In this paper, a fundamental study is carried out to clarify the material properties of the steel fiber reinforced high strength/high ductility cementitious composite. In the experimental work, compression test, splitting test, and fracture toughness test are conducted. As a result, it is found that transition phenomenon exists around the fiber volume fraction of 6%, in which the mechanical properties clearly change.
In this paper, a simplified uniaxial constitutive model in both tension and compression for the steel fiber reinforced high strength/high ductility cementitious composite is developed. The proposed model is formulated according to experimental results and matches the empirical measurements within allowable deviation. Furthermore, finite element method analysis employing the proposed model is carried out and the predictions are compared with the experimental observations. The model is found in relatively good agreement with experiments, indicating that it can be used as a reliable tool for predicting the response of structures with the objective cementitious composite.
A new method is proposed to evaluate the schemes of mass concrete practices by counting the cracking index in the structure. The new method bases upon the CP-Method prepared by "the JCI Committee on the Thermal Stress of Mass Concrete". The new method intends to get an abridged index of the planning schemes about the present mass concrete practices on site without any complicated calculations. Some examples showed fairly good coincidence with the exact computed results.
It is still important subject to establish the management method of recycled aggregate concrete under the real social situation. This paper reports the example of the small building using recycled aggregate produced by the existing plant in the field under the risk management by architect. Through planning, persuading administration and constructor, risk management of recycled aggregate concrete is to make clear what should be done when concrete becomes poor quality. And this paper also reports one way of thinking about risk management method.
This paper deals with estimation of the strength in high strength concrete structures subjected to high temperature history caused by hydration heat of cement. The compressive strengths of standard cured specimens, on site seal cured specimens, and adiabatically cured specimens using the newly developed simple method were compared with the strength in structures. The temperature history of the adiabatically cured specimens were also compared with the temperature history of structure. It was found that the temperature history of the adiabatically cured specimens were similar to that of the structure at early age, Is concluded that the strength in high strength concrete structure can be estimated using the simple adiabatic curing.
To curtail a term of work in erection of a steel frame and reduce its erection cost, we have developed a fastening device having a simple mechanism that can be used in erecting steel columns. In construction of the erection with this device, steel columns can be erected vertically in the beginning, and thus steel beams can be easily put into connection at predetermined positions. The developed device makes use of high strength bolted friction joints with oversize holes. The following report is describing, (1) Construction and feature of this device, (2) Repeated use, and (3) Safety using this device.
The purpose of this study is to enable more effective generation, exchange management and use of digital data for supporting construction system. This paper reported an experiment made for rationalizing the interchanging method of construction process data by applying technologies of CALS (Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support) to the construction. This experiment was done as a CALS field test of Government Building Department of Chubu Regional Construction Bureau, MOC.
This paper deals with experimental results on evaluation methods of flexural behaviors out of plane concerning about 3 types of ceramic tile facing composite panels with supports of metal, inorganic extruded materials, fiber reinforced cement sidings for dry renewals of external walls. They were examined in flexural strength and evaluated by a criterion of more than 7MPa in effective first cracked flexural strength. Although relationships between flexural moment and curvature were different from each panel, and some of first cracked flexural strength were under 7MPa, all of panels satisfied the criterion on the basis of the new evaluation method.
It is assumed that with a chill background, when the minimun temperature of winter may be about-20 degrees and the installation environment of isolation member serves as low temperature below the freezing point. Therefore, it is also expected that the characteristics are change as the yield strength and energy absorption of Lead Rubber Bearing. In this study, we report that the examination result of dynamic performance test by the full-scale model to presume the performance of Lead Rubber Bearing, which under the normal and low temperature.
This paper discusses an equivalent linearization method by making use of stiffness matrix with complex numbers for laminated rubber bearings in a basis of slope deflextion method including of shear deformation. The paper shows that the values inducted by the proposed method agrees fairly to the experimental results gived by horizontal load and bending load tests. Thus it can be said that the proposed method gives the foundation of a performance based design method to be able to estimate energy absorption effect of laminated rubber bearing.
Simplified performance based seismic design of one-story and multistory ductile buildings with rigid diaphragms and parallel systems including irregular-type buildings, mixed structural systems, and new materials and construction structural systems except some special structural systems such as base isolation systems is introduced using shear and torsional moments in the x- and y-directions, respectively. Public expectations for life safety, operational functions, reparable damage limitations, life-cycle cost of buildings are considered using several intensity levels of design ground motions based on return period concept in some urban area in a Japanese high seismic zone and various ranks of acceptable inelastic deformation limits, when buildings are subjected to major earthquakes.
The authors have developed a new piling system. In this system, the piles that have fabric bulbs at their toe are adopted. The piling system is featured by its great bearing capacity and consistent high quality. In this paper, construction method of the pile and the result of enlarged bulb diameter are described.
A strip-membrane type laminar box for shaking table test was developed which enabled liquefied and laterally spreading soils to reproduce large shear deformation. The laminar box reproduced residual shear deformation after soil liquefaction and large shear deformation over 10% during lateral spreading. Relation between shear stress and shear strain obtained from shaking table test using the laminar box made examination into the detail possible to concerning cyclic mobility phenomenon as well as soil liquefaction.
In this paper, a design considering non-linearity of soil-pile system is presented for laterally loaded piles. Load-displacement relationships predicted by the design are compared with field tests of 38 single piles and 4 pile groups. As a result, it is found out that the design predictions agree approximately with the nonlinear lateral behavior of the piles from the field tests.
The author have developed a plate-type mechanical anchorage system attached to a screw rebar end, aiming at rational rebar arrangement. This system was applied to the mechanical anchorage of beam longitudinal rebars in the exterior beam-column joints of high-rise R/C buildings. To establish the practical applicability of this anchorage system and confirm the basic characteristics of the anchorage mechanism, four series of experiments, I〜IV, were conducted. Based on the results, a mechanical anchorage design method was proposed.
The present time design of R/C columns, which is based on intentional collapse mode, is dependent on ductility. In this paper, the effect of various bond properties of longitudinal bar on behavior of R/C columns is investigated. Six R/C columns with three types of longitudinal bar's bond properties were tested under cyclic lateral load while simultaneously being subjected to constant axial load. Test results indicate that the collapse modes of R/C columns are affected by bond properties of longitudinal bar.
The needs of larger span reinforced concrete slabs such as long life housing with a support and infill system are increasing. For larger span slabs the deflection control design is requested because of serviceability problem resulting for excessive deflection. The aim of this paper is to propose the design method of deflection control by applying author's calculation method of minimum slab thickness and of long term deflection of reinforced concrete and partially prestressed concrete slabs.
The shortage and aging of the facilities are common problems among national universities in Japan. This paper proposes a seismic upgrading and extension plan of an existing low/mid-rise school building using outer mega-frames which strengthen the existing structure and support extended upper floors at the same time. The possibility of the plan is investigated using seismic response analysis. The feasibility analysis in terms of extra land necessity, possibility of upgrading without evacuation, living environment after upgrading, and cost shows that the proposed plan is superior to constructing a fully new structure and to upgrading the existing structure along with constructing a new one.
An experimental study for the development of steel-plate bearing applied to the erection of precast PC slabs has been made. A total of 6 PC beam specimens having different embedding length of anchor bolts and the spacing between stirrups have been used, and a simple-beam type loading test was carried out. It was found that the strength and deformation properties of the bearing increases as either the embedding length increases or the spacing between stirrups decreases. A mixing of failure modes was also observed ; the bond splitting failure of anchor bolts (the major failure mode for all specimens) was accompanied by the bending failure at a beam section.
In the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake, the maximum seismic acceleration 818cm/s^2 was experienced, which is about 2.5 times the value supposed in the past aseismic designs. This paper reports a trial structural design of a sevenstoried apartment building resistant to the acceleration. A steel framed structure stiffened with PC walls is adopted from the aseismic view point. Results of elastic-plastic seismic response analyses are shown to demonstrate that the structure can resist the acceleration.
The strength and displacement performance of the existing brace can be improved by constraining the flexural buckling of the brace covered with steel tuve. However, it is difficult to obtain the specified performance if the space between brace and steel tube should not be controlled appropriately at the time of execution. In this report, the experimental results for investigating the mechanical behavior of the brace constrained flexural buckling by bolt and for establishing the design method are shown. Also, the earthquake resistance reinforcement example with this construction method applied in an existing building is introduced.
A Research Committee on Education of Building Structures in Chugoku Branch asked questions on the present state and importance of study items in education of structural mechanics to the teachers of high schools, colleges and universities, and practical engineers in Chugoku, Shikoku and Kyushu districts. According to the survey, ranking of the important items and the problems in educational sites to be solved are presented.
Aluminum alloy material has been used in space structure as roof with advantage of the lightness, durability and strength. However, aluminum alloy structure were applied to very few buildings which have flat floor for human activity. This small house introduced herein is almost the first aluminum building for the individuals living in Japan. Both characteristic structures of panel wall and dual (cover and core) members column are usde in the system. The surface of wall is exposed for Finish and the cover members of columns are functioned as sash frames of doors and windows. The synthesization of structural and architectural members create a new spacial expression.
In the preceding paper, it was revealed through the interview with the visually handicapped that architectural acoustics and environmental noise are significant factors for their indoor mobility. In the present work, experiment on the detection of a sound source and the indoor mobility has been carried out in four kinds of spaces with different acoustic conditions. As the experimental results the followings are obtained. The sense of direction of the blinds in a long thin space was superior to that in a broad space. The reverberation time and the finish of the floor don't affect on the sense of direction of the blinds in mobility.
Recently, many indoor malls as urban pedestrian spaces are constructed in cold region. But many glaring lights on the passages make pedestrians conscious of ceilings or floors and they drive human perception mad. Purposes of this paper are to grasp characteristics of human perception by some psychological experiments, and to understand problems in indoor malls.
Recently, steel-framed houses began to be built even in Japan because of rise in timber price. A technology for building them has been mainly developed in warm regions, such as California and Florida. So the technology has to be verified and to be improved according to climate and custom of Japan if necessary. The paper discusses thermal insulation, moistureproofing and air-tightness of the steel-framed houses on basis of field data, which were measured in steel-framed houses existing in Japan.
Having regard to the study on solar architecture during last two decades, the next theme can be obtained in relation to the next coming suitable type of townhouse. The architecture can be multi-functined by the integration of new function, for example on the exterior wall or on the roof etc.. One townhouse is presented here, and studied continuously also.
To obtain significant evaporative cooling effect derived from enhanced water content rate, development of passive cooling bricks impregnated with chlorides was attempted. Fundamental concept, chloride impregnation into the base materials, is come from the former presented study which was a specific idea for the efficient humidity regulation material as an indoor finishing. The results of experiments indicate that chloride impregnation leads to marvelous capacity of water content, even though some extent of that characteristic is going to be lost after many days exposure to dynamic outdoor condition. In the dissemination point of view, seawater is confirmed to be applicable as a chloride source. In some specific cases, surface temperature of the chloride-impregnated brick during its transient evaporation is observed relatively high than usual evaporation, which is considered as a particular chemical influence. So then, this presented idea requires a careful design with respect to where that is applied to and what kind of chloride is impregnated.
Cooling in summer is generally done by air conditioners using electric energy. But this system often causes diseases attributable to excessive cooling and poor circulation as cool air blows locally. Radiation cooling is a solution to this problem. The authors have installed ceiling radiation panels using well water as a heat medium in a room of a wooden house, and verified comfortableness and energy-saving by measuring temperature, humidity, solar radiation and so on continuously throughout a year.
The authors have set up two experimental rooms of the same building specifications. One is for the ceiling radiation cooling/heating system and the other is for the conventional system. The following are reports on the verification of the ceiling radiation cooling/heating system from various aspects. With a view to designing the ceiling radiation cooling/heating system thoroughly, the authors have launched computer simulation of relations between necessary ceiling radiation surface temperature (heat quantity of radiation panels) and room temperature.
Actual measurement of certain fountain and indoor experiment were carried out in this study. The result shows various characteristics of negative ions near the fountain such as that the occurance of negative ions differs according to the season, that the volume of negative ions has relationship with the temperature and humidity, that it varies based on the wind condition, and that it varies not only by the type of fountain but also by the quantity of water and the pressure of water aguiust basin.
Field measurement focusing on heat balance at grassland was performed for five months. Following phenomenon were observed. ・ In summer season, surface temperature of leaf tip increases with increase of the amount of incident solar radiation more clearly than in other season. ・ Bowen ratio decreases with increase of water content of soil surface. ・ Bowen ratio of winter is bigger than that of autumn under the same water content of soil surface. ・ Mocked-up Grassland SAT-meters suggest that those shape and material of the imitative leaves are not so affective on the estimated heat transfer coefficient. ・ The heat transfer coefficient of the grassland obtained from the measurement data of heat flux and representative surface temperature of leaf tip seems to be inconsistent with that of Grassland SAT-meter.
The rising concern for environmental issue made a new word of 'Green Building' or 'Sustainable Building' et al. In architectural field, various tools concerning the evaluation of Green Building are developed all over the world in recent 10 years. However, the definition of Green Building is not clear. We tried to make it clear by collecting and studying Green Building evaluation tools, and this study will continue to find the needs of contribution of Architectural Environment Engineering field to these evaluation tools in the future. As a result, a lot of tools are existed. However, they have common three issues which are energy efficiency, low impact to environment, and indoor comfort & health. It seemed that the building which these three issues balanced was able to defined as a Green Building, and an evaluation tool to check this balance can be defined as a Green Building evaluation tool.
This paper reports on the development of ET_AEE, which is an acronym of Educational Tools for Architectural Environment Engineering. ET AEE is a new educational-tool program that calculates several tasks related to the topics of Architectural Environment Engineering aiming at undergraduate students. However, ET_AEE probably seems to be much useful and powerful not only for undergraduate students but also for graduate students, engineers and researchers. ET_AEE provides above-mentioned calculations on a userfriendly interface, in other words, Graphical User Interface, GUI, which works on the plat form of Windows 95, Windows 98 or Windows NT. ET_AEE is free software, so then, anyone can download the installation file from the web-site of authors, http : //ktlabo.cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp/. Calculating functions provided by ET_AEE are totally 12 that are classified into 2 parts, Engineering Issues and Mathematical Issues. ET_AEE provides a separete dialog box for each calculation topic that was designed to be cool and easy understanding considering GUI. One of the specific features to be stressed is that ET_ AEE has a huge Help file using a bunch of image files, which is very useful and helpful.
This paper discusses the actual condition of furnishing of living room in U. S. A. and Europe. Methods are collection of data from magazines. Furnishing such as furniture style, lighting, carpets, floor materials are different among U. S. A., England, France, Germany and Italy.
The purpose of this study is to suggest the method of estimation and improvement of streets with many low-rise houses from the view point of the forms of collection and the characteristics of open space, and to put the method into practice at Fukui city. The results are as follows. 1. There are 132 pieces of streets with more low-rise houses than 60%, and the distribution of them is clarified. 2. The ratio of low-rise house with open space is various. 3. These streets are classified into 4 types from the view point of continuity of street.
In pushing forward development projects in downtown areas, it is necessary to consider about surrounding blocks or the city itself with idea that is to make a plan thorough multi-party negotiation. This is a study, which concern with construction on the planning framework in purpose of gaining "public nature" which secure human extensive activity, through negotiation between each public and private party and citizen. The way is consideration negotiation process, majority participation and negotiated organization's concern on case study Sapporo station south-gateway district improvement project.
This is a study on the way of redesign of the urban core in developed areas in the matured society. Through questionnaires on environment evaluation of the urban core to the users, we analyzed the factors of them which relates to the way of accessing the district, and the activities there. As a consequence, factors of the environment evaluation showed difference. The factors were able to be arranged into three basic elements which are "space", "function" and "network, access". So, in case of making redesign plans, we must take these elements into consideration.
Due to the increase of wastes in recent years, problems associated with treatment of wastes are happening in Japan. This paper aims to clarify the procedures by undertaking case study of former landfill sites to treat land contamination and redevelopment in the U. K. It investigated eight cases by interviews to local governments and government organizations and site visits. It is found that landfill sites are generally treated by encapsulation to cover the whole site of filled with wastes, thus, public open space is frequently used as the land use after the treatment. And in some cases where need to be developed into other uses in relation to land use plan, it then requires to treat in the different methods.
This research shows the importance of common image as an element of landscape study. To illustrate this, the common image of Shinsenkyo as depicted in Sansui-ga art has been studied. It was found that when subjects viewed Sansui-ga art, or a Chinese garden based on Shinsenkyo, they imagined themselves within the landscape ; they constantly searched for Shinsenkyo within the landscape ; and their impression of the landscape grown over time.
This paper studies characteristics of planning materials issued prefecture governments and its influences on actual planning based on surveys carried out to planning section of prefectures and municipalities. Twenty-seven prefectures among of forty-six have issued planning materials. Although some municipalities like to have planning materials for their reference, there would be some materials causing demerits of formality and deteriorating municipalities' effort for planning an original master plan. As for superiority recognition as a prefecture government on municipality, planning materials are categorized into three types, which are "a type recognized superiority", "a type recognized prefecture participation and little superiority" and "a type respecting autonomy of each municipality"
The achievement of policies to enforce and encourage "Ravalement" works to restore and maintain the quality of building facades at their original conditions in France is quite significant. Such policies as regulation and tax incentives have been improved especially in the 1990s. The basis of these policies is the high priority given to the value of beautiful quality of building facades as a major element of public interests, which is worth considering the implications to policies in Japan.
This paper reports the practical study on program development for learning the community environment, through the workshops for two years. This program consists of three phases : motivating, learning, and designing. Twenty children and parents participated in this program with voluntary staffs, and experienced investigation of community and design of architecture and urban design. It is resulted that it is important to take into consideration of the followings as well as methods for learning community environment : enhancement of communications among participants, relationship of children to their parents, continuity and conclusiveness of programs, skill for conveying the professional knowledge plainly.
Increase of population in Metro Manila causes large demand of residential land and expansion of squatter or slum areas. There were 14,819ha of residential land in 1986 and 66.8% of transformable land in 1986 changed into built-up area and acomodated 2,450 thousand during 1986 to 1996. Metro Manila should have more 3,703 thousand until 2015 and it means disapperance of agricultural land, forest, grassland and other open space. It causes quite serious environmental problems, and so housing policy should be changed from previous one to planned medium or high rising apartments or flats as soon as possible.
Actual conditions of barrier free of medical facilities, health care facilities and social welfare facilities in Muroran, Noboribetsu, Date and Tomakomai were investigated on the basis of standard after the analysis of trend of aging and present situation of the disabled. Those facilities are quite important for both the aged and the disabled and have relatively few problems rather than other facilities. But, most of existing facilities have some problems at entrance, corridor, staircase, elevator, toilet, car parking or passage of site and those should be improved for more aging society in future.
Aging society is going ahead in Muroran rather than metropolis. Capacity of existing facilities for the aged such as special nursing home, day-service center and others are not enough in near future. Public housing in Muroran has many vacant units because those are old, small and attached no bathroom. But some public housing estates have good location and enough space for new facilities for the aged. Balance of those facilities among 9 districts divided for civil services of the City is considered when location of new facilities is proposed and integrated to Muroran's Public Housing Esataes Revitalization Plan.