In this study, pumpability of ultra-high strength concrete using cement premixed with silica fume of specified design strength 150N/mm2 was estimated. As a result, the following conclusions were derived. 1) Ultra-high strength concrete using cement premixed with silica fume over 15% of specified design strength 150N/mm2 was able to be pumped well. 2) Viscosity of ultra-high strength concrete after pumping was fell down compared with before pumping. 3) Slump flow, air content, and compressive strength of concrete after pumping were almost the same as that of concrete before pumping.
This paper reports the results of the experiment on resistance to frost damage at early age and strength development at low-temperature on concrete using various recycling materials. Results show compressive strength to prevent frost damage at early age can be set at 5N/mm2, which is equal with normal concrete in any case. Low-temperature strength development of concrete using high-strength artificial aggregate, electric arc furnace oxidizing slag aggregate and normal eco cement is equal with normal concrete.
This paper investigates the quality of RC structure which has passed since completion for 75 years at the time of the demolition work of the first RC housing in Osaka constructed in the period of Showa five to six years. As a result, the following knowledge was acquired. (1) Values with sufficient compressive strength of core-analysis specimens were secured. (2) The carbonation depth of concrete was about 37mm in the outdoor side and about 45mm in the interior room side. (3) Cover thickness of steel bars was a value almost equivalent to the present standard point.
Sodium gluconate method has been applied to estimate unit cement content of hardened normal concrete. Applicability of sodium gluconate method to high-strength concrete using ordinary, moderate-heat and low-heat portland cement was studied. It was shown that the unit cement content of hardened high-strength concrete, made with various portland cements, could be estimated with an accuracy of ±5% of the designed value. The sodium gluconate method is applicable to high-strength concrete made with various portland cements.
This study revealed the fundamental properties of wall clays, which were used in two mud wall storehouses, Dozoh, in Wajima, Noto. These Dozoh were subjected to the destructive earthquake occurred in March 25, 2007. Some of the test samples were taken away from a Dozoh which was constructed in the end of the Edo period and was seriously damaged by the earthquake. The other samples were newly excavated from the area around there and then one of them was used to repair the clay wall of the other Dozoh whose framework was slightly injured. It was found that the particle size of the wall clay used for the restoration of the Dozoh was smaller and its compressive strength was greater than those of the clay used in the other ancient one.
Lateral loading tests were conducted for conventional type ceiling models with aluminum panels. In each model, newly developed device was applied in order to equip high anti-seismic capacity, respectively. As the results of the tests, the anti-seismic capacity of each ceiling with respective device was obtained and countermeasures for further develoment were also obtained. In-plane shear tests were also conducted in order to obtain evaluation method for in-plane deformation. As the result, practical formulas were conducted, which are applicable to evaluate the gap width between ceiling and wall.
The fundamental experiment was conducted by outdoor measurement of the model specimens maintained on the horizontal plane for the purpose of development of the simple predicted method of the temperature of tiles on the face of an external insulation construction method. The predicted method of tile temperature was made into the considerable sol-air-temperature method. By this method, it was checked in general that tile temperature can be predicted in high accuracy.
The authors conducted a study of aging effect on a laminated natural rubber bearing actually used in a seismically isolated building for about twenty years. No obvious change was recognized for fundamental characteristics of the rubber bearing, mechanical characteristics of inner rubber, and adhesive strength between inner rubbers and steel plates. Also it was found that creep deformation of the rubber bearing corresponded precisely to a prediction formula. These test results led a conclusion that natural rubber bearings would have considerable durability under long and severe environmental conditions.
The authors carried out compressive and tensile loaed tests of cast-in-place concrete nodular piles and clarified that the resistance of the pile increased by the effect of the node. And we could simulate well the vertical behavior of them by non-linear 3D-FEM. And we adapted the simulation method to the settlement analysis for the pile foundation supporting high-rise building under dead load and seismic load. In these analytical studies, we clarified that the building load to the piles are influenced significantly by the rigidity of the foundation beams, basement walls and pile group effect.
We report the results of static friction tests between column base and foundation stone of Japanese traditional timber buildings. Through the tests, we examined the effect of the shape of the column section, rotation angle of the column, the number of loading cycles on the variation of the static friction coefficient. The friction coefficient obtained from the test ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 in the first loading cycle. Up to 30% reduction was observed in the second loading cycle. In addition, we examined the friction coefficient between column base and concrete foundation, where the reduction in the second loading cycle was more significant.
The wooden blocks made of the plywood using timber from thinning were devised to build masonry walls. One of the effective uses for wooden blocks includes seismic retrofit of existing old house. But structural characteristics of the wooden blocks are unknown. Therefore, in this paper the basic shear characteristics of masonry walls subjected to in-plane cyclic loading and the ability of reinforcing for existing-timber structures are clarified by the experiments for single wooden block, three piled-up wooden blocks and three staggeringly piled-up wooden blocks.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of wall height on performance of shear walls. There are a lot of buildings with several heights of walls in wooden house in Japan. It is said that we have to consider influence for shear wall property with low height walls. However, there seems to be no established theory in this problem. Therefore we conducted static loading tests of several heights of SIP shear walls. It was found from the result that the strength of low height walls was not reduced. However, we should not overlook the fact that the stiffness of low height walls is higher than standard height walls.
The objective of this research is to realize a single-braced shear wall system, which has same performance when the diagonal brace is subjected to compression and tension. To improve performance in brace joint, a new LVL product made of alternately laminating rubber wood and falcate wood was introduced and wood screws which have high shear resistance were used for them. Then developed brace system was investigated to confirm its shear performance in both loading directions. Consequently, improved shear wall had 3.5 at compression and 3.8 at tension in the shear resistance factor.
In this paper, we investigate the seismic performance of existing reinforced concrete buildings, the damage prediction and the actual concrete strength based on the seismic diagnosis results from 1996 to 2006 in Hokkaido. The following conclusions are obtained: (1) 79% of buildings built before 1971 do not satisfy the sesmic capacity index Is≥0.6; (2) The average ratio of actual concrete strength by core tests to design basis one is 1.39; (3) The seismic retrofit of buildings reduces the predicted seismic damage ratio over moderate damage rank to approximately one fourth as compared to the non-retrofit buildings under the earthquake ground motion level of JMA seismic intensity of 6.
Recent years, the demands of building owners have been changed to be able to use the buildings again with small repair cost after an earthquake. The building system with dampers is one structural type which meets these performance requirements. The dampers need good performance and applicability. The RC stud column damper using diagonal de-bonded rebars is one solution. This experimental study shows basic data of the RC stud column damper for design.
The buildings are rebuilt to be high-rise on a large scale. And the evacuation processes become long and complicated. A problem of evacuation planning spreads. On the other hand, the report about actual whole building evacuation is very little. This report is the questionnaire survey about the whole building evacuation performed actually in super-high-rise building. More than 80 % of persons also chose evacuation stairs in the case when elevator machines use were possible, and it was revealed that next time also chooses evacuation stairs.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of several visual factors on human comfort by the image projecting experiment on human reflection. The results are as followings. The window area expansion and the movement of curtain ameliorate human comfort. Especially when the planting is visible through the window, the tendency is more obvious.
Characteristics of the flanking transmission due to the difference of incidence and radiation area are experimentally investigated. In this paper, the results of the sound insulation and vibration characteristics measurement are introduced in case of the various incident and radiation area. The result shows that the influence to sound insulation deterioration of the incidence and radiation area. Furthermore, the deterioration by the increment of radiation area was frequency dependent. This indicates the flanking pass must be related with the vibration transmission characteristics of the facade and interior wall.
This investigation was conducted to show the tendency of colors and materials of exterior finish of the buildings in Miyama-cho Kita, Kyoto prefecture. This area has dedignated as the mountain villadge of the preservation districts for groups of historic buildings. The findings are stated as follows. 1) Colors used with high frequrncy have warm score in Hue, middle score in Value and low score in Chroma. 2) Finishing materials used are different according to the purpose of buildings. 3) Several kinds materials are used in each part of building. 4) Some colors disturbing the harmony are used only in modern materials.
Based on the energy consumption database of nationally residential houses in various districts of Japan, indoor humidity environment was analyzed. In winter and summer seasons, the statistical values of temperature, relative humidity, absolute humidity and the absolute humidity difference between indoor and outdoor were calculated for each house. In addition, the relations between these statistical values and the level of thermal insulation or airtightness, as well as the possibility of fungal damage were examined.
In this paper, we declare the intensity of solar radiation, UV strength, inside temperature, humidity, illumination intensity, CO and CO2 concentration field measurements for apartment building located in Tibet's capital and in traditional houses in order to evaluate their levels in the living environment. The Tibetan plateau is characterized by high altitudes, low oxygen concentration, atmosphere is transparent, wide diurnal range temperature, special culture and life style, so UV and solar radiation, thermal environment and IAQ are claimed attention. Also the questionnaire survey was carried out jointly with Xi'AN University of Architecture and Technology for considering improvements.
This report describes the results from an investigation of indoor environment, contamination state of a microbe by Andersen sampler, and Gram staining in two houses in Kitakyushu-city. The main conclusions obtained from this research are as follows. (1) The airborne bacteria concentration became high in the room where the resident was staying for a long time, and the airborne fungi concentration was high in the room where the windows were kept open frequently. (2) As a result of gram staining, the kinds of airborne bacteria are different by house. It seems that this is affected by the lifestyle.
The rooms with void space are very effective at enlivening household interiors, but they make the realization of comfortable thermal environments extremely difficult. We advanced the development of an air supply preheating system. Operation of this system conducts base heating to a room temperature of 15°C. One anticipated effect of this system is that by reducing the load during the heating startup period, a comfortable thermal environment will be able to be realized by operating just floor heating, air-conditioning or another heat source.
As global environmental problem has become a significant issue, we have already installed various energy saving method into our building services. Especially, green roof and roof spraying have been watched keen interest, because they can reduce both heat load and carbon-dioxide emission from building services without using energy supply such as electricity. Generally speaking, as building with green roof has water spraying equipment for tree maintenance, if we control water rate appropriately, we can expect a large heat load reduction effect which is brought by synergy effect of green roof and roof spraying.
It is very important for the old people, who need some assistance, to improve living conditions. They will be able to live their dear old houses by improving houses. However, some of them have a lot of troubles and not to do house improvement. Therefore the consultants for house improvement support by calling for their houses. This study aims to clarify the problems and troubles that handicapped old peoples and their families improve houses by long-term care insurance. The contents and consultation were analyzed. It is most important that to be constructed cooperation support system for the house improvement.
The purpose of this report is to give information on the renovation of the main government building of Mie Prefecture that was done in the year 2000-2002. The building was constructed in 1964. That renovation was done according to 3-stage process. And that renovation was done by research, planning and operation were done according to the FM technique. In addition, after post-renovation research was done, the effect of the construction and the point in focus came out clear.
The authors developed a basic construction of manual that intended to guide ordering party of health care facility to the appropriate method for selecting architects. Before developing, the authors interviewed with design offices and general contractors about the problem of selecting architects that results from ordering party's arrangement. As a result, it became that there are four causes of the thise problems which are "content of Design Briefing","object of selection", "format of selection", "contract". Firstly,this manual have ordering party realize the progress of own project, and select the category of industry of design outsourcing. Next this have ordering party select the way of selecting architects, and then give account it circumstantially.
This study aims to reduce nursing home's care work burden by planning method with the consideration of care worker's psychological burden and physical load. Using the results of behavior observation of care workers at seven existing nursing homes and the questionnaire data obtained from ninety-two care workers, care work burden calculation program considering psychological burden and physical load for the facility planning was developed.
The present paper describes a field measurement to investigate the summer microclimate in the semi-enclosed space under an actual membrane structure. The microclimate was analyzed, and thermal comfort was evaluated using the measurement data of vertical air temperature and velocity distributions, surface temperature distribution, etc. Analysis results show that solar transmission through the membrane structure had a greatest impact on the thermal environment in the living space under the membrane structure. The SET* in the living space was 2-3°C higher than air temperature from the early morning to the late afternoon on a clear sky day.
This research focused on the potential of the welfare service for the aged by using local hot spring in remote snowfall region in Hokkaido. The daily going out and social interaction behaviors of 42 aged people who take the service were investigated. As a result following things were found. 1: 20% of purposes of going out is to take the service. 2: This service reduces the number of people in the category of "have hardly meet with local acquaintances" in their daily life, and gives a chance to communicate with people in the hot spring.
Recently, the city centre commercial area is losing attractions for people to shop. While urban regeneration in the central city area has been actively promoted, the revitalization of the communitybased commercial area has been left behind. The activation of Nakajimarenbai, one of the commercia area in Hakodate city, was progressed by the revision of the land readjustment project and the city planning road. This paper explores the process of creating the development plan for the commercial area to be activated, the project itself and the present situation.
This paper explores the process of the 8·3 area redevelopment project corresponding to various changing in the social situation to search for strategies to progress a long-term redevelopment project. As a result, it was quiet effective to establish planning guides and the public office's role of the redevelopment.
Traffic calming measures control the traffic volume and speed for improving safety of pedestrians as well as improving environment for residents. Moreover, there are several traffic calming measures which have at once same control effects and different shapes. And these will also have different influence for landscape. The purpose of this study is summing up the example of various countries and analyzing the effect of traffic calming and external features. The measures are classified into Blocked Type, Shock Type, Narrowing Type, Meandering Type, Textured Pavement Type in those traffic control effect, and Road Linked Type, Traffic Island Type in the aspect of external shapes.
In late years, the use of the natural energy is demanded, and wind power stations are increasing. The purpose of this study is to clarify the factor that the issue of landscape didn't occur by construction of wind power stations, in Tono City as a case. The conclusions are as follows. 1) The construction of the power station didn't consider landscape. However, some mountains that are 10km away from windmill group obstruct eyes to the windmill. 2) There are few sightseeing spots there can view windmill group. 3) When a windmill is viewed from a sightseeing spot, it is recognized as a part of the ranges.
This research targets the semi-public management business policy of the bus done in big cities in South Korea. It aims to understand the role of a related organization and the corporate structure (route, income management, charge discount, and infrastructure equipment) by the municipality's being involved in a public, traffic policy.
This study focuses on an experimental method that employs the internet, WebGIS and videoconference systems to enable gathering and sharing of information from concurrently hosted multiple distributed participatory planning workshops. The method is expected to contribute to time, effort and economic savings while enabling greater grassroots participation as well as promoting the whole participatory planning process through more efficient information collection, sharing and updating. The authors present as a case study a distributed WS supported by videoconferencing and WebGIS systems reporting on the challenges and the implications for use in supporting public participation in planning.
The purpose of the development of new cities in the South Korean capital region is to meet rising housing demand connected to population growth. This new cities capital region development gave big influence to movement of population. That has made scattered population from Seoul to the outer fence through activating movement of population in capital region. So high-population density was made a wide area in capital region. This phenomenon shows different changing population density by the geographical convenience new cities. The area including new cities that connects the former city area showed the increasing of population density rapidly then decrease in period of stability but increase again afterwards. But in comparison with the area including new cities which is the local independent showed to increasing slowly.
This research observed built environment of low-rise apartment houses attacked by burglars by field survey. On the ground floor, the burglary risk of apartments of which balconies face the back and the side was more than three times higher than that of the front. Approximately 70 percent of the damaged windows were not naturally visible from the streets mainly obstructed by fences and partitions for protecting privacy. Moreover, approximately 90 percent of the attacked apartment houses which balconies face the side do not have enough access control for some possible intrude routes, even where directly reach the side.
The interior finish work of apartment building does not progress on schedule in Japan though the apartment construction does. Japanese general constructors have challenged to this issue since the 1970s, but there is no example established as a standard method for interior finish work management.We investigated the process of the interior finish work and analyzed the obtained data, which revealed that the problems were in the relation of product structure, scheduling and work assignment.
This paper reports how the floor plan of historical townhouses in Hita Mameda-machi (Hita-shi, Oita) have been remodeled. At the time of their construction, it was typical that the tooridoma was planned and the rooms were arranged at one side of this. However, the many of them have been remodeled into the floor plan with large doma area which faced the street. As a result of considering the relation between use and floor plan of the townhouses, it became clear that they were often remodeled into such floor plan in case they were used as shops.
An independent laterite stone masonry tower at Prasat Suor Prat was found severely deteriorated with large inclination and selected as one of the conservation works by Japanese Government team for Safeguarding Angkor. The tower was dismantled not only for upper structure but also for foundation to study the character defining element of the masonry tower structure and mechanism of deformations and inclination. The authors describe the process of restoration work and application of new technologies including geo-textile used in compacted foundation soils with slaked lime under consideration of the principal of minimal intervention and yet to add basic safety requirement.
There are a lot of systems of the public grant in the urban renewal in Japan. However, these have not aimed at the conservation of historical buildings. This report is described how to use these public grants for conservation of historical buildings, through three cases by using the public grant in Hokkaido. It is thought that the possibility of support to conservation was able to be shown to the way of use in the historical buildings that will be lost by lack of funds.
Railway foot bridge at stations is one of the station structures for use of passengers. Although it is a universal railway structure in Japan, its historical development is poorly understood until now. This paper describes the history of railway foot bridges on the Tokaido Line based on historical records and drawings in the Meiji era. As the results of this survey, the diffusion process from large stations to local stations, and the standardization process in the end of the Meiji era have become clear.
In the movement of making digital archives of cultural assets, you can see the similar approaches in the architectural field. Most of these are simply creating computer graphics of outside appearance, few are precisely digitizing inside mechanism. Considering academic significance, the latter are more valuable than the former. Precisely detailed digital archive includes huge amount of three-dimensional geometric data, illustration and commentary, so that it requires sophisticated system for managing data consistency. The authors customized a commercial 3D CAD system to interactively communicate with a backend relational database system which stores various building information. In this paper, the authors propose brand-new digital-archive method using the "CAD w/ DB" system.
Students studying to be an architect well handle virtual tools such as CAD and Illustrator, while they have slight chances to feel "real technologies". Structural experiment lecture has a potentiality to supply the senses of material quality and structural load to their mind and even to their bodies. Those senses are very important for the students to reach the threshold of architects. Proposed test method of RC beam is based on the load generated by highly elastic steel bars, i.e., PC bars. The students can feel the load level and the deformation level through the torque and the rotation of screw nuts attached to PC bars. Simple beams are tested in parallel so that even forty students are able to participate in the tests at the same time. Thus, the students feel the energy dissipation of ductile beams with their own sweats.
Since 1994, Home Economics has been become compulsory for boys at Senior High School. However, within the field of Home Economics, only about 6 or 10 hours per year are allotted to "Homes and lifestyles". Therefore, it is difficult to engage the interest of students. The writer proposes changing of the teaching style from a conventional class to a practical lesson in which students make their own designs. The teaching material is "a practical lesson in spatial understanding using a triangular plan".
The Rikuu Earthquake of 1896 is one of the largest inland events that occurred in Tohoku District, Northern Japan, of which magnitude was 7.2. This earthquake caused heavy damage both Iwate and Akita Prefectures. In the previous paper, damage in Iwate Prefecture was revealed referring newspaper articles at that time. Continuing to the previous paper, damage data of Akita Prefecture is surveyed with reconnaissance reports and local documents at that time. Seismic intensities are estimated with collected damage data by local governmental units and precise distribution maps are made.
Information about damaged region by Wenchuan Earthquake on 5.12 in 2008 has been less than other cases, because any foreign groups have not been permitted to investigate. In this paper, we report the recovery situation in Dujianyan City which is the biggest city in damaged region based on our twice investigations for three months after the earthquake occurred, focusing on response for damaged people, shelter and temporary house, and recovery plan.
Two dimensional long stroke shaking table is developed, which is available for a person to experience realistic earthquake shaking and building response. Indoor and outdoor shaking scene is projected in front of the cage and is synchronized with the shaking table. Input waves are simulated ground motions and building responses which are easily selected on the WebGIS maps. Small-sized shaking table is also developed, and observed responses and video images are available in the large shaking table experience. Such a series of devices and systems provides realistic shaking experience and is effective for promotion of disaster mitigation activities.
The University of Tokyo (Todai) initiated a project called "Todai Sustainable Campus Project (TSCP)" which aims at formation of sustainable campus with involvement of its students as well as collaboration with other universities. The university sets target of CO2 emission reduction by 15% in fiscal year 2012 in compared with fiscal year 2006 as TSCP2012. It introduces cost-effective energy saving countermeasures which include replacement of fluorescent lamps, refrigerators, air-conditioners, chillers and others. A long-term target in 2030 is CO2 emission reduction by 50% in compared with 2006 with further introduction of energy saving equipments and introduction of renewable energy.