damage evaluation method using the average amplitude associated with the maximum amplitude based on f value is proposed.
Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFT) columns have become popular as structural members in high-rise buildings. Data on the structural characteristics of 159 high-rise CFT buildings designed from 1968 to 2013 was collected. The structural planning and seismic design value of existing high-rise CFT buildings was analyzed as a function of their design generation. The following observations were made. The strength of concrete used in structures increased over time. As a result, the number of stories and story height increased. In recent years, seismic isolation structures and seismic structures with energy dissipation devices have largely increased in number.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the floor impact sound insulation performance of floor slabs with cross laminated timber panels (=CLT panels) and to grasp the reduction effect by floor coverings. Results of experiments in the laboratory show that the performance of CLT floor slabs is lower than that of a RC slab and a wood-frame panel construction floor slab concerning the light floor impact. Carpets and sound insulation floorings are found to be effective to light floor impact sound insulation. Resiliently-supported double floors seem effective to both light and heavy floor impact sound insulation.
PMV control system was applied for a ceiling radiation cooling/heating system utilizing groundwater as heat source/sink. One of our main aims in studying a groundwater-based radiant air-conditioning system is to develop an equipment system and control method that make it possible to maintain a comfortable indoor thermal environment by circulating cold water cooled by heat exchange with groundwater without the need to use a heat pump. This paper describes the effects of the indoor thermal environment and system energy consumption by cooling perimeter zone in autumn fine days.
PMV control system was applied for a ceiling radiation cooling/heating system utilizing groundwater as heat source/sink. One of our main aims is to develop an equipment system and control method that make it possible to maintain a comfortable indoor thermal environment by circulating cold water cooled by heat exchange with groundwater without the need to use a heat pump in summer. The subject tests on thermoregulatory behavior was carried out in the summer of 2016. This paper presents the results of research about summer target figure for PMV of a ceiling radiation cooling system using groundwater including the power consumption of the electric fan and air-conditioner based on thermoregulatory behaviors.
We developed a system that can send orders from outside controller to the multi-split type air-conditioning system (EHP). Using this system, optimal operation control method for EHP was developed and installed into an office building. This control method improves COP of the EHP and reduces the excessive operation of the outside air processing unit. In this report, we installed this control method into an office building and verified its performance comprehensively.
In this research, we suggested the measures to promote introduction of rooftop type photovoltaic power generation system considering economic efficiency. In achieving the installation goal for renewable energy of Yokohama City by 2030, by proceeding with introduction preferentially from buildings with large power generation per cost, it is possible to reduce the number of installed buildings by 93%, the introduction cost by 10%, and increase the annual power generation by 4%.
We conducted a questionnaire survey on residents’ living environment evaluation for typical betwixt mountainous areas. For future scenarios considering residents’ consciousness, it was requested to enhance urban service functions and maintain neighborhood relationships. Based on these results, we built three scenarios for 2050, and estimated population and households for each. In the “Industrial Revitalization Scenario”, the increase in multi-person households and young small number of households were remarkable.
This study discusses on problems of quantity and types of public housing, which is expected to occur with increase of aged inhabitants and one-person households. Firstly, the necessary number of units of public housing in Kanazawa is estimated. Secondly, based on the results of the estimation, we run a simulation to explain how long and how many units we need when the percentage of the units for one-person households is raised to 80% in Kanazawa municipal housing. As a result, the necessary number of units increases until 2025 and subsequent policy development needs to reconsideration later. On the other hand, it takes about 45 years until the number of units for single person accounts for 80% by rebuilding. Moreover, municipality should address quickly the problem of an increase of old buildings.
The questionnaire about a living situation and living consciousness was carried out to the person moving in the elderly housing with life support service in Aichi and Gifu prefecture. By totaling according to geographic division, the difference in the consciousness for moving in by a location place is analyzed. From these results, the reason for moving in of elderly housing with life support service is arranged, and also the subject of the location situation of the institution seen from the consciousness for moving in is considered.
This paper aims to clarify spatial characteristics of means of attending school in school districts applied attending school supports systems by making “school-route map” and “school-route elevation map” in Nagano city. As a result of the investigation, it was found that there is a difference in the distance from elementary school to residence of children and major means of attending school for each school district. Elementary schools in school districts most children go to school by attending support systems and school districts children are walking to long distances are difficult to function as the center of areas.
This report focuses on the staff passages behind the examination room as a place of article transportation, traffic, PC work, storage of goods and education. The aim is to analyze the plan trend around the examination room built from 1998 to 2015. Type IV is proportional to the increase in the number of beds and number of outpatients and proportion. However, type I has a lower proportion. Staff passages are established for efficient operation. We assume that wide staff passages are positioned as educational spaces.
This paper intends to identify the construction of the thatch roofing using the rice straw. I researched for the “udo hut” built for cultivate the udo in Sanda city. The hut’s roof was made using the “toma” that was braided in the form of cloth. The toma was the roof’s material set the rice straw in line beforehand. The farmers completed the roof in one day by roll out the toma on the roof. The rice straw’s 45mm-thick roof kept the room’s temperature above 10 degrees C in the winter. This rice straw roof seems to be one of the most flat in the thatch roofing in Japan.
In this research, considering the decisions of retrofitting strategies for energy conservation, the planners undertake the interviews to examine. Eight cases are selected to be studied according to two common types of buildings and five common retrofitting strategies of building openings in Taiwan. Seven determining factors are clarified in research results: (1) capability of improving indoor thermal environment, (2) capability of resolving existing opening problem, (3) affordability of retrofitting cost, (4) constructability, (5) legality, (6) building appearance design and (7) affecting scope during the retrofit. Moreover, different combinations and importance of determining factors order affect decisions of retrofitting strategy as well.
This study aims to clarify life conditions outside shelters, such as sleeping in cars, and transition processes of refuge places after the Kumamoto earthquakes. By making surveys, it became clear that there were many different transition processes of changing refuge places, and that more than 40 percent of the families surveyed changed their refuge places three times or more. While they mainly refuged at shelters and their relatives’ houses from the earthquake occurrences until the moving to temporary housing, some families lived in cars or other places outside shelters for several months in preference to reconstruct their daily life.
The aim of this study is to evaluate ‘regional self-life ability’ from the view point of city resources and regional activities in elementary school districts of Toyohashi city. On this research, ability to management shelters without support from others at the time of disaster is defined ‘regional self-life ability’. The former, Sendai city Miyagi pref. and Toyohashi city Aichi pref. was refered as cases for site survey. As a result, actually almost all city resources are not engaged to regional activities in an elementary school district. It’s important to effectively use city resources other than those specified shelter like schools at the time of disaster. It’s considered that regional self-life ability is advanced by management plan and regional activities considering land conditions of the region and city resources.
The aim of this study is to make clear the actual condition of farming system on the small-scale mountain settlement still maintaining rice terraces “TANADA” in Yamaguchi prefecture. In Japan, rice terraces have many problems such as difficulty of finding successors of rice paddies, introducing agricultural machines and so on. However, small-scale mountain settlement “Okuno” in Yamaguchi prefecture has preserved the fine rice terraces scenery. It was also found that the system of maintenance of rice terraces gave been closely related to fine geographical conditions and irrigation system.
‘Crofting’ is the traditional tenancy system including traditional culture, land use system in Scotland. Farmers are called ‘Crofter’ renting land from land owners. Crofting village has similarity with mountainous villages in Japan which have a traditional bond, collective work, traditional way of thinking. The paper aim to clarify the present situation of crofting village in viewpoint of sustainability and spatial construction principal. The principal is that keeping fertility and equality among crofters which made spatial character of crofting village, whether principals of Japanese village tend to protect lands from disaster and utility of water supply in general.
We aimed to clarify the transition and relation of the water management system which is considered to be the priority development in the process of establishment of the village have the strongest relation with the land use. The transition can be divided into 3 phases, and it turns out that there are two conditions that as a factor of diversion of a field, (1) access from a private house is bad, (2) not cooperate with owned field. Furthermore, it was found that it is important to look at this condition on a water management system basis in considering future village conservation.
This study clarifies the changing characteristic of station plaza by central area revitalization project in reconstructed cities from war damaged. From the analysis for 10 station plazas, we can recognizes five patterns as changing characteristics from Reconstruction Project to Revitalization Project as follows: 1) the comprehensive improvement group to the group using plural stories, 2) the group crossing street at right angles to the group crossing street at right angles with raised station facilities, 3) the group accessing multi streets to the group with amenity facilities, 4) the comprehensive improvement group to the group with renewal station building, 5) the changing group from station building improvement type.
This study clarifies the effect of the planning and operation, focusing on community development council of Kakogawa city, which is one of the municipalities that are recognized unique in the practical use of the Special Designated District System. A case study for an individual district has implemented the system contents changes specified the system conditions, contents, and operating achievements as well.
This is a report on a self-renovation project carried out by university students in which they recycled a vacant house into a shared student house. The smooth execution of this project was due to a clear understanding of the house sublease business and a relationship of mutual trust between the real estate agent and the vacant house owner. Students acquired valuable knowledge and techniques thanks to the professional guidance of a carpenter. Furthermore, this project led to the creation of a community event and shows promise of having further positive effects on the community as it continues to flourish.
For landscape characteristics of the fireproof buildings belt in Tottori City, the following was revealed. There has been uniformity in the height and roof. Form design and color is, there was uniformity in the upper side of the facade of the arcade. However, in the lower side of the facade of the arcade there was no uniformity. Therefore, it is necessary to set the detailed criteria for each city blocks to match the existing state of landscaping and fireproof buildings belt divided into upper and lower.
Registration system is an important tool to preserve broader range of historic properties. Countries such as U.S. and Canada have register by municipalities other than the National Register. In comparison, almost all Japanese municipalities do not have such system. This paper reports the process and evaluation method of registration system in Canadian municipalities in British Columbia. We found the increase of a conservation target can be confirmed. We also found each municipalities can establish an original process according to the situation. Additionally, procedure can be made efficient by using an evaluation seat.
This research investigates the contents of citizen’s participation in a process of city revival development in HAGURO, Inuyama city. In a period of plan reconsideration and new plan drafting, the resident, polity and consultant activity contents are put in order. In this result, the effect and problem by the citizen’s participation are considered. It was understood that citizen’s participation has the effect which raises agreement of maintenance and a consultant has to play the important role.
From 1948 to 1963, Mayekawa Kunio Architectural design office developed and standardized architectural technologies. This report took up branch offices of Nihon Sogo Bank which was designed by Mayekawa Kunio Architectural design office, and uses architectural documents included drawings and specifications. The architectural documents enables to consider each branch offices building scale, the span of designing and stuct it. This study disclosed structure development process during designing the branch offices.
Ujina Arc de Museum, was built in Hiroshima Ujina Port as facilities for the farewell welcome Ian soldiers since during the day the war. Construction when the construction committee at the center of the TOMITA Aijiro Governor of Hiroshima Prefecture at the time has been formed, and called for donations across the country. February 1938 to groundbreaking, completion ceremony is celebration in April 1939, and than is being donated to the Army.
The Industry Club of Japan Building was a historical building, which was built in 1920. Because it had the earthquake problems, it was renovated in the private urban redevelopment project with Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking head office building, in 2003. In this paper, we report on the process of utilization and succession design methods for the historical building.