This report describes test results on the mechanical properties of fly ash fiber reinforced mortar, and application of permanent precast forms to concrete members. As the test results, it was confirmed that the fly ash fiber reinforced mortar maintained excellent workability, high flexural strength and thermal resistance. Therefore, as the fly ash reinforced mortar precast form is thin and light, treatment in the site of construction is very easy. And the results of measurement of the strain at surfaces of the precast form, the fly ash fiber reinforced precast form possesses the full safety for lateral pressure due to ready mixed concrete.
The real-scale experiment to establish the definite method producing recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete based on LCA was carried out, and this paper describes the various quality of recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete produced by each real-scale plant. Specifically, the production efficiency, quality of recycled aggregate generated by real-scale plant, and the basic performance of recycled aggregate concrete using that aggregate, such as property of strength, durability, mechanical property, fire resistance, performance for construction work, etc. were confirmed. Results confirmed the concept for mix proportioning and quality control of recycled aggregate concrete corresponding to that quality.
The high strength concrete with the nominal strength of 36-39 which used natural gravel in Kyoto area was applied to the real structure. This paper was described about compressive strength, daily variation and quality control of concrete. Results are following. The coefficient of daily variation of compressive strength was about 6.5%, and the increase of strength was enough sufficiently. To measure a slump-flow and Slump-flow/Slump ratio as the evaluation of workability of fresh concrete was effective. For the detailed quality evaluation, the apparent density and coefficient of elasticity of specimen must be measured with the compressive strength.
In this report, authors proposed the simplified methods to produce the outer-shell precast concrete member with hoops and sub-hoops, and simulated the cost of construction and production. As the results of simulation of the cost, it was confirmed that the proposed simplified method is more economical than the usual methods and the total construction cost of structure by outer-shell precast concrete system is lowerthan full precast concrete system. As the test results of outer-shell member, the strength of outer-shell member was as the same as those of monolithic member.
The phenomenon of accumulated snow sliding off a pitched roof of a building is frequently seen. The occurrence of snow sliding is affected by such factors as atmospheric temperature and temperature inside the attic. In this study, the following investigation was carried out in order to establish a method for evaluating snow load on a pitched roof that takes into account the occurrence of snow sliding. First, it examined about the characteristic of snow sliding resistance. It was found that the occurrence of snow sliding is greatly affected by adfreezing resistance and that this resistance decreases if the atmospheric temperature rises to -2℃ or higher. Next, from these results on adfreezing resistance, we used data on atmospheric temperature obtained from a weather station to calculate the number of days required for snow sliding to occur. In this paper, we propose a method for evaluating snow load on a roof that includes consideration of the number of days required for snow sliding to occur.
The purpose of this study is to obtain the damping characteristics for reinforced concrete high rise stacks. Microtremors of those stacks were all the time. Free vibration waves were theoretically made using random decrement technique. Therefore, the damping ratios were evaluated from those free vibration waves. Parameters for the damping evaluation were employing by logarithmic decrement method or regressional analysis method analytically. The estimated damping ratios were belower than 1.0%.
A traditional wooden five-storied pagoda was structurally designed on the basis of the performance design concept against wind, earthquake and snow loads. The present paper describes the design loads evaluation, the non-linear structural analyses, and the strengthening techniques. The static wind and the earthquake response analyses were successfully performed in consideration of the key mechanisms such as the semi-rigidity at the column-beam joints. The calculated story drifts showed that the strengthened structure would be safe against the design loads for the return period of 200 years.
Concrete filled steel tubular columns are frequently used for high-rise residential buildings in Japan. In this paper, the ultimate strengths and plastic deformation capacities of these columns with covering concrete were experimentally investigated for various combinations of materials, such as ordinary strength and high strength concrete. As the results, it is verified that the ultimate strengths of these columns can be evaluated with the generalized superposed strength theorem, and their plastic deformation capacities are satisfactory against severe earthquakes.
A new type SRC-column to S-Beam joint which composed of U-shaped reinforcing bars and horizontal diagonal diaphragms, is proposed and is applied to a 9-story office building. This joint has been developed to obtain good quality of cast-insited concrete in the joint and good seismic performance of the joint, and also to simplify actual execution at the site. In this paper, outline of the objective building, structural design method, lateral loading test of interior beam and column subassemblage and results of actual execution of the joint are shown.
In the design of the building which accommodate various functions, it is difficult to harmonize structural characteristics required for each functions. This difficulty also exists in ordinary base isolated buildings. In this paper, an example of the building is introduced where different types of structures are connected by mid-story isolation to solve this problem. By introducing this mid-story isolation system, seismic energy can be concentrated at the mid-story isolation and consequently high seismic capacity of the total building is secured.
In the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, many people died or were injured from being hit by toppling furniture. In order to prevent furniture from toppling down in the earthquake, we planned an experiment to test tensile and shear strength of a L-shaped steel fastener fixed on the board with anchors like it is used to fix furniture. We chose two types of boards, 9mm plasterboard and 4mm plywood, and two types of anchors, reinforced plastic expansion anchor and steel expansion anchor in this experiment. Tension test was carried out in several ways under consideration of real situations.
This report present on the correlation between the Non-combustibility Notification Test and the Non-combustibility ISO 1182 Test. The Notification method and the ISO 1182 method draw almost the same furnace-temperature curve. However, because the calculation method is different, rising value of the temperature is different. Even if the numerical value is the same, a true temperature rise value is different. The temperature difference is about 40℃. It is necessary to decide the judgment standard in consideration of this thing. As a result, it is possible to shift from the Notification method to the ISO 1182 method.
In this study, the fire resistance tests of the composite and the steel beam under loading were carried out in order to get fire resistive properties of a composite beam and to obtain basic data for the fire resitance design for CFT-Steel construction. It was observed in the tests that the composite beam under live load and dead load was not collapsed even in high temperature (over 500℃) and thermal expansion of the composite beam has the same tendency as that of the steel beam.
Pressurization system of elevator shaft, which prevents smoke to spread into another floors through elevator shafts, will increase in number because of publication of a guide. However, there exists few report concerned to this system, there are many unknown points about the gap character and the distribution of pressure difference between hall and elevator shaft. We have planned this system in hotel and experimented on it in autumn and in winter. The results of this experiment, we confirmed that it showed the designed performance and grasped the actual influence of various factor toward this system.
Safety in post-earthquake fire is a key performance for wooden large construction to be built in urban district. Loaded fire tests were carried out on typical external wood based walls rated as one-hour quasi-fire resistance after the application of shear deformations of 1/150rad and 1/100rad simulating a medium and severe earthquakes respectively. The resulting minor reduction of the fire resistance by the shear deformation suggests effectiveness of the post-earthquake fire safety performance of the tested wall assemblies.
This paper shows several experimental result of the damping characteristic making use of the Concrete Beam. And the following conclusions were obtained. First, for reduction of vibration, the damping is more effective than the mass and the stiffness is increased. Second, the effect of the damping can be predicted using FEM analysis. Last, in the range of this experiment, the loss factor of the system dose not depend on the exciting force power to the concrete beam.
Daylighting in buildings has been discussed in the various fields in terms of its pleasantness in the room and effective use of natural resources. In previous papers we have already described ideas, how to fix the angles, simulations and effectively experiment results on a new type of Venetian blind, which slat angles are different to guide daylight into the interior. In this paper, we compared new type (controlled by date and time) with ordinary type on their performance to guide daylight, their performance to intercept direct sunbeam, modeling and uniformity ratio. New type was almost excellent in all points.
In this report, we proposed the technique to reproduce the flight track of the tetra-type bag for gravity free and showed one example of air currents in an atrium space under the heating condition by using this technique. Generally, it is impossible to estimate the velocity of the bag as equal to air velocity, because the bag is too large as a tracer particle of the air current. To clarify the influence of this scale factor on the techniques, the measured results by using this technique for measuring the air current were compared with them by using of hot wire anemometer. It was found that the statistical averages of air movement according to the bag scale represent the bag movements.
The study described in this report targets total systems for treating waste and shows a method for performing a comprehensive qualitative evaluation of a total system from initial waste generation to final waste treatment over its life cycle. In this report, "waste" as an object of treatment excludes raw sewage and industrial waste. The items evaluated are the environment loads (CO_2, NO_X, and SO_X discharges associated with each of the processes of waste generation, collection, transport, intermediate treatment, and final treatment), and amounts of waste recycled and waste disposed as landfill, and the costs.
A planning for the thermal environment is different by what to be expected in a glass-covered space (GCS). However the basic concepts in a cold region are that the heat losses from the GCS should be decreased as small as possible and that the heat gains of solar energy through the glazing should be increased if possible. In such a case, the design method by regional view helps a proposal for the thermal environment of the GCS. In this report, some kinds of trial in Hokkaido are discussed.
In this report, the condition to utilize citizen's hole, which is referred to as KOHMINKAN in Japan, as primary shelter in disaster is studied. The case studies for the KOHMINKAN in Funabashi-shi, Chiba prefecture are performed. The rate of learning room and the rate of open space are utilized as the analysis parameters to identify the conditions of shelter. As the result, it is clarified for the taking capacity of refuge people when the KOHMINKAN is utilized as shelter and the condition to utilize the facilities as the base for disaster support activites.
This study aims at the grasp of commercial basic facilities with a good effect for the shopping district activation. Concretely, it grasps the kinds thatincrease the inflow person to shopping districts from the investigation when the commercial basic facilities are introduced into the shopping districts. The result of investigated analysis (1) A athletic club a hospital, a post office, a bank and a library are effective to activate the shopping districts as the result of the analysis of the inflow rate investigation. (2) As the result of image investigation, facilities that raised the image of the town always do not correspond with the high inflow rate. (3) In commercial basic facilities made effective by the study, there are a lot of one which does not agree with commercial basic facilities specified by "The special measure low concerning the promotion of the maintenance of a specific, commercial accumulation". The expansion of the commercial basic facilities and the examination on the operation will be needed in the future.
Shopping district have estimated the worth of the community facilities lately, and the comprehensive plan including related facilities which is a view point of town structure has been demanded. This study is analyzed grounded on the investigation which is on the actual situation that how the enforcement improvements of the shopping district contributes to the image structure. For this study, factors to compose ideas are divided broadly into four categories like Tiled Street, Street Preparation, Store preparation, Full Covered Arcade. We extracted the subject of investigation to four factors of each preparation level. As the result of the extent effect to a favorable impression by the preparation level is confirmed that follow. Tiled Street effect 10% to a favorable impression. Tiled Street including Street preparation effect it 48%. The comprehensive preparation like Tiled Street including Street preparation and Store preparation effect it amount to 87%.
One of the main problems that Japan's public lavatories own is the maintenance which requires a certain amount of municipal budget. For a small community in a local town, we designed a public lavatory where occupants are required to take off their shoes, expecting local community to participate in daily maintenance work. Observation records which a group of volunteers has noted during the first two months after the completion of the construction work, disclosed that the above-mentioned lavatory is being kept almost clean and in order.
The purpose of this survey is to grasp the present state of the building systems of rationalized conventional wooden houses and to clarify problems within them. We classified those building systems and made inquiries about effectiveness and adoption rate of those building systems. As a result. We found out that effective building systems were not always accepted for their costs and so on and that rationalization at roof and roof truss didn't develop on building elements. And in specially small enterprises, we relate development of rationalization in systematic aspect to that in the whole house.
This report is on the development of a planning and design method for college campus and facilities, since the college educational system low established by The Ministry of Education around forty years ago. Was Until today sixty two colleges exist in all over Japan. The facilities of those college are outdated from the functional and curriculum system point of view. New college of the Sapporo School of the Arts found at 1991, and also came up with a new theory of the planning and design for college. At this paper comment on the theory and examine the common space and natural light from window and top light with in the buildings.
The purpose of this study is to obtain basic data for disaster prevention. We investigated effects of snow on evacuation facilities and evacuation activities. The results of field surveys showed that steps leading to outdoor evacuation sites could not be used due to the accumulation of snow. Doors at emergency exits could also not be used as they opened outwards and were blocked by snow. Estimations of evacuation time under conditions of accumulated snow on the ground showed that appropriate maintenance of the evacuation route is needed to ensure that an adequate walking speed can be maintained to the evacuation site. Snowfall regions must come up with their own countermeasures, such as establishing different evacuation sites in summer and winter.
Barrier free is an important issue and it is not only for the aged and the disabled but for human being. Hokkaido and Muroran have standard of barrier free for the buildings and others including parks. The study investigated and evaluated actual condition of barrier free of 18 parks in Muroran. The items of evaluation are entrance, passage, toilet, bench, outdoor table, sign board and car parking space. Entrance, passage and toilet should be at least improved because these parks are designated refuge places when big disaster occurs.
Barrier free is an important issue and it is not only for the aged and the disabled but for human being. Hokkaido and Muroran have standard of barrier free for buildings and others including roads. The study investigated and evaluated actual condition of barrier free of 27 roads at Nakajima in Muroran City. Evaluation items are width of pedestrian way, crosswalk, traffic signal, sigh board, attentive or leading floor board for blind persons and others. Most of roads have many defects and problems and are far from barrier free now.
Withdrawal at banks or post offices is the most frequent behavior relating to shopping. The aged receive own pension through their accounts at banks or post offices. This study investigated and evaluated actual condition of barrier free of banks and post offices in Muroran, Noboribetsu and Date Cities based on minimum standard for barrier free referred to Hokkaido's bylaw and Muroran's guideline for more barrier free society. But actual condition of most of banks and post offices is far from barrier free and should be improved.
A construction system is expected to satisfy various requirements, such as structural performance, constructability and productivity, and reduced environmental contamination. To meet these requirements, a new hybrid structural system is developed, which consists of steel beam and precast RC column. The plain steel-plate-connection is used in the joint. In this paper, it is described how much the productivity of new system is improved not only in plant but also on the work site. To investigate the structural behavior of new system, we conducted experimental study. As results of this study, it is shown that the new joints have sufficient structural strength.
This is the report about the suburban condominium housing estates developed between 1965-75. We investigated the owners association activity such as the maintenance & management and the trend of the tenant occupancy. According to these investigations, most of these condominiums are in good condition in terms of largescale repairs and the reservation of funds for repairs. We classified and categorized them depending on their characters. It is reasonable to conclude that each group has own way of renewal.
This report presents the kiwari-systems in the architectural manual books that were written before the early part of the 17th century. Those old records were handed down to the recent years by the KOBAYASHIS who were inaugurated as the DAIKU-TORYO that was the post for the authorized carpenters in SHONAI-HAN. Their descriptions are about the architectural techniques to all kinds of architectures and the architectural formalities, so they are important to study Japanese Middle Ages architectures. Among those architectural techniques, this report presents especially the kiwari-systems of IKKEN- YASHIRO that is a kind of main sanctuary of shinto shrines.
For structural design of the floor slab concerning environmental vibration, a support system is developed on the widely diffused personal computer. Since the system is composed of the simplified analysis using the Rayleigh-Ritz method and the graphical user interface, the interactive operation of the system is actualized. Designers can obtain the analysis results promptly and visually to check the design. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis can be used for design changes. By using this system in comparison with measured results, designers can easily accumulate the important know-how about the floor vibration analysis. The know-how is of help for next design.
This paper describes the role of "Production design" method to be expanding as a mean to control the information flow of a project. And it also defines "Production design" as a tool to control the product information flow and not as a mere information conversion tool from architectural drawing to technical or manufacturing ones. From the standpoint that the CAD and other information technologies will play the major roles to obtain a more controlled information flow during building construction, further studies will be conducted on these related to the "Production design method".
This paper does the research of production control information for the production accomplishment of a goal in building construction. The delay of the fixation and the return influence the production efficiency. Then, we propose based on the research in past and the examples of the enterprise for the solution of the problem.
A loss estimation system for earthquake hazard capable of evaluating all of Japan was developed. A GIS (Geographic Information System) for personal computers is utilized for this system, which assists in interactive selection of the assumed earthquake and representation of the estimated results on a computer screen. Source parameters of the assumed earthquake can be derived from a database of active faults and historical earthquakes. Earthquake ground motion, liquefaction and earthquake-triggered fire are considered in order to estimate building damage ratios. An insurance company's exposure can quickly be estimated by linking this system to an insurance contract database.
This multi-layered sliding fireproof cover of rubber bearing for base isolated building structure is composed of calcium silicate ring boards cut in around slices and piled up around rubber bearing. Each ring board can slide smoothly according to the horizontal deformation of rubber bearing. From the horizontal loading test of the rubber bearing, it is confirmed that the sliding fireproof cover did not change the restoring force characteristic of the bearing at all. Also the horizontal loading test of the rubber bearing with fireproof cover are done before and after 3-hours heating test (specified by JIS A 1304). Comparing the result, it was shown that the restoring force characteristic did not change at all and fireproof cover had worked perfectly to the heating test of the bearing. It took several minutes for setting and removing of the fireproof cover, and this cover could be handled easily.