The aim of this paper is to estimate bending behavior of carbon fiber reinforced concrete for curtain wall of high rise buildings. Characteristic tensile strength of carbon fiber reinforced concrete is effective for bending behavior. As a result, bending strength of actual beam had considerable consistency as this analysis.
Application of molten slag to concrete is still restricted because of some technical problems originated from its glassy nature. This paper deals with the quality of concrete with a coarse aggregate made of molten slag that is crystallized to improve quality. It was confirmed that the quality of the concrete was equivalent to that using ordinary aggregate, and the crystallized slag can be effectively used as coarse aggregate for concrete.
In this report, it is showed a method of simple adiabatic curing and it is described the quality control of strength in high strength concrete structure using simple adiabatic curing method and results example of S value. The simple adiabatic curing method gives a temperature history to be almost similar to a structure to specimen. The specimen strength that were done simple adiabatic curing shows strength almost the same as core strength at each 28-91 days age. The quality control of strength in high strength concrete structure was carried out adequately by the simple adiabatic curing method.
A simple and reliable manual gas pressure welding procedure was developed to apply for joint of high-strength bar. The gas pressure welding was performed by using a steel hollow cylinder with inner concave fitting for bulge of weld and inserting the cylinder in weld zone just before pressing. As a result, it was cleared that the present manual gas pressure welding procedure is applicable to the joint of high strength bar graded SD490.
The exfoliation of exterior tiles is affected by the behavior of the tiles and concrete caused environmental factors such as sunlight, and also by the changes in the physical properties of the materials with the passage of time. For the under layer mortar between the concrete and tiles, pre-mixed mortar with lightweight aggregate is often used. Using 3 types of this mortar and a conventional site-mixed mortar, their follow up properties were studied by preparing dry-wet cycled specimens that were then subjected to load tests. It was found that the follow up properties improved as the compressive strength increased, and that all specimens became harder when dry-wet cycled. Even if the basic physical properties of the lightweight mortars are satisfactory, caution is required because their follow up properties tend to vary significantly under dry-wet cycling.
An approximate analytical solution on wind resistance performance for seam welded membrane, which is made of 0.4mm thick titanium sheets, is developed by using the method of applying a catenary on the curved line representing floating up height of membrane due to wind pressure. It is verified, by means of water pressure test and finite element method, that the result of this solution is sufficiently accurate. As a result of this solution, the floating up hight and the peal stress of weld zone of titanium membrane for waterproofing roof construction can easily be evaluated.
This paper reports the main mast inclination and cable stretching procedure of the fixed roof of Toyota stadium. It has four main mast inclined by 7.5deg. from virtical line, then this paper describes the mast erection & inclination method on site. Also this paper describes the control process of cable stretching.
New method of evaluating the compressive strength of concrete in structures using BOSS: Broken off Specimens by Splitting Method was developed. Applicability of BOSS specimen was examined by comparing the compressive strength of specimens taken from a model structure by coring and by BOSS. Effects of water-cement ratio and the sampling height on compressive strength were studied with the variance analysis. It was confirmed that high correlation was found between compressive strengths of BOSS and core. Thus the BOSS based simple formula may be applicable to the prediction of compressive strength of concrete in structures.
An approximating method of maximum shear stress on interface between cement mortar and concrete bodies in consideration of composition conditions and outside environment conditions was proposed. Maximum shear stresses were accurately predicted on abbreviated method based on shear lag theory herein. The method was the function of the product of the Young's modulus and differential movements of finishings materials and components. As a result, the degrees for preventing exfoliation in case of actual cement mortar and light mortar renderings in which a moisture and thermal movement occurred, was evaluated.
Many of Japanese public schools will soon need heavy maintenance, but the implementation is expected to meet many problems. As the first step to clear the problems, we should know the reality of the maintenance management of Japanese public schools facilities. Then the questionnaire to 400 schools was carried out. Some of the results are ; a person responsible to maintenance management, who is a teacher or a clerk, do not have professional knowledge of maintenance, and he or she feels some kind of trouble in the maintenance job. There was a little difference in the maintenance management system between the high schools and the middle or primary schools.
This paper describes an investigation into the reliability of compressive strength test results using various diameter cores. The following conclusions were obtained, 1) Decreasing core diameters led to dispersion of compressive strengths, and compressive strengths became too low compared with standard compressive strengths. 2) When the core specimen diameter was under 50mm, care must be talen in evaluating the test results.
On the demolition of an existing structure made of high-strength and high-fluidity concrete, we determined various quality parameters and their variations by place. Parameters included compressive strength, Young's modulus of elasticity and coarse aggregate distribution by the sampled core, and concrete fill capability and carbonation depth of surfaces cut by wire-sawing. Uniformity of the quality of the structure was evaluated by the variance analysis of the data. It was found that the quality of the high performance concrete was acceptable though the slight variation in a structure was observed.
A matter of concern on durability for users is not durability of individual material but of performance of building elements. As tests using building elements however require large-scale work, therefore small-scale ones are desirable and practicable for estimating durability. The frame for estimating durability in performance, which has hierarchy from building elements to materials, was proposed. The case studies on estimation procedures were carried out for some actual building elements, and it was made clear that durability tests are able to do at various levels. The possibility of durability estimation by a lower-level test depends on an item of performance, the construction of a building element, and particularly the existence of a reasonable method to convert the levels.
With the recent increase in the number of new established coal thermal power stations, the amount of Fly Ash as their industrial waste is also expected to be increasing. On the other hand, one of the problems in today's aggregates market is the depletion of aggregates of high quality. Accordingly "High-Strength Artificial Lightweight Aggregate" made of fly ash as main raw material which is equal to natural aggregates in strength was now developed and its application for high-strength concrete structures is expected. The aim of this study is to estimate the construction cost-performance in preparation for the application of this aggregate. In this report (Part. 1) mainly the outline of the research and the study on the result of the trial design in power stations will be presented.
In the present "AIJ Recommendations for Loads on buildings, 1993", the criterion for the aerodynamic unstable vibration in the across-wind vibration is proposed. However, the condition for the occurrence of self-excited vibration in the torsion was not regulated in the recommendations. In this report, the prediction formula of the critical wind speed of the torsional aerodynamic unstable vibration is proposed based on the results of resent researches.
In incineration plants, RC stacks took the place of steel-supported stacks in '70s with the view of improving design appearance. In the past study, we have reported a square-shaped stack is stressed the largest resonance wind pressure in the various shapes (circle, square, triangle) against design wind velocity from 30 to 46m/s. In this study, we carried out a series of wind tunnel tests of square-shaped stack model with various shapes of corner, and confirmed the effect of wind-induced response.
This paper describes present situation and future prospects on design input earthquake motions for tall buildings and base-isolated buildings. We investigated input earthquake motions those had been used for seismic design of specific buildings in the Kanto plain. Consequently, we point out a fact that natural periods of tall buildings distributed avoiding the peaks of input motions such as El Centro 1940, Taft 1952 and Hachinohe 1968 before the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. But after the earthquake, this tendency seems to have been improved by simulated earthquake motions. It's important to design these buildings by using the input earthquake motion with long period considering underground structure.
Shaking table tests of models of grid system ceiling were conducted. An original design model fell down because upper flange of T-bars crashed by the bending moment from hangers and hangers themselves also opened and could not support T-bars. The models were revised as mentioned below and scheduled tests were completed without any damage. (a) A brace was connected to the same in-plane T-bar through supporting hanger. (b) The width of supporting hanger with brace was enlarged twice. (c) T-bar connection detail was revised to be able to transfer axial force directly.
Using the method of estimating modal shapes and modal amplitudes from response time-history data proposed by the authors, the statistical properties of estimated modal values are examined based on the elastic and inelastic responses of 6 mass models against 10 simulated earthquake waves. The equivalent periods corresponding to large inelastic amplitudes are also discussed.
In order to discuss applicability of strong motion simulation method by 1-D multiple reflection analysis using KiK-net records, we estimate strong motions at the substation where sustained transformer damage during The 2000 Tottori-ken-seibu earthquake. Estimated strong motions are utilize to simulate a dynamic response of soil-base-transformer system. In the substation, the one transformer located on cutting soil was damaged and the other one located on embankment was survived. Analytical results well explain the state of transformers during Tottori-ken-seibu earthquake. By using this method for strong motion simulation after great earthquake, it is possible to investigate the cause of structure damage.
In this study, tensile tests for the Natural Rubber Bearings were performed to investigate the vertical and horizontal restoring force characteristics and the scale effect in small extensional region, as well as the influence of the thickness of the flange plate. From the results of tensile tests, the extensional stiffness was sensitive to the flange plate thickness and scale rule was effective at small extensional region. The deformation of the flange plate subjected to tensile load can be expressed by the simple theoretical equation. Consequently the behavior of rubber bearings under tensile load can be evaluated including the deformation of the flange plate.
A new damping model for time history analysis is proposed in this paper. This damping model is dependent on the amplitude and independent of the frequency. This model is composed of 3 bi-linear springs. Each spring has the different yield displacement and the different stiffness calculated from 3 damping ratios. User is required to define only yield displacements and damping ratios at the yield displacements. The displacement response with this damping model is different from the displacement response with stiffness proportional damping.
For reinforcing existing wooden buildings against severe earthquakes, surrounding metal poles installed and secured with bolts at the beams of the second floor level are effective. On an earthquake, the horizontal forces are mostly transmitted via second floor to the surrounding poles. This solution prevents the house from falling down, like felled "by a leg throw", and protects the residents therein. Parametric earthquake response analyses to several model houses have been conducted. Consequently, sufficient seismic safety regarding subject reinforcement method is confirmed.
When a horizontal load test device installed in the open air is used, it is difficult to do the structure experiment of the wooden house in the small place. It explains about the load test device installed in the inside where it was deviced newly, and it is reported about horizontal load examination which this was used for by this research.
This paper reports on the legal judgment for the construction quality on small scale steel buildings. To reduce construction cost, construction is usually made not to prepare the necessary specifications for the quality assurance of this type of buildings, which leads several faults on construction quality. Investigation is made on documents and specification and also field steel inspection is made. It is concluded that a few check items are needed to preserve the construction quality of the steel buildings, these are to choose the officially recognized steel fabricator and to prepare the engineering supervisor fee for checking the steel construction.
This paper reports on design and verification of Shin Isogo thermal power station. In this project, a tower-type boiler is adopted because of limited site area. This boiler building is composed of 4-large-box reinforced concrete columns using high-strength concrete and large steel beams. In order to realize this building, the examination of design method and the experiment on beam-column connection had been carried out over several years. We measured anchor-bolt and concrete strain in beam-column connection. The validity of design and the soundness of beam-column connection was verified from this result of measurement.
This report deals with a performance test on a pressurization smoke control system at the first large-scale shopping store in which installed it. If a fire breaks out in the store, it controls the smoke movement not to leak the smoke into the other compartment, other floors and vertical shafts by pressurizing their air. Generally speaking, it was difficult to use the system at a large-scale shopping store because of difficulty with getting enough airtight there. But we could get enough it by an adequate management from the stage of construction. The performances of the system, for example the airtights, the performances of smoke extraction devices and pressure devices and the differences of pressures between fire compartment and other compartments or vertical shafts, were mostly confirmed through the test.
A pressurized smoke control system was employed in the 25 stories' high-rise apartment building named "Akasaka Tameike Tower." We have conducted a performance examination test of the system. From the results of the test, it was confirmed that: 1) the pressure differences at the evacuation routes agreed with the requirements for smoke prevention; and 2) door opening force in operating the system was low enough for the children to open the doors. Furthermore, effective flow areas of some architectural components, such as doors and pressure adjusting openings, were measured and design data for simulating the pressure difference of the system were collected.
Performance evaluation system for existing buildings against fire following earthquake is developed. They consist of the 8 main categories. The main categories are selected as (A) ignition source, (B) fire detection and management, (C) ignition prevention and fire extinguishing system, (D) fire compartment, (F) smoke compartment, (F) power supply system and building maintenance, (G) fire prevention from adjoining buildings, and (H) water leakage with fire fighting. The system could be applied to office buildings, store buildings, restaurants, hotels and their building complex. Case studies by using the proposed method are demonstrated.
Speech would be radiated with sound system in multipurpose halls, so speech transmission quality would be influenced by the difference of the number/position and of frequency characteristic of loudspeakers. In this study, subjective rating of speech transmission quality called "easiness of speech perception" was measured in simulated sound fields with monaural/binaural systems to find binaural effects. The results suggest binaural simulation is needed. And the relations between subjective rating and several physical indices were examined. As a result, subjective rating would be influenced by frequency characteristic that could not be evaluated with existing indices such as STI.
This paper describes about the effect of layout plans for outdoor condensing units on the operating efficiency of air conditioners. In the case of limited space for outdoor condensing units, it was found that an optimal value exists for the placement ratio between roof and balcony. It has been shown that predicting the intake temperature of outdoor condensing units and then determining a layout plan for them is an effective means of achieving efficient and appropriate operation for air conditioners.
It is too difficult to find out the main current in the field of cross ventilation as current zone. In this report, the distribution of gas concentration diffused after the pulse injection in the field of steady cross ventilation is caluculated by using CFD, and the zone of main current is identified by degree which gas reaches from opening and goes out. And it is confirmed that the current zone has spatial characteristics.
Indoor air qualities of twenty-two houses in Sendai, where occupants are suspected suffering from so-called, "Sick-House-Syndrome", were investigated. The investigation included measurements of formaldehyde and VOC concentrations, questionnaire regarding subjective symptoms, and medical test of MCS by doctors. IAQ in some houses exceed the guideline set by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. The relationship between the measurement result of indoor chemical substance concentrations and the subjective symptoms by questionnaire suggested that the symptoms gets more serious in houses having higher concentration and, on the other hand, there are some occupants with heavy symptoms in low concentration houses.
Measurements were carried out during the winter to evaluate the indoor climate and energy consumption of well-insulated detached houses equipped with central kerosene heating systems in Tohoku District. Indoor temperatures were found to be stable during the day and had small vertical temperature differences, excluding the cases where the systems were used improperly. The operation of the heating systems and energy consciousness vary depending on individual cases and accordingly the daily kerosene consumption range from 10 to 20L/day. The results clearly indicate that proper use of central heating system would save energy while maintaining the indoor thermal comfort.
A warm-air floor heating system was adopted in an information center that had a large enclosure. In this space, the convective heat of the circulated air and the radiant heat from the floor surface built the indoor thermal environment. The airflow pattern and thermal environment in this space were measured in order to evaluate the performance of this system. As a result, it became clear that the warm-air floor heating system in large enclosure built a comfortable thermal environment.
With the use of a seasonal change in the solar altitude, a solar control window was proposed, which can change both solar, visible ray transmittance and solar heat gain factor according to the control purposes, by using the rotating blind with the various shaped and different thermal characteristic slats. The window can decrease solar heat gain, while increasing the use of daylight. The previous paper described the principle of the solar control window and its solar control performance estimated by simulations. This paper describes the performance estimated by experiments and the simulation results of energy saving with the use of a typical building model, in which the windows are installed.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual conditions of buildings, cooling and heating equipments, and environmental control, and to indicate some features of indoor thermal environment in respective kinds of homes for the elderly in Niigata. Some investigations such as questionnaire, hearing thermal sensations from residents were carried out in 1999 and 2000. The results of these investigations are as follows. 1) In special nursing homes and the health care facilities for the elderly, the cooling and heating equipments are provided, and the staffs control thermal environment in residents' rooms. The thermal environment in theses homes is stably changed and seems to be closed to outdoor environment. 2) In nursing homes for the elderly, the heating equipments are partially provided and residents control equipments and open and close windows. The indoor thermal environment varies with outdoor environment. 3) In homes for the elderly with a moderate fee (care houses), the cooling and heating equipments in residents' rooms are personally provided and controlled by residents. The thermal environments are different individually.
The distribution condition of land cover is the key information for planning the city environment. However, the current data for city planning does not include the vegetation distribution that is improtant component for urban environment. This paper, therefore, seeks to develop precise methods of mapping the vegetation of urban areas by the integration of Remote Sensing data and the GIS data. For processing the Remote Sensing data, the authors propose a new approach in the estimation of vegetation cover ratio in a pixel and of vegetation location in a MIXEL. The results of the analyses verified that the techniques proposed in this study enable us to create more precise classification of vegetation distribution that is to be utilized to support "City Environment Planning" proposed by authors.
This paper reports the measurement results of the thermal environment on platforms in station 'T' that is one of the largest railway stations in Japan during clear-sky summer days. It was found that there were distributions of air temperature for both east-west and north-south directions on each platform, and the air temperature on platform VII was the highest during all through the measurement days. Mean radiant temperature (MRT) on each platform was calculated with the result of measurement of surface temperature distribution. Comparing diurnal change of MRT to that of air temperature on each platform it was clarified that the difference of maximum and minimum value of air temperature even at the nighttime almost matched the difference of maximum and minimum value of MRT in the daytime. It was suggested that the remedy from the point of not only prevention of heat penetration through stations' roofs but also the prevention of rise of air temperature was important.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an intruder and partitions on personal space with reference domains of demonstrative pronouns and physiological responses. 1) The person's psychological territory could be expressed with demonstrative pronouns. 2) An intruder on personal space caused a decrease in the "kore" area and increase (p<0.01) in CV_<R-R> levels. 3) The "kore" area and BPmin tended to decrease (p<0.05) in the group who felt decrease in mental pressure because of setting a partition on personal space. 4) Mental pressure was not always in accord with the feeling of avoidance.
The thermal environments of the three types of urban blocks were observed on the street in Osaka in the summer season. Air temperature and surface temperature of each urban block were high in comparison with Osaka Castle Park. Temperature differences of urban blocks in the daytime were bigger than those in the early morning. MRT was influenced by the sky and green cover ratio strongly, and in the street whose sky cover ratio was small that it was surrounded by a high-rise building MRT became small. And in the street whose green cover ratio was big by the street trees MRT was small compared with other streets. SET each urban block takes the influence of MRT strongly, SET of small, and it was improved as a thermal environment because the comparatively big amount of ventilation was secured in the street whose width was big like OBP (Osaka Business Park) in the daytime.
The purpose of this report is to clarify the actual life and housing needs of the elderly who use the long-term care insurance. We made interview survey for 28 elders and their families in Kizu-cho of Kyoto. The results are as follows : 1) Irrespective of living together and separation with child, elderly people are supported from child household. 2) The life support services plays partially role in the elder's life. 3) Home modification remain in slight things such as installation of a handrail.
To avoid confusing extensions of buildings, it is necessary to make a strategic plan of the facilities based on the master plan recognized by all faculties. In this paper, we are reporting the scheme for designing a plan of campus facilities based on the process of creating The Long-term Plan of Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University. It is aimed for renewing the campus functions, redefining the framework of the campus and rearranging of the facilities according to the changes in the social context.
This paper aims to examine the care for users and the way forward of respite care facilities for the elderly. The findings are as follows. (1) An individual interview is necessary for users in advance, in order to grasp users' accurate conditions. (2) It is necessary for users to rearrange rooms for individual comfortable environment for reducing stresses by relocation, the smaller inside spaces, and arranging safe outside spaces. (3) It is important for users to provide occasions for improving ADL and social life. (4) Staffs for respite care need to widen knowledge of environmental preparation at users' houses. (5) The space for only respite care users enables to treat individually by considering both services and space in facility.
We developed a vibration-isolation separator unit for sheathing boards. As a result of the hydraulic and tension test, it was confirmed that this separator unit has an enough cut-off performance against the leak of cement paste, and has enough rigidity and yield strength. We examined that this separator unit shows almost the same vibration-isolation performance as the non-separator method.
A complex system makes influence on the urban planning in many aspects. To evaluate the feasibility of amusement facility, it is needed to reseach on with or without analysis and input-output analysis. In this report we try to analyze the investment effect and facility improvement effect of amusement facilities. 1) Reseach on impact study of amusement facilities. 2) Method of measuring the economical impact. 3) Research on construction effect and utilizing effect.
Many farm-inns that encourage 'green tourism' and rural economy are now managed all over England. From 2000, National Quality Assurance Scheme has been launched aimed at assurance for various kind of accommodations, including farm-inn. According to the quality standard, each farm-inn will be assessed from various aspects, such as ; 1) cleanliness, 2) service and hospitality, 3) bedrooms, 4) bathrooms, shower rooms and en-suite facilities etc., 5) guest meals, 6) publicareas, 7) general requirements. All aspects will give a 'quality score' that rates a level of the farm-inn. If necessary, each farm-inn can be belonged to a local group that ensures the management in the national network system. The system is much informative for Japanese future development.