This study looks at the effect of the ratio between mortar and coase aggregate on the quality of hardened high-fluidity concrete, by varying the unit volume of the latter. The process includes a variation in composition of mortar and coase aggregate during construction, thereby keeping the amount of chemical admixture and fine aggregate constant with respect to the cement volume. Then the properties of hardened concrete were examined, which revealed that if the ratio between mortar and coase aggregate subatantially deviated from the designed mix-propotions, the quality criteia for the high-fluidity concrete as specified in JASS 5 was not met, and therefore it is strongly recommended to opt for a careful construction process that does not vary the components of concrete as above.
This paper deals with filling capabilities of concretes injected into CFT columns. Bibliographies related to current CFT injection technologies were widely reviewed and the filling capability was analyzed. Based on this background, normal and high-fluidity concretes were injected into two types of steel tubular columns, and effects of the type of concrete on the injection height in the steel columns were studied. The filling capability of concretes became more satisfactory when the high-fluidity concrete was used at a low water-cement ratio, and greatly influenced by the opening area of diaphragm with respect to the cross section of the steel columns.
The objective of this study was to discuss the durability of adhesion strength of tile installed on super workable concrete. Specimens were made as on-site casting concrete and precast concrete, and tiles were installed for both concrete using manual method and prefabrication method. After hot-cold cycle was applied for specimens, adhesion strength of tile was measured. As a result, adhesion strength of tile installed super workable concrete was not decrease. The study indicated the durability of adhesion strength of tile installed on super workable concrete was equal to that installed on ordinary concrete.
The seismic isolation retrofit of the main building of the National Museum of Western Art required excavating the foundation ground under the existent building and installing isolation devices beneath the existing footings. Before the installation of isolation devices, it was necessary to construct piles beneath the existing footings in order to support the weight of the building temporarily during excavation process. The piles were made of steel pipe segments, and were driven by oil jacks utilizing the weight of the building for reaction force. During the retrofitting process, the subsidence of the building supported by the piles were monitored and controlled to avoid causing damage to the superstructure.
The creep characteristics of laminated rubber bearings in actual base-isolated building are estimated by monthly measurements of the temperature and deformation of rubber bearings using multi-micrometer since 1986. Furthermore, hourly high-precision automatic measurements of deformation and temperature have been started since 1993 using newly-developed laserdisplacement sensors and thermocouple. The spring constant variations of laminated rubber bearings for eleven years are estimated growing stiff more than initial conditions by static tests of aging small laminated natural rubber bearings for maintenace and actual rubber bearings in base-isolated building.
This paper reports on a project wherein 4 storied basement was demolished and 5 storied basement was reconstructed. The existing basement had been constructed fully on the site. In order to shorten the construction term and reduce the construction cost, the new basement was designed after sufficient research on the demolishing and retaining procedures. After rock auger work on the existing concrete, soil mixing retaining walls were constructed. Concentrically assembled temporary struts were adopted to simplify demolishing work by hydraulic hammer. It took about 19 months from demolishing the 4 storied basement to reconstructing the 5 storied basement.
This report describes the test results obtained from a fundamental experiment and a full-scale model experiment with a part of an actual building and actual site work, in order to investigate the compactiability and the properties of joint made by placing high-fludity concrete on ordinaly concrete. The suitable vibrating compaction increased the strength of joint even in case of using high-fludity concrete.
To improve the performance of a bored steel H pile installed in a prebored hole, a grouted base is made around the base of the pile. The structural capacity of the pile with a grouted base was studied by two series of model loading tests. Failure mechanism was observed, which depended upon the geometry of the grouted base. The failure occurs in which the grouted base is thin, less than twice the pile diameter. Structural capacity increases with increasing the thickness of grouted base. Field tests were caried out, boring test, excavated measurement and loading tests. The effectiveness of the method and large ultimate bearing capacity were proved by the tests.
When we design a building on slope ground by using pile foundations, we often face to the difficulty how measure the lateral resistance of the pile foundations. However, there is no systematized database to help structural designers formulate such measures. Therefore, the Architectural Institute of Japan set up a working group to collect and analyze data from existing literature and summarize the latest technical information. This paper (part 2) reports on the results of analysis conducted by the working group and makes a proposal relating to the evaluation method of lateral resistance of pile foundations driven in and on slopes.
The collapse mechanism of a column beyond peck load is an interesting and challenging problem to be studied in order to provide information on how to prevent complete collapse. In the study reported herein, a loading system has been proposed to control this collapse mechanism by which rotation of the upper and bottom stub were precluded. Test on two specimens has shown an encouraged result and an impressive and promising response of the proposed system to be employed in a practical used.
In this paper, a graphical method is proposed to get optimum energy absorbing capacity of RC structures with the frames of various ductility groups. Analytical evaluation method of the seismic capacity is based on the Seismic Diagnostic Standard by JBDPA which is used widely. The concept of ductility characteristics factor F' related to the total sum of lateral strengthes of frames is introduced to make the graphical method ease. For the method, q × F chart where q is strength ratio and F is ductility index is devised. The proposed method has been successfully used in the field of seismic diagnosis and strengthening of many buildings.
We newly developed a non-destructive and non-contact electromagnetic testing method. The testing method uses magnetic fields produced by eddy currents in steel members. In this report, followings were described ; 1. Outline of newly developed a testing method and a device. 2. Evaluation of performance of the device to investigate defects or cracks in steel members and welded joints. 3. Analysis of three-dimensional magnetic fields produced by the device. From the experiments and discussions, we obtained conclusions that the device can detect defects and cracks accurately without removing fire resistive covering and the device's passing through defects and cracks.
This design shows an application of a damage-controlled structure to a building having a diagonal lattice tube frame. The damage tolerant structure is a parallel combination of the primary structure and seismic dampers. The center portion of the diagonal lattice tube frame is made up of axial hysteretic dampers. The rigidity of the entire structure and the energy-absorption initiation level are controlled by varying cross-sectional areas of the diagonal columns and seismic dampers. By thus we have decreased the seismic responsiveness the conventionally elastically designed, diagonal lattice tube framed structure.
LDC-H6 Building (The Center) is under construction in Hong Kong, with the height of 300m and 73 structural floors. Having a unique elevation and star-shaped plan without concrete core, it realized the flexible and minimum core area which enabled maximizing office efficiency in the limited floor area. Various analyses are carried out for examining the performances of its starshaped moment frame tube, and compared with a Japanese building which has the similar height and structure. This paper briefly reports on above studies, and discuss on the structural design between Hong Kong and Japan.
The purpose of this report is the presentation of model when the performance based structural design is applied to the actual building. Authors participate in "MARUNOUCHI BUILDING" design team and are trying the performance based structural design. It is significant that the practical structural designer's point of view about the performance based structural design is informed, when the performance reguration of seismic criterion is established. The outline of the structural design for "MARUNOUCHI BUILDING" is described in this report.
Takasaki city hall is a high-rise building supported by spatial megatruss structure. Construction method influences to load allotment and building accuracy. It is important to grasp stress conditions and study stress transmission mechanism. And it is necessary to estimate vibration environment of office floors. This paper introduces dynamics behavior of steel beamcentrifugal casting steel pipe column joint with experiments, stress conditions during the construction period and evaluation of habitability to vibration.
The concept of the Municipal Kawasaki Hospital reconstruction is based in continuing medical treatment activity scale and, simultaneously carrying out improvement of functions and environment as well as shortening the construction schedule. The T-shape building was designed to overhang on top of the existing hospital. The cantilever part has 9 stories and 28.5m length which is 4/5 of the lower building part width. Wall foundations and permanent earth anchors are used to solve overturning moments due to Earthquake loading. A Megastructure system supports the overhanging part. And vertical vibration is controlled with oil dampers.
Taking into account the earthquake-resistant design standards in effect when the building was designed, new earthquake-resistant design criteria were established for the retrofit, to check the earthquake-resistant safety of the retrofit design. Structural and functional considerations led to a choice of laminated rubber for the isolator material. The results of vibration analysis using a mass system model demonstrated that the earthquake motion input into the building would be reduced substantially by the retrofitwork. It was also shown that the work would substantially meet the earthquake-resistant design criteria. Three-dimensional vibration analysis was also carried out using a solid frame model to calculate the margin of safety of each structural member would be earthquake-resistant.
The influence of joint and construction details of wall assembly on the combustion behavior of linings were evaluated using 590mm × 530mm intermediate specimens in this paper. From the results of this study, it is possible to estimate the influence of joint and construction details of wall assembly on the combustion behavior of linings by intermediate burning test using intermediate scale specimen.
The visually handicapped, mainly the blind, perceive spatial environment by aural clues, such as detection of obstacles, confirmation of direction, judgement of the circumstance and so on. Our study is undertaken for the purpose of establishing an architectural acoustic design for the blind. In the present study, the concrete problems affecting to the perception ability of the blind in the architectural acoustics are extracted and the necessity of those studies is examined through the interview with the visually handicapped. As the results of examination, it is revealed that these studies, characteristics of sounds generated from floors (footfall sound), reverberation in a architectural space and influence of environment noise, are very important for the visually handicapped.
For the development of method of measuring floor impact sound insulation of building against heavy and soft impacts, the Floor Impact Sound Insulation W. G. (AIJ) studied various kinds of impact sources and reported these works in Feb. 1997. The W. G. continued the studies on the rubber ball impact source of about 20ms impact time, focusing on such factors as reproducibility in manufacturing and frequency characteristics of impact force. By using the ball, field measurement and subjective hearing test carried out. This paper describes the outline of these works.
Damping materials were applied to the floor of a four-story platform frame house in order to decrease heavy floor impact sound levels. Two types of viscoelastic layers were attached to the floor ; that is, two kinds of non-constrained viscoelastic layers and a constrained viscoelastic layer. Applying non-constrained viscoelastic layers to the floor resulted in the reduction of not only vibratory velocity levels of the floor and ceiling, but also heavy floor impact sound levels. The constrained viscoelastic layer had little acoustic effect. The increase of the stiffmess and damping of the floor may simultaneously affect these results. Thus further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanism of decreasing heavy floor impact sound levels by the use of damping materials.
In order to reduce the load to the earth environment, it is necessary to utilize natural energy. In this study, from this point of view, it has been investigated the utility of a fresh air load reduction system by using underground double floor space for air-conditioning in buildings experimentally and numerically. It concludes that the annual amount of energy saving by using this system is more than the energy loss caused by introducing it. Additionally, the computational results with the simple heat diffusion equation agree with the measurements. Therefore, it is clear that this system is very useful and the proposed model can use for the thermal design of it.
With the use of a seasonal change in the solar altitude, a proposed solar control window, both of the inside surfaces of insulating glass striped with reflection films, can change both solar, visible ray transmittance and solar heat gain factor, according to the control purposes. The window can decrease solar heat gain, while increasing the use of daylight. This paper describes the principle of the solar control window and its solar control performance estimated by simulations. Next paper describes the performance estimated by experiments and the estimated simulation results of energy performance with the use of a typical building model.
It studied to the object in the Aqua scape facilities in Tokyo. Then, it examined psychological structure in the Aqua scape facilities in examining a physical outward factor at the Aqua scape facilities. It examined Minus ion as the center of the physical outward factor. The psychological structure and the physical outward factor depend on the form of the Aqua scape facilities. Minus ion depended on the form of the Aqua scape facilities mainly. Between the psychological structure and the physical outward factor, relation is seen. Minus ion was related to the property of water.
To study the performance test method of a drainage system, the following items are revieved using drainage system equipped with special drainage fitting in a real building. (1) Proposing a method to grasp drainage performance by using fixture drainage load. (2) Analyzing relationship between the test results with the high experimental tower and that with the real super-high rise building. (3) Combining the results of the cleaner drainage load test to that of the clear water drainage test. The drainage performance determined by the above and the calculated drainage load were compared to propose the applicable range of system performance for actual desiging.
At construction sites, safety signs are very important things to keep workers' safety. However, they have some problems, that is, 1) some materials and tools are necessary to set up or move them, for example, wire and pincers, 2) they cannot be stuck on finished surfaces because they may be worn off. To solve these problems, the new 'STICKER SIGN' was developed. It has adhesive on the reverse side like a seal to be stuck on walls without any tools even if they are finished. Forty sites were observed to find the problems, and forty-four signs were evaluated by one hundred and fifty workers to find the adequate design.
In this study, functional sustainability of water supply system and electric supply system in an emergency of the government office buildings in Tohoku area have been surveyed by questionnaire. There were many buildings adopting the systems which have been broken down in Hanshin-Awaji earthquake disaster. Though the manager of the buildings were recognizing the problem about the functional sustainability, few buildings were taking measures to cope with the situation.
This paper reports our system of Construction Administration of Electromagnetic shielding works. This system consists of following 3 items. 1st : Specifications of Electromagnetic shielding works. This specifications describes about Electromagnetic shielding works, site manager for shielding works, inspection of shielding performance. 2nd : The organization of site management of Electromagnetic shielding works. 3rd : Check sheets of inspection. These sheets are written by the words used in ordinary building construction works, because of many people are not familiar with Electromagnetic shielding works. We have succeeded in two projects using this system.
The purpose of this report is to find the needs of people with dementia who live in their own houses. We have researched the daily life of 31 cases in Miyagi prefecture. There are many barriers and dangerous places in their houses. And some of them were injured seriously. Most of them live in Tsuzukima-rooms which are one of the old type of Japanese houses, enjoying the time with the neighborhood in this local town. They keep their normal living situation the same. We explain some conditions that enable them to continue to live with their families in their houses.
This report introduces development of a basic Astronomical observation facility. The contents of this paper are as follows. 1. Astronomical observation facility for the purpose of show a star and celestial. 2. 58% Astronomical observation facility were 1000m^2 or less. 3. There are many cases an Astronomical observation facility is combined with an exhibition room and Planetarium. 4. There are many cases an Astronomical observation facility is built into a moutain by self-governing body.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the size of primary school and planning philosophy for school building through the guideline "Design for Learning" published by the Department of Education of Hampshire in England. The results are as follows : 1) The size of primary schools in Hampshire is smaller, and the number of the schools is larger than those in Japan. 2) "Design for learning" refers to the effects of school buildings to children, the impact of child development and principle for design. 3) Learning Through Landscape in Hampshire promotes the practical use of outdoor space in school.
The Principles for learning space of primary school are described in the design guideline "Design for Learning" in Hampshire. A classroom should have general teaching area, class base and practical area. And the shared spaces are needed in both inside and outside of classroom. The yougest children should have classroom areas which can become their family home territory. As they get older, children need increasing free access to wider range of the shared facilities and resource areas. And four new schools are introduced to certify how to apply the guideline to school.
This manuscript is a report of survey research of a public practice place. The followings became obvious. 1. Evaluation is high from an access and atmosphere, sound isolation nature, ventilation system, width, atmosphere and a ventilation system. 2. A practice place with width and shape, ventilation system rather than sound-proof room, an access rather than width, change are highly evaluated. 3. A practice place with stages, sleeves, work space, ventilation system, sound isolation equipment a good. 4. Conditions of location and, economic efficiency are important.
The purpose of this papers is to investigate the actual condition of lockers in public art museum. In this paper, we made surveys of the installation of locker in public art museums based upon 232 art museums questionnaired in Japan. And we made surveys of use of the lockers in Setagaya Art Museum and Tokyo Metropolitan Museum for 12 whole days. Results are as follows. There are little relationship between scale of art museums and the numbers of locker. The 80% of art museums approximately have lockers under 30 locker area and 100 cases. The 10% of visitors use locker in art museum, and so on.
That became obvious by this survey is as follows. The hall where was abolished a house, of all halls is about 15%. The hall where is abolished appears when it passes for more than 15 years from opening. The half of all the halls that was abolished between an extent in 30 is abolished. The peak of the age of an existence hall is an extent in 20 and the number of a hall is decreasing gradually after that. The hall where continues and be used for more than 40 years is rare. Deteriorating an abolition reason became in the order of the change of the change, administration, method systems of social needs.
The house construction companies want some rationalized construction methods. Some companies use a system of pre-cut or a system of panelized outside wall, and some use both. But these systems are not pupular in Hokkaido. And also we have to pay attention to the airtightness and the insulation. The purpose of this paper is to analyze what the construction, companies want to do for their rationalization to build wooden houses. In addition, I analyzed the airtightness in two building constructions.
This research is a step to make clear what are the standard details of nonwood constructions in Japan. A questionnaire survey about the own standard details books was made to selected architectural design organizations, and the present condition was made clear. The result says that there are some parts of a building which are likely to be standardized in drawings, but many of the details concerning to the building equipment are differently treated by each organization. And the computerization of the architectural drawings is changing gradually the state of the standard drawings.
"Endogenous" community making is a essential methodology of the current community making types. By the way we tried to make the map from the view point of "Endogenous Sightseeing" which will facilitate community making by the residents. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the creating process of it, and to study on the sigunificance of living environmental elements that we found in this process. Through this unique experience the affection and sensitivity of participation was raised. And the found environmental elements give suggestions for "Endogenous" community making.
This paper presents a study on selecting the optimum construction method for building projects with deep and large-scale underground work. Here illustrated (H building project) : an approach to be used in the preliminary phase of structural design and construction planning. Highlighting the underground work, statistical discriminate analysis proposed previously by the authors has been carried out. Adopting this analysis, the comparison study for both cost and construction program have been made in regard to three construction methods, that is, (1) Top-down construction procedure ("SAKAUCHI METHOD") (2) 1st floor slab concreting in advance plus combined H-section strut method ("IKKAI-YUKA SENNKOU SHUUCHUU KIRIBARI METHOD") (3) Conventional concreting procedure ("JUNUCHI SHUUCHUU KIRIBARI METHOD") To the final solution, a brief description of the SMW design and rationalization/labor-minimization by Top-down construction procedure ("SAKAUCHI METHOD") is given.
Planning and scheduling for construction process is required a comprehensive assessment which takes into account the organization of processes, the shortening of construction time and the proper allocation of resources. The author focuces on this point, is carrying out this research in an effort to develop a systematic method capable of enabling superviser in front line to formulate plans efficiently, and regarding many planning items comprehensively. This paper presents the guideline for construction planning and scheduling using construction process chart method.
This report presents the Kiwari-systems in the architectural manual books that were written before the early part of the 17th century. Those old records were handed down to the recent years by the KOBAYASHIS who were inaugurated as the DAIKU-TORYO that was the post for the authorized carpenters in SHONAI-HAN. Their descriptions are about the architectural techniques to all kinds of architectures and the architectural formalities, so they are important to study Japanese Middle Ages architectures. Among those architectural techniques, this report presents especially the kiwari-systems of IKKENYASHIRO that is a kind of main sanctuary of shinto shrines.
This report presents reinforcement for earthquake so as to removing and preserve a folk dwelling in the Michinoku lake wood national park. The cultural propaty of folk dwelling have accept the terms, serves for visitors intellectural expernce. Strength and fire proof must follow the building standard low is condition in the park. There fore the reinforcement for earthquake to a park establishment follow the building standard low. And the folk dwelling has to comtentment with many visitor intellectural experiens, keep the style and form of cultural property, it is importment to solve those contradct torms.
Some studies about the purpose or the contents of education have been piled in the field of architecture design. However the actual skill of it has been scarcely treated on the technological level, and especially "Words for evaluation" which teachers use in the instructional situation have never been studied both on the meaning and on the influence. The purpose of this report is that the data, which were got in the investigation about the frank thoughts of students, are utilized by teachers of architecture design.
In the urban seismic disaster mitigation or the aseismic design of building, it is essential to evaluate seismic ground motion properly. The geographical information system QuSE (Quickly Seismic Evaluation system) is newly developed here. QuSE has three main funtions which are the evaluation of seismic ground motion for virtual fault, the identification of active faults which affect any specific site, and the evaluation of seismic risk for arbitrary return period at any specific site. In order to evaluate the seismic ground motion properly, QuSE combines seismic related data, soil data and the various empirical formulas on Giographical Information System (GIS).