The outline of the research group for promoting the use of high fluidity concrete in the Buildings was described. Result of a questionnaire survey on the high fluidity concrete for constructor was considered. As a result several problems of promoting the use of high fluidity concrete could be clear.
In this study, an experimental study was conducted on the evaluation method of material segregation resistance of high-fluidity concrete in the normal strength region. As a result of conducting various material segregation resistance tests, it was confirmed that the cylinder penetration test and the coarse aggregate segregation ratio test were effective as evaluation methods of material segregation resistance. And, regarding the sieve segregation impact test, data accumulation is necessary, but it was confirmed that there is a possibility that the material segregation resistance can be evaluate.
This study experimentally investigated how to make 300N/mm2 ultra-high-strength concrete. The fine aggregate type was found to significantly influence compressive strength development, and the use of quartz fine aggregates yielded the highest strength. The strength of the mortar specimens made of blended cement containing silica fume reached 350〜400N/mm2 with a two-stage heat curing scheme. For concrete, the type and maximum size of coarse aggregates greatly affect the strength; the use of rhyolites up to 10mm resulted in approximately 300N/mm2. The use of homogenous high-strength aggregates does not necessarily yield high concrete strength, likely due to the difference in Poisson’s ratio.
Among the researches on the workability of high fluidity concrete and the quality evaluation of the resulting structure, the basic experiment and the form lateral pressure experiment using a small mock test specimen were carried out and reported in this paper as the Part 1. The following findings were obtained. The high fluidity concrete was able to obtain the quality equivalent to the slump-controlled concrete even in a shortened compaction time of approx. 1/3. Also, it was found appropriate to examine the lateral pressure of the form as a hydraulic pressure.
The purpose of this study is clarify to the actual state of inspection method of steel transport pipes used in horizontal piping by questionnaire survey. The main points of the results are as follows. The most common inspection method is a hammer test using a hand tool. Inspection points are often at both ends and center of the pipe. Inspection frequency is once a month for ultrasonic thickness meter, whereas visual evaluation and hammering test with hand tools are performed before starting work. There are few cases of maintaining inspection records and reporting to general contractors.
In order to improve the required quality of concrete structure, it is indispensable to solidly fill all angles and corners of the forms with homogeneous fresh concrete. A novel long and narrow capacitance-based wetting sensor which helps in monitoring the process of concrete placement was developed. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to measure sensor performance. The results presented in this paper show that not only placed height and consolidation status of fresh concrete but also honeycombs occurred on the surface can be detected immediately by using the sensor system.
This study proposes the application of built-up beams to earth retaining wales. The built-up beam is made by stacking and joining two H-sections with high-strength bolts. Unification the joints of built-up beams is important to exhibit bending strength and bending rigidity sufficiently. However, research on such members has little knowledge at present in the field of steel structures and earth retaining wales. Therefore, the authors focused on friction joints with high-strength bolts on built-up beams. Tension tests of friction joints, bending tests of built-up beams with reduced and full-scale specimens were performed to verify the structural performance of the beams.
We carried out excavation of the remains of a boiler house in Maizuru 3rd Naval Explosives Arsenal. This investigation consists of measurement of the remains, performance evaluation of concrete, and estimating construction method. As a result, it was estimated that the boiler house was consisted of reinforced concrete foundations/walls, plain concrete floor, and some members from plain or fire bricks. On the other hand, the performance of concrete used for the remains was standard compared with the technical standards during World War II. These results will contribute to the grasp and the evaluation of the then architectural technology and design.
Full scale loading test up to large story drift on Exterior Wall of ALC panel with window and door attached to steel moment frame was conducted. No damage was observed on the surface without openings except for the bottom of the panel. On the surface with openings, many damages such as cracks in the panel and breaks in the welding of the substrate were observed especially at large story drift angle of 1/50 or more. In addition, degrading of the openablility of the window and door according to residual story drift angle were examined.
The finish condition of concrete surface is most important factor for architectural concrete with wood grain pattern. However, currently the construction method has no choice but to depend on rule of thumb by experienced constructors. Therefore, the purpose of this study to organize the necessary knowledge to academic and technical, in order to satisfy design requirements about finish condition of wood grain concrete. In this paper, carry out questionnaire survey targeted formwork contractors and showed results about formwork materials used and processing method of sheathing, in order to clearly actual state of formwork used for wood grain concrete.
This study investigates vibration analysis models of super high-rise RC buildings based on database for structural design and their nonlinear response characteristics to pulse-like ground motions. First, the applicability of multi-degree-of-freedom-system-model to pulse-like ground motions was verified. Next, the maximum inter-story drift angle and its occurrence position are described from nonlinear seismic response analysis for the Ricker wavelet input. Finally, we focus on the shift of the natural period due to the non-linearity of buildings for the pulse-like motion input.
The possibility of the method of measuring root hardening diameter was investigated by using resistivity. In this study, laboratory experiments and in-site experiments were conducted. The electrode arrangement is a 4-pole method. As a laboratory experiment, we investigated the relationships between the resistivity and the boundary position of the formation, exploration depth. Based on the results, measuring method using resistivity for in-site was developed. And it was conformed that the resistivity was extremely effective to measure the diameter of foot protection in the site.
Steel pipe piles with wings have been developed and used in middle-and low-rise buildings. A steel pipe pile with wings is installed by applying a rotational torque to the pile shaft. However, the wings that have a larger diameter than the pile shaft loosen the soil around the pile shaft, causing reduction of lateral resistance of the pile. In this study, we investigated the effect of reinforcement for the soil around the pile head on lateral resistance of the pile.
Grid-purlin system composed of RHS members are known to be effective to prevent buckling of the welded beams. In this paper, lattice dome composed of radial beams and welded grid purlins (Grid purlin shell dome) are studied. The linear, elastic, and elasto-plastic buckling strength of Grid purlin shell domes are analyzed using detailed FEM analyses. Their results are compared with the shell theory with continuum analogy and easy design approaches are investigated.
The focus of this paper is on earthquake-resistant energy dissipation devices that do not support vertical loads, as well as the performance of a steel plate stiffened with wood. The authors describe an experimental study on a metallic yielding damper with wooden stiffeners, with intended application of such technologies to, for example, multi-story buildings. Energy dissipation devices stiffened with wood, excellent in design, and can improve seismic performance of buildings.
In this study, new timber joints utilizing structural adhesive that can ensure higher stiffness and strength were developed. Experimental testing was conducted to confirm the lateral capacity performance of the proposed joint. To develop structural design methods using the joint, the local shear characteristics of the proposed joint were confirmed by structural component tests and finite element analysis. By modeling and analyzing building frames utilizing the joint, it was found that modifying the geometry of the steel plates to ensure yielding or plasticizing the adhesive layer results in better ductility and energy dissipation characteristics.
In order to continue using wooden houses after the earthquake, it is necessary to accurately judge the damage level and make appropriate repairs. Therefore, an evaluation index for estimating the experience deformation from the damage situation of interior and exterior finishes is proposed. When evaluating the finish damage level of the static resisting wall test and the shaking table test, it was found that internal finish damage was more accurately estimated than external ones. When the cloth was torn along the gypsum board joint, the deformation was classified as D2 level damage.
We have developed a new hybrid structure using CLT infill shear walls and a steel frame, for middle-rise and high-rise buildings. This structural system enhances the structural potential of CLT panels by holding them in the steel frame. A steel frame can support sustained load of a high-rise building without CLT shear walls and allows use of long-span beams. Based on these features, this paper firstly presents the relationship of the strengths of CLT shear walls, joints and beams, and then studies the seismic and fire resistance design of the new hybrid structure system, introducing an example project.
At the past paper, the relationship of natural frequency of microtremor measurement and maximum experienced deformation angle about low-rise houses was proposed. In this paper, it was conducted the accuracy verification of the aforementioned relationship, using the full scaled shaking table tests and the post-earthquake investigation, about Japanese conventional wooden structure and Japanese traditional wooden one. And, through investigation before and after the earthquake of a Japanese conventional wooden house, the effectiveness of the proposed relationship was confirmed.
The purpose of this study is visualization of the behavior and the resistance mechanism of nailed shear walls. In order to evaluate the influence of gaps between panels to structural behavior, the author conducted shear wall panel tests. In addition to, offsetting panels to the plane of framework was also adopted as an experimental parameter. In this test, 3 axis displacements of panel and frame were measured by motion capture systems. The test results indicate the behavior of the panel on shear performance and strength of the hold down hardware quantitatively.
This paper reports the development of dowel laminated timber made of Japanese cedar. Single-plane shear test of wooden dowels and lateral loading test of three types of dowel laminated timber were performed. The result of tests shows that dowel laminated timber has high-ductility and enough seismic performance. In addition, the mechanical model of dowel laminated timber and method of calculating the stiffness are shown. The stiffness calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
The authors are developing a timber assembly continuous column connecting structure as a timber skeleton structure which aims to enable long-term maintenance for small-scale buildings. In a previous report, a lateral load test of the continuous column structure was conducted, providing empirical evidence of the standalone column’s structural performance. In this report, the authors empirically tested the structural performance of the column and beam framework by conducting a lateral load test of the timber assembly continuous column connecting beam framework and an incremental plasticity analysis using a wire-frame model of the column and beam components.
Technology for seismic retrofit of reinforced concrete planar members with post-installed plate-anchored shear reinforcement has been applied to civil engineering structures. In this paper, the previous experimental results (23 specimens) using this shear reinforce method are re-evaluated with the shear strength formula for building structures, and design method is proposed.
As a damage detection method for steel buildings after an earthquake, an evaluation method of integrating acceleration records and calculating damage level to beam end using low cycle fatigue curve is investigated. The applicability is examined by using this method to shaking table test data of a full-scale three-story steel structure. In the case of a large amplitude shaking test, fracture of the bottom beam flange can be predicted by this method.
Historical masonry buildings remaining in various places are rehabilitated and utilized. In order for unspecified numbers of people to use these buildings, it’s necessary to secure earthquake-resistant performance. One method to reinforce such buildings while maintaining their architectural design value is reinforcement using prestressing. In this research, long-term loading tests of brick walls with introduction force were carried out by fabricating walls by reproducing joint mortar at the time of construction. This paper reports the progress measurement of the load change of the brick wall.
This study is an experimental study on behavior of the fire plume ejected from an opening under soffit with H-beam beneath the tip. We used a large-scale experimental apparatus. Also, experimental conditions are the opening size, soffit size, handrail, and fire source. The temperature prediction under the soffit is proposed by using the Watanabe model (predictions of ceiling jet temperature by combining a two-layer zone model) and the Ohmiya model (predictions of the vicinity of vertical wall temperature) in combination. It was confirmed that the calculated value and the experimental result mostly match.
An attempt was made to improve the conventional technology in terms of both materials and construction methods with the aim of saving the fire-resistant covering work using the winding type fire-proofing covering materials for steel beams. Specifically, we examined the effective use of the heat capacity of steel beams, the thickening of only the lower flange covering, and the densification of heat-resistant rock wool. As a result, it was confirmed that the thinning of heat-resistant rock wool by increasing the density was the simplest and most effective from the viewpoint of fire resistance and labor saving.
Large scale of fires spreading could occur in urban areas where are consisted of dense wooden buildings. Although it’s urgent need to minimize the fire spreading risks, historical buildings are also precious for preserving area’s characteristics. Kanazawa is one of historical cities and has a lot of historical building in its central area. This study estimates fire spreading risks in those historical area and evaluates effectiveness of the disaster prevention projects by the Kanazawa municipality. As the result of the study, it is found the risks are still remain after the projects. We propose some methodologies for minimizing the risks.
Verification measurements were conducted to estimate amplification by road traffic vibration in the building through field measurements of 32 wooden houses and verification measurements of experimental buildings. “Negative correlation” that larger input vibration decreases the amplification level was recognized. It was revealed that higher vibrational components do not transmit to the building, which leads lower amplification level, and larger wall quantity increases negative correlation in the specific frequency band of the building. However, the traffic vibration is a minute transformation, and it is thought that it is difficult to control the amplification level directly by the amount of the wall.
We have developed a method for making inside drainage groove on EPS with stucco finishing by press working. This processing method has obtained manufacturing method patent and has been recognized as a unique processing method that takes advantage of the features of high-density EPS. In addition, it was shown that drainage performance is secured in the longitudinal joint by the EPS inside drainage groove formed by pressing.
Thermal bridges at the connections between window and wall are generally not added to evaluation of heat loss from building envelopes. This report presents evaluation method for the thermal bridge around the window. Linear thermal transmittance between window and wall in typical configurations was calculated as an evaluation index. In addition, quantities of the heat loss from the thermal bridge were compared with the total heat loss amount of a house.
Understanding the thermal performance of windows with shading devices is important for energy saving. Using a full-scale experimental building, the thermal insulation performance (U-value) and the solar heat gain performance of windows with shading devices was measured, and the validity of the measurement method was confirmed. In addition, the indoor thermal environment and the comfort with and without shading devices were measured, and it was confirmed that the shading devices contributed to the improvement of comfort especially by realizing a uniform radiation environment.
An airflow window is a system to improve solar blocking performance of windows. It is a practically beneficial system, however, still has a potential to improve the performance by controlling the air flow in the cavity between the glazing. In this development, we apply a Dynamic Insulation technique into the cavity of the airflow window. CFD analyses were carried out to measure the thermal performance. The results show that declines in the solar heat gain coefficient as well as the surface temperature of the inner glass were observed. The effects improve the radiant environment at perimeter zone in office buildings.
This study uses the ZEH proposed by Kanto-Gakuin University in the “ENEMANE HOUSE 2015” project by ANRE, METI of Japan. This report provides thermal and light environment measurements, and clarifies how a south-facing buffer space using partitioning and outer skin members influences heat load. The heat load is calculated from the weather data of the 2010s, and the ZEH’s applicability was examined in seven Japanese local regions. High heat partitioning maintains the heat load unaffected even with glass used for the outer skin members. The ZEH is effective in heating load, in Niigata and Fukuoka, energy-saving reference 5 and 7.
A quantitative guideline on the optimal design of a cooling air outlet is important to guide the design of the residence. There are many studies on the indoor thermal environment of ducted cooling air outlet using CFD, but few of them include empirical analyses. This research carried out an inverse analysis that takes solar radiation into consideration in order to study the effective arrangement of air outlets that can achieve a comfortable indoor thermal environment during cooling. The results showed that the inverse analysis using CFD is effective while designing the indoor thermal environment and can be used in practice.
The potential of using Phase Change Material in wooden house has been proved. Since the cost of the PCM is high, searching for a laying position with high heat absorption and dissipation efficiency has been shown as a problem. In this study, we examine the laid position that maximizes the heat absorption and dissipation of the PCM when the PCM is set under the floor finishing material by utilizing the direct gain in winter.
Treating food wastewater containing high FOG under limited facility space with DAF and ASM have issues from the viewpoints of finance and labor. Thus, the development of a new method is needed to properly treat the food processing wastewater with such conditions. In previous research, it was proven that EBM enables steady outcome for food wastewater highly containing FOG without the need of chemical pre-treatments. This research experimented the practicality of EBM in limited treatment facility for food wastewater with high FOG concentration and limited space, which additionally proved the effectiveness of EBM and validity of EBM researches.
In this paper, energy consumption and variation factors in Niigata University are analyzed. First, in order to grasp the energy consumption level of Niigata Univ., energy consumption is analysed for Niigata Univ. and other national universities. Energy consumption is compared with national universities in Japan. Second, primary energy consumption in Niigata Univ. is analysed in 2002-2017. In particular, a detailed analysis on the power consumption of each system is performed. As a result, it became clear that the power consumption of equipment operating around the clock accounted for a large percentage of the annual power consumption.
Quality of janitor service evaluated on beauty of sights in the building is periodically reported to the building owner by a maintenance company. Therefore, standardization of the evaluation methods is required to make the evaluation reliable for the building owners. For this purpose, the present study analyzed 959 reports by inspectors who were accredited by Japan building maintenance association. The results showed that total score on beauty was proportionally correlated with the score of a toilet, and can be estimated from the cleaning floor area in the office building which were built before 25 years ago.
In this study, we analyzed the range of business areas where business profitability could be secured when selling “branded houses” using regional materials. The general administrative expense ratio of 5% or more, which is a condition for securing profitability, was satisfied when the distance from the town S to the site was about 100 km. In addition, the profitability of the entire brand housing new construction business could be ensured when one out of three buildings or three out of five were constructed outside of the town. The distance from town S to the site was about 125 km.
Nine years have passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake, and the victims have been recovering their houses. Regarding housing recovery after leaving temporary housing, the mind of housing recovery before recovering is shown in the previous studies. However, the factor of decision-making about housing recovery remains to be unrevealed. In this research, we investigate why and how the victims decide how to recover their houses by interview, focusing on the elderly victims in the temporary housings in Kamaishi City.
This study aims to clarify how to decide the unit indicator based on the facilities capability. 1) To determine the unit indicator for diagnostic and treatment department, we verify the correlation of specifications including the number of beds, the average number of outpatients and new inpatients per day. 2) To examine the characteristics of the distribution, we accumulate various data as a database based on the unit indicator. As a result of examination, some departments are positively correlated with factors. Others which have no or poor correlation to factors could be regarded these parameters as a distribution.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the motion space when the caregiver transfer a resident “from the wheelchair to the bed” and “from the bed to the toilet” using a floor lift. 1. The motion space when caregivers transfer residents from the wheelchair and the bed were 1605mm on the head side, 2005mm on the leg side from the center of the bed, and 2687mm on the bed side from the wall. 2. The width of the frontage of the toilet required for transfer assistance to the toilet were over 1600 mm.
Our previous report focused on disaster base hospitals that mainly accept casualties and the demands on the construction and equipment required for each area. However, merely identifying locations for the triage area and each medical treatment area is insufficient. Therefore, we clarified what rooms are necessary to support medical treatment activities, the advantages and problems of each part of the facility from the viewpoint of operations, and the operation of the facility taking into account how to respond to changes during a disaster situation. Our examination considered requirements that should be implemented at the time of the institution’s design.
This study aimed to clarify the popularization of palliative care units (PCUs) in Japan. As of August 2019, there were 430 PCUs (8,776 beds) where an estimated 64,472 cancer patients died in 2018 fiscal year. They accounted for 17.3% of total cancer deaths in Japan and 1.4 times more than those at home. The average length of stay in PCUs was on the decline, of which the National Health Insurance system was assumed to be a factor. Recently PCUs in local base hospitals were increasing, however, no PCUs were located in 42% of secondary medical areas, especially depopulated areas.
This study investigates the effects of a project to renovate a nuclear medicine waiting area in acute hospital by altering the lighting design that have decorative form and indirect lighting. Data were collected from users before and after the renovation using a questionnaire. The results show: 1) the new design reduced claustrophobic feelings and increased brightness, warmth, and a comfortable atmosphere, and 2) more than 30% users described to like the ceiling light design and recognized it to reduce an anxiety. Therefore, the renovation created a restorative environment to reduce.
This study aimed to grasp the state of actual development and usage of community facilities for healthy elderly(Gyonrodang) in Seoul, and to obtain basic knowledge for planning facilities with functions to support healthy elderly. A questionnaire survey and non-participant survey were conducted to achieve as follows. 1) In Seoul, about 70 percent of the more than 3,000 facilities are privately owned. It is characterized by the fact that many private facilities are controlled by public institutions. 2) In this facilities, the elderly were not only supported by a variety of supporters, but also supported each other at times.
It is believed that the roof tiles were first made when building temples, and there was a transition from copper or iron roofs to tile roofs on main halls as one moved south through the Japanese archipelago. Iron roofs have been replaced by copper roofs expected to be used for prolonged periods in many cases in recent years, and roof tiles using earthen mortar have been replaced due to safety concerns.
Exterior design for NEW CHAPEL HOUSE of RIKKYO UNIVERSITY requires careful consideration to obtain harmonization between its contemporary function and neighboring historical buildings, especially the OLD CHAPEL, built a hundred years ago. Through research on bricks and tiles of existing buildings along with study on supply routes of antique over-burned bricks, we refer to several technical approaches on conservation, utilization and extension of historical buildings. We expect our approach concerning authenticity and integrity to assist their planning and design stages.
The aim of this study is to clarify the environmental performance level of housing evaluation cases in CASBEE Fukuoka. In addition, we considered the influence of CASBEE on the architectural design of apartment buildings. As a result, it became clear that there are differences in environmental performance levels depending on the supply form and the housing company. It was also found that there are two design methods, the point-added type and the deducted type, depending on the CASBEE target setting. This knowledge will be useful in revising CASBEE performance evaluation methods in the future.