The carbonation rate coefficient of the medium heat Portland cement with fly ash was studied in both accelerated and natural exposure test conditions. The coefficient of the cement was higher than that of ordinary Portland cement (N cement) by 1.5 to 2.0 times under accelerated test conditions when water to binder ratio was 60%, but it was nearly the same with that of N cement under out door exposure test conditions. The cement factor (α2) of the cement was calculated to be 1.1 and the environment related factor (β3) was to be 3.5 according to the carbonation rate coefficient equations by the AIJ durability design recommendation.
The mixing time of wall clay is decided based on experience and intuition of plasterers. There is no clear description about the mixing time of wall clay. In this study, the load electric power of bi-axial forced mixer is measured to grasp the optimal mixing time of wall clay. The influence of mixing time on the mechanical characteristics of wall clay is examined based on the unconfined compression tests for every mixing time. As a result, the optimal mixing time of wall clay with much clay fraction is estimated to be about 50 minutes in the range of this study.
This paper deals with the estimation method of joint mortar strength in CB masonry with scratch for the quality control. According to the test results, it was found the correlation between strength and width of scratch. The test results also showed that the surface roughness and the moisture content in joint affected the width of scratch. The width was increased with increase of the moisture content and the surface roughness. Water absorption amount of CB from mortar depended on the mortar type, CB type and joint width and it was found that mortar strength was reduced by water absorption of CB. Finally, we proposed an estimation method for joint mortar strength using the scratch test and quality control method on the basis of these results.
I have developed a screw steel pipe pile with toe wing having an inner wing. In this paper, I did a load test in ground of cohesive soil and sandy soil. As a result, for ultimate bearing capacity of the toe wing, I found the following. By applying the bearing capacity formula of sandy soil, bearing capacity factor can be set to 250. Further, by applying the same formula, pile toe effective area may be 0.5 times of the inner blade and blade toes. Pile head settlement amount was found to be below allowable settlement in the continuous footing.
Asbestos cement sheets used under outdoor condition may need surface treatment because of deterioration. Surface preparation of deteriorated asbestos cement sheets may cause asbestos fibers release during surface preparation. In former study, airborne fibrous particles concentration was measured under several ways of surface preparation of existed deteriorated cement sheets containing asbestos. In this study, some substrate preparation methods were added, and airborne fibrous particles concentration was measured under those surface preparation methods, for the purpose of verification on safety of substrate methods and asbestos release during surface preparation.
Water leakage and dew condensation at residential attics are major cause for complaints in construction works. Discriminating these two phenomena is important, since countermeasure works for these two phenomena are different. This paper firstly proposes a wetting sensor monitoring system to detect these water films in attics. Secondary, sensor system stability under temperature, humidity change and chronic measurement is evaluated. Lastly, discrimination method for difference in flow conditions of water leakage and dew condensation is proposed.
Tokyo Tower has passed for 55 years till today at the end of 1958 since completion. In the meantime, though it is a large-sized steel construction which is easy to corrode, by suitable maintenance preservation by coatings, without spoiling a fine sight function, a ground protection feature, etc., the function it is supposed that it is as a communications tower and a sightseeing spot is held, and nine renewal coating work is carried out till the present. This paper reports the maintenance preservation by the application coating systems at the time of this construction, and subsequent whole surface renewal coatings.
The purpose of this study is to establish strength estimation method for high strength and mass concrete using non-destructive inspection method. In this study, Experimental studies of non-destructive inspection and concrete core strength for 5 years age are carried out and the following conclusions are drawn. With the proposed estimate equation using single rebound-hummer method in this study, it is judged that the compressive strength of concrete structure can presume. And the analysis shows that the combination of rebound-hummer method and elastic-wave propagation method gives more accurate estimation equations than the single method.
For the purpose of making a model for the recycling of construction mixed waste, this research conducted investigation and an experiment on the applicability of recycling about PVC tile carpet. The amount of discharge and state of construction mixed waste which specifically tend to become ambiguous were investigated, and the rate of the recyclable article was clarified. Moreover, the influence of the impurities in PVC waste on recycling sheet was clarified. From these results, a tile carpet can be efficiently recyclable, if appropriate source segregation is performed.
For construction of the resources recycling society, promotion of the recycling of the construction waste is strongly demanded. In this paper, we thought that the consensus building between companies concerned with recycling was indispensable for the recycling promotion, and tried to clarify how it was shared consciousness between companies at the present by questionnaire. The result of questionnaire showed that those companies working on reduction and recycling of construction waste, and the tripartite consciousness is unified in principle.
In a disaster, temporary houses are generally constructed by builders belong to a certain organization. On the other hand, in the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster, other builders constructed ones too, because it was necessary for victims to a large number of temporary houses. So, various types of temporary house were constructed in the disaster. Therefore, we investigated the actual situation and problem about construction of various temporary houses in Fukushima by interview and questionnaire. We expect survey results to be useful in future disasters.
It is very important for structural design to estimate the response displacement of the structures for the input earthquakes. For that purpose, static analysis is to be used because of its simplicity and practicality though dynamic response analysis might be most suitable approach to prescribe the actual characteristics of structures. Present paper proposes the design load which is used in the static analysis and can approximate dynamic maximum response displacement of the objective structure. In order to predict such static design load distribution, genetic algorithm is utilized together with dynamic elasto-plastic analysis of simple models.
Application of passive dampers to timber structures is increasing with the aim of reducing seismic response including translation and torsion. The structure in such a case possesses the so-called non-proportional damping. In this paper, new system identification method considering non-proportional damping is proposed. Modal shapes including phase differences of each point are evaluated using special technique, which makes real-valued expression possible. Accuracy of the method is confirmed by comparison with shaking table test. It showed close agreement.
This study investigates the impossibility ratio of evacuation in super high-rise residential buildings during an earthquake. Shaking table tests using the strong motion records observed in super high-rise residential buildings during the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake were performed. Then, the questionnaire survey about action difficulty during the shaking was conducted for the testee. Finally, the evaluation method about impossibility ratio of evacuation during earthquake was proposed based on the questionnaire survey and strong motion data recorded during the main shock.
Strong motion records including the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake were obtained at the super-high-rise reinforced-concrete structure buildings in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Through the estimation of the frequency- relative displacement relation, amplitude dependence and the variation of the natural frequency caused by the inexperienced response relative displacement was confirmed.
This paper describes applicability of a dynamic analysis model for Nikko-zan Rin-noji temple Hondo, the traditional wooden structure, based on observed records during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake and its aftershocks. The 3-D frame model is configured on the basis of element experiments and empirical equations on earthquake resisting parts. The first natural frequency and the first damping factor of the model show relatively good agreement with those of the observed records, adding the hysteresis damping factor to the viscous damping factor even in small deformation.
This paper describes a seismic performance of two types of passive control systems for wooden houses. These performances are evaluated by shaking table tests. The test results show that the passive control systems can be restrained an initial performance after strong motion comparing to typical aseismic elements, and especially one of the systems which incorporate visco-elastic material has high damping performance through wide deformation range.
This paper describes the validation of frame analysis modeling of wood frame structures with visco-elastic structural control devices. The accuracy of the analytical model is comfirmed by comparing it with the experimenal results of pseudo-dynamic tests and shaking table tests. The effects of temperature variation in the visco-elastic material are investigated by seismic response analyses. The analysis results show that these devices have exhibited high performance than others when the temperature of the visco-elastic material was 16°C.
This paper proposes a detailed design method which defines response deformation of buildings as the target design index. In the design, the required base shears corresponding to design deformations for the moderate and severe earthquakes are estimated by the response calculation formulas based on the dynamic theory. Then, the paper examines the obtained restoring force characteristics by the time history response analysis, in order to verify the appropriateness of the proposed design method. It is proved that the proposed method excellently satisfies the target design deformations.
The propose of this investigation was to determine the distribution of bond stress between plain round bars and low strength concrete from cyclic pull-out testing. Considered main parameter was the length of embedment bars in this paper. From the test results, tensile stress and bond stress distribution of the embedded bar were obtained. The location of the peak bond stress shifted from the loaded end toward the unloaded end of the bars with increasing applied load. When tensile load decreased to zero the residual stress was occurred in the bar. In addition, even though the applied load was reversed, bond stress distribution along the bar was still constant.
This paper compares the design concept and factors in the specifications of the seismic design codes of International Building Code used in U.S. and Calculation of Lateral Load Carrying Capacity. The paper also researches the relationship between required strength and response ductility of the buildings designed by two codes. Finally, the paper compares the maximum drift angle based on two patterns of yield drift angle models.
One of the key limits of buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) is overall flexural buckling caused by connection failure, and they are required to exhibit stable hysteresis under cyclic axial loading with initial out-of-plane drifts simulating the bi-directional effects of a ground motion. In this paper, a series of cyclic loading tests with initial out-of-plane drifts for built-up type BRB is carried out, and the stability performance including various connection conditions and initial out-of-plane drifts are researched. These results are compared with the stability evaluation equations proposed by the authors, and the validity and accuracy of these equations are discussed.
In assessing to some structural problems of existing high-rise buildings, it is necessary to comprehend states of that precisely. This study focuses on the components and characteristics of that, and constructs the seismic analysis model on basis of typical specifications, which is investigated by literature survey. The analysis result against long-period ground motion shows two suggestions. One is that the seismic performance of existing buildings may not be weak comparing to current buildings, and the other is that the cumulative damage of beam ends concentrates lower stories.
Our objective is the development of a hybrid-beam structure that will further expand the range of applications for this construction method through the addition of outcables to the PC+S structure in a beam string configuration that enables further span lengthening. Here, we describe the effects of the joint end-plate depth with the outcable tensioning force used as the variable.
The smoke behaviors are simulated without the effect of the sprinkler activation by the fire safety design. As one of the reasons, the studies on smoke behavior with sprinkler activation are hardly studied. Experiments were conducted on a full-scale test using wood crib as fuel, and the following results were obtained; the heat release rate decreased by effect of water spray. But the burning was continued in some experiments. The temperature and CO2 density of the upper layer was decreased, and the lower layer was raised by effect of water spray.
Several experiments were carried out to grasp burning behavior of wall using wooden interior material with sprinkler activating in unenclosed space. As for specimens, Japanese cedar plywood (24 mm thick) and lumber core plywood (12 mm thick) were selected. The size of specimens was 1820 mm wide and 2730 mm high. Regarding the experimental conditions, the incident heat flux onto the specimens by heat source was about 30 kW/m2 at the distance of 455 mm from the bottom of the specimens, and water supply rate was 80 L/min. As the result of the experiments, heat release rate reached about 300kW which was one of heat source after sprinkler activated. Char depths of the sprinkled specimens were less than 3mm.
From the viewpoints of environmental issue and forest protection, promotion of the use of wood is demanded. On the other hand, construction of a large-scale fire proof wooden building is possible legally, but the realization is difficult. In such a background, we planned the wooden structure office with wooden interior finishing in Osaka. In this paper, process of exclusion from application of interior finishing restriction by use of results of full-scale interior finishing fire spread experiments.
The fire experiment was conducted in Tsukuba in February, 2012 for studying a feasibility of a large wooden building. The building went up in flames and a large number of firebrands were generated and transported by the wind. After the experiment, firebrands deposited in every location were collected and each total mass was measured. Consequently, the extent of the firebrand deposition and the distributions of the firebrand deposition density were obtained. The measurements of projected area, mass and volume of each firebrand revealed that the firebrand mass density and dimensions decreased with a distance from the fire.
A survey by web questionnaire concerning actual conditions of areas, satisfactions of their spaciousness and preferable sizes of houses and living rooms was conducted. As a result, the areas of the living rooms were between 10m2 to 40m2 regardless of the total floor areas of the houses. Generally, the respondents felt that their houses were a little bit cramped. But, they didn’t necessarily want to live in a commodious room. And they also answered that they preferred a moderate size room. So they were hoping for a little bit larger room than those they were living now.
This research attempted to give strong individuality for the lighting environment of a street by people familiar with the area. Shopkeepers and students manufactured lighting works cooperatively and expressed the individuality of 44 shops to the street. All the existing street lights were switched off during the experiment. As compared with the usual lighting environment, the road surface illumination of the sidewalk decreased to 56%, and the power consumption of the whole street decreased to 39%. The individuality of the shops was evaluated highly during the experiment rather than the usual time. About 80% of pedestrians did not feel uneasiness, in spite of having switched off all the street lights during the experiment.
An enclosed demolition method of high-rise buildings is expected to reduce the dispersion amount of airborne particulate caused by demolition works. This paper describes ventilation performance and reduction effects of dust dispersion of this demolition method based on field measurements and numerical simulations. Our results showed that natural ventilation was promoted at openings that were designed in the border of the roof. Moreover, it was confirmed that 80 percent of the airborne particulate of the total dust produced by demolition works were deposited inside the enclosed space.
The developed system included a newly developed groundwater-source heat pump system capable of hybrid operation combining free cooling and heat pumping was installed. In order to prevent scale deposition in the piping and equipment through which groundwater was to flow and clogging of the wells and ground, a water treatment system was installed. Winter test operation was started in November, 2011. Summer test operation was started in June, 2012, and ended in September. Test data obtained in the first year of operation were analyzed. The successful test operation results thus obtained indicate that the developed system is superior in performance to a typical conventional system.
We built the calculation method concerning the heat performance of a ceiling slit radiant panel and indoor thermal environment affected by radiant cooling and heating into the BEST. The calculated values of the heat quantity and indoor thermal environment using the BEST incorporating this calculation method give close agreement with the actual measured values. Therefore, this calculation method is useful when simulating heat quantity, status of water supply and indoor thermal environment from the conditions of a building and ceiling radiant panels.
This paper shows a study on permeability of water vapor and odor substances through six kinds of permeable film including viscos coated paper. The water vapor permeability can be indicated as proportional to the water vapor pressure difference. In addition, gas permeable barrier characteristics to odor substances such as ammonia and toluene were examined by using calibrated electrical gas sensors. It was concluded that the viscos coated paper has better water vapor and gas barrier performance compared to the others.
Commercial facility is one of the building use with much energy consumption. The aim of this paper is to clarify the reduction possibility of power consumption for lighting through subject’s evaluation experiment. The method of making the environment which illuminated darkly in false using the grasses type filters was proposed, and results of basic experiments including transmittance of the filters, relationship between brightness and illumination, relationship between illumination and power consumption were shown. Students subject’s evaluation experiment in supermarket was conducted and the reduction possibility of power consumption lighting was clarified.
The aim of this paper is to extract of the life style of the senior housing with services using workshops by care staffs in the planning process. The methods are the following three types. It were three-choice multiple questions and KJ method, brainstorming technique. In any method, care staffs discussed from resident’s point of view in workshops. As a result, it were extracted the following: 1) Resident’s the age and household composition, long-term care need, life style based on local circumstances. 2) Life and care support to stay living in senior housing with services.
The purpose of this paper is to grasp at the actual usage and management of old folks home which is called ‘TAKUROUSYO’ in Japanese. KS was selected as a case study facility in Tokyo, and we analyzed by the following three aspects. 1. Analyzing the records of all elderly users and staffs of KS from 1998 to 2011, we clarified the characteristics of the service use and the characteristics and changes of the service provision systems. 2. Observation survey in KS was conducted in 2004 and 2011, and we clarified the changes in the users’ ADL, program, activities, etc.
In order to acquire the environment of city hall easy to use for citizen, making opportunities of community workshop in basic design are desired. Therefore, the study aims to verify the effectiveness of method and results of the workshops in the case of S city hall. Three types of correspondence were found between the drawings and citizen’s opinions presented at the workshops. From analyses of the correspondence and questionnaire to the designers and administrative officers, it could be summarized that reflection of citizen’s needs in the drawings and community development are both due to effective discussions on the workshops.
Aiming at the waiting-list child cancellation, the promotion to the nonregistered day-care facility that fills an original standard is done in some municipalities. So, the survey was done in Kawaguchi City that is one of such the municipalities. Some results show as follows : (1)The area standard of the certified day-nursery in Kawaguchi is comparatively high, and childcare fee burden is low. (2)It was a small operation before, but it is changed to the operation of a larger scale now. (3)Childcare facilities more than one have been run by the same management entity. (4)Generous assistance for child care fee is founded on lack of assistance to the certified day-nursery.
This paper the reports results of workshop with full scale furniture models in the design process of the senior housing with services. Participants in the workshop were care staffs of residential facilities for the elderly. As a result, it were extracted the following: 1) This workshop considers various life styles and functions of the dwelling unit. 2) It is able to check the connection of the room, such as the presence or absence of partition wall. 3) It is able to consider the size of domestic sanitary spaces when the resident needs the care.
This paper aims at verifying whether hospital ward planning influences nurses’ feeling of their burden (that they feel about nursing services). As a result, it was seen that the nurses’ attribute and length of working hours influenced a burden-feeling and busyness-feeling. Moreover, there were some relation between hospital ward planning and the evaluation score of ease or efficiency of nursing. It suggest a possibility that hospital ward planning affects nurses’ burden-feeling about nursing service.
This paper discussed toward the construction of living environment regardless of the kind of disabilities. Characteristics of staying aspects were organized by kinds of disabilities. Observation survey was conducted at the facilities for people with physical, intellectual, and severe motor and intellectual disabilities, and revealed that there were characteristic of staying places and ambulation by kinds of disabilities.
The aim of this study is to clarify the changes in water supply systems and their utilization at Motokukuri district in Kani city. The following results were obtained: (1) The main part of water supply systems in this area was built up to the Edo period, and then extended gradually to cover the whole town. (2) Irrigation equipment was daily used by residents until around 1985. Even today, they are used for outdoor activities. However, the community use of water has almost disappeared. Finally, (3) authors noticed different problems related to safety, such as flood disaster.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the planning parameters related to the use characteristics of the underground space linked to Hisaya Odori Park in Nagoya city. The following results were obtained. (1) It is important to improve the connection between the underground space and its surrounding buildings, and provide users with information about orientation. (2) Authors recommend removing steps from the underground space and installing elevators, which will connect it with the ground level. (3) To reduce the risks of possible disasters, it is necessary to improve the rate of space utilization and the recognition of evacuation itineraries.
In Yunotsuru spa there are four Japanese inns with self-cooking facilities, but only one of them does business still now. In the case of these Japanese inns, workers live in it. Although the space of visitors and workers is separated from bordering on the cooking space, the rooms equipped with water supply are shared in some cases. And in the habitation space, a kitchen is located in the lower-part-of-river side. In addition, the guest room faces the road through the open corridor. According to downsizing and removal of self-cooking facilities, rooms by common use also decreased.
The purpose of this paper is to declare the actual conditions and needs about crime prevention after apartments were registered as model ones with anti-crime performance in Osaka and Hiroshima. This result is follow; the first is that some crimes occurred in these apartments, for example, bicycle robbery, and breaking and entering etc. And some inhabitants have fear of crime. The second is that inhibitants of these apartments are more ambitious to keep their apartments’ license and model ones with anti-crime performance than the beginning of their living. The problem is that the merits of these systems aren’t established adequately.
This study mainly clarifies formative process and site rate of the west shrine town in Miyajima. The major findings are as follows. The formation of the town was made in early the year 1500 in the wake of the formation of temples and shrines the year 1300-1168. Since then, houses crowded by the increase in population, the formation of a new town was made mid-16 and 17th century. After the reclamation of coast, town was again expanded the frontage to reclaimed area. In addition, the site had been integrated in many places.
This study focuses on the process whereby “Hutongs” (urban alleys) have been destroyed in the Buffer Zone of Shenyang Imperial Palace. (World Heritage Site), based on analysis of old maps. It emerges that over half of these old alleys were swept away in the course of rapid urban redevelopment, to make way for commercial buildings and apartment houses. The paper concludes that the remaining Hutongs and their values could be important in furthering historical conservation and future planning in this area.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the difference of the landscaping standard from the normal landscape planning area and the landscape planning area covering important cultural landscape through the analyzing 19 important cultural landscapes designated by August 2010. I can point out that there are 3 types as the differences, and that some standards bring the important view points. I can also point out the regulations working to strengthen the character of cultural landscape are few.
The purpose of this study is to examine the methods for properly managing the vacant houses. In particular, this paper reports the present conditions and problems of proper management regulations of vacant houses by local governments. The analysis data base on questionnaires for 807 local governments in eastern Japan. The main purpose of proper management regulations of vacant houses is to ensure the resident’s security and relief in usual. In addition, it has become easy to instruct owners of vacant houses by enforcing regulations.