This paper presents a series of analyses on the effect of finishing materials, environmental conditions, ages, completion years, and core compressive strength in the buildings constructed between 1953 and 1985 on carbonation of concrete. As a result, the carbonation ratio of concrete in outdoor environment and in ordinary classroom was 62% and 118% of that in living room, respectively. The correlation between the carbonation speed and core compressive strength was low. The carbonation speed of concretes that were made between 1965 and 1986 was slower than that before 1965.
The specimens cured by several simple adiabatic tanks were examined for the quality control of strength in structure of 150MPa concrete. It has been understood that the tank where 2 × 5 specimens are arranged is good as a result of the experiment. Then, it was used for the quality control of actual building operations. As a result, specimen cured by selected tank was able to administrate the strength in structure of 150MPa concretes appropriately. Moreover, quality control results of 150MPa concrete were excellent.
Thermal cracking is caused by large hydration heat of early age concrete in massive structures. For investigating mechanical behavior of early-age concrete and thermal cracking, a kind of temperature-stress testing machine (TSTM) was employd. By controlling the hydration heat in the concrete specimen, different results were obtained on the mechanical behavior of concrete specimens made with the same mix-proportion. Influence of the quasi-complete strain restraint on the mechanical behavior was also investigated.
Rebound number by rebound hummer for estimation of concrete strength decline by the repetitional use. And, it knows that there is a individual difference of the hammer. To get a proper measurement, we must take regularly certification and maintenance. This paper reports the result of the experiments about the decline by repetitional use and individual difference of each hammer. As those results, we propose the strategy and frequency of certification.
There are many previous studies on the index of regional frost deterioration hazards for concrete. However, it is sometimes pointed out that the evaluated results are different from each index. This report deals with the comparison of the famous indexes in Japan, and it makes clear the features of these indexes. According to the results, high correlation between each index is observed.
In this study, application of hollow prestressed concrete panel for planting wall panel was investigated. Growth condition of various plants on the wall were observed by one year outdoor exposure test for using actual planting wall panel. Sedum has an ability of growth in all season. The temperature reducing effect of planting wall were observed by outdoor exposure test for using actual planting wall panel in the summer period.
Refuse areas designated by Sendai-city were established in terms of the safety concept with evaluating the situation of existing masonry walls. A methodology associated with the binominal distribution was presented as a parametric model. The safety ranking for existing masonry walls established by the residential section of city office was devoted for the statistical analysis. The result of the inspection indicated a feature that the distributed pattern of the suspicious refuse areas could be related with the urbanizaiton.
Bending moment of the slab caused by a load of a heavy machine under demolition work is usually defined less than allowable moment for temporary loading. The number and arrangement of tube supports are determined to meet the condition. If the plastic deformation of a slab is estimated with accuracy, the reasonable floor support system can be proposed. In this report, the results of measured axial forces of the supports in a 2 way slab are described, and the reasonable support system is proposed.
In this paper, vibration characteristics of 43 middle-rise reinforced concrete buildings located in Kyoto city were investigated based on microtremor measurements. The buildings can be divided to three types by judging from the structural specifications. The vibration characteristics of soil around the objective buildings were also investigated. As the influences of soil-structure interaction were evident, we used a model including swaying and rocking behavior of soil in the analysis. The natural frequencies of the three-type buildings were compared, and their statistical properties were evaluated.
In over-track buildings, it is necessary not only to enhance the resistance against earthquake but also to reduce the train-induced vibration propagated to the buildings, which will be caused by trains running under the buildings. Therefore, we have proposed a structural system of a building with functions of both seismic and vibration isolation. In this structural system, laminated rubbers are set in the middle story of the building, which are softer in the vertical direction than general laminated rubbers. In this study, it has been made clear by response analysis that the resistance against earthquake is high and the reduction of train-induced vibration has been confirmed with model experiments and numerical analysis.
This paper presents the development of a long-stroke vibration testing system for tracing earthquake response in long-period buildings. Comparing with ordinary shaking tables, this system doesn't require large space and any special power supplies. In the process of development, various types of shaking tests for checking performances of this system are operated. Finally, it is confirmed that this system can precisely trace any kind of waves within the range of ±3m displacement, 500cm/s velocity and 2000cm/s2 acceleration. For building users, owners and engineers, it is expected to have proper understanding on earthquake response in long-period buildings by using this system.
Dynamic properties evaluation by microtremor observation was conducted for valuable modern historical buildings in the architectural museum “Meiji mura”. The estimated natural frequency and damping ratio of all the buildings are accumulated into database together with the structural and historical features of the building. Surface layer characteristics are examined at many points in the museum, and the area of filled ground is clearly shown. The earthquake observation is also conducted at three important buildings. Such observation and database are important for planning seismic retrofit of these buildings.
Dynamic modeling of a PCaPC seven-story building is examined with comparing observed earthquake response characteristics. Some points of structural modeling, such as the evaluation of live load, stiffness of concrete, and detailed modeling of frames and slabs, are proved to be effective in natural frequency of the building. Dynamic soil-structure interaction effect is also verified with modeling of soil, pile and embedded foundation. It is important to accumulate such modeling with observed data for the evaluation and improvement of structural modeling methods.
In this study, based on the shaking table test of two-storied timber frame structure, we examined the validity of damage detection indices calculated by using response accelerations and strains, which were previously proposed for a unit frame. Applicability of the index f1, based on the negative slopes of bending moment, became poor for the two-storied timber frame structure compared to the previous test of unit frame. While the index f3, based on the discontinuity of strain energy, still can detect damage time and location of column accurately. Furthermore, a new index considering both f2, using the negative slopes of shear force, and f4, based on the discontinuity of kinetic energy, was proposed. The index accurately detects damage time when somewhere damaged in the whole structure.
Model tests were conducted to observe the soil movement around helical wing, in order to investigate the penetration mechanism of screw pile. In the tests, to observe the soil movement from the inside of pile shaft by the fiberscope, the translucent acryl pipe and the polished rice were replaced for the pile and the soil, respectively. The results show the streams of rice particles around the helical wing, and how the cavernous zone propagates with the penetration of pile. Finally, we have discussed the effect of the space of helical wing upon the efficiency of penetration of screw pile.
A rapid plate-loading test has more advantageous points than a static loading test, because it is performed at a simple condition and in a short time. The only relationship between a working load and settlement is obtained from the test. However, the works are on the increase to estimate the bearing capacity and the rigidity of ground at the site from the rapid plate-loading test. This report presents the comparisons between the results of the static and rapid loading tests, which were performed at the nine sites, and more the rigidity and the ultimate bearing capacity of the ground at the test sites, which are estimated from the rapid loading tests.
Reusing existing piles has several advantages, including reducing the environmental load, when reconstructing old buildings. This report describes a reuse of bored piles constructed almost 25 years ago as the foundation of a new 9-story R/C building. The following conclusions were reached. (1) The results of integrity and durability tests show no damage or deterioration of the old piles. (2) The results of a settlement analysis based on the hybrid method show that a foundation of old and new piles is unlikely to undergo dangerous settlement. (3) The seismic safety of the foundation is ensured by the application of a flexible connection at a pile head.
This paper presents primary studies of wind loads for a huge structure composed of cable-stayed roof with span length exceeding 350m and cantilevered length 44m with the structural model experiments (scale 1 : 200). The design wind load for the cantilever roof bases on the dynamic-response analysis. In the analyses, the wind-tunnel data are used. A simple model is provided as a function the length parameters of the buildings. It was clarified the gust effect factor and the equivalent static load distribution derived from the tunnel tests.
This paper deals with the passive control of structures such as bridges and space structures by using a tuned mass damper with Toggle Strut String Systems. Toggle Strut String Systems is deformation amplification mechanism vibration control device with lever mechanism with auxiliary masses. This paper presents analytical study on vibration control effects of Toggle Strut String Systems.
The design and composition methods for wooden dome are described. Wooden spheric dome is transformed into spherical polygon in order to put standard sized lumbers to use. The surface of spherical polygon is replaced with a combination of units, which are consisted of lumbers and shaped six-pointed star. Each unit has wedges, which keep the adhesive angle among units, on its angular points. And the wooden dome is composed of units and wedges by adhesives. The coefficient of construction availability is devised for checking up on measurements of lumbers and rise-to-span ratio of wooden dome in the range of construction availability. It was found that the structural performance of wooden dome is not deteriorated with constructional convenience in the coefficient of construction availability, from 0 to 0.9.
A steel sandwich panel usually used as finishing materials has a potential of increasing structural performance of building frames. In this paper, authors have proposed steel sandwich panel walls for retrofit of conventional post and beam wooden structures for resisting against lateral forces, in which sandwich panels are affixed to the wooden structure with screws. The steel sandwich panel consists of double thin steel sheets and a nurate core which is resistant to fire and lateral forces. In-plane shear tests are conducted to examine the structural performance. The results show that the panel exhibited stable and satisfactory behavior. In addition, the several performance indices are provided based on the test results and an example of the retrofitting application to actural wooden structure.
Program LAP3D was developed in order to predict the elasto-plastic responses and collapse behavior of space framed structures by the present authors and their colleagues, using hybrid strees beam-column finite elements based on Timoshenko's beam-column theory which yield no discretizing errors in their elastic and elasto-plastic responses of the element. In this paper, program LAP3D was applied the Japanese traditional wooden structure which consists of columns, nuki, and wooden walls, and it was shown that the past experiment data was simulated with sufficient accuracy.
This paper describes the structural performance of shear wall, structural floor and joint between panel and timber frame in a construction using wood panel inserted heat insulation. The structural key issue of this construction is to evaluate shear performance in difference with thickness and variant of the insulation, composite action of outer oriental strand board and inner insulation, and with or without timber supports being in the panel. Their performance was evaluated in experimental study and the shear performance of wall was predicted from single connector property analytically.
Nagahozosashi-komisen has been widely used for the base of column joint of traditional wooden structure. But it is evaluated low comparing to hardware in now. As the result of experiment; the specification increased the number of plug or mortise, the maxim strength grew up in 1.5-1.9 times than standard, and the joint strength grew up in 3.7-4.8 times than stipulated value. Comparing the result of experiment with the theoretical formulas about the yield strength and destructive pattern, the presumption of strength and part of destruction can be approximated to the result of experiment mostly.
When a reverse beam and regular beam are adopted as a beam in an outer frame construction, the stress exerted during an earthquake in the beam-column joint is complex. The performance of the beam-column joint can change when a PCa concrete shell is used as the column and the PCa concrete shell is extended to the panel zone of the beam-column joint. Therefore, loading tests of three-dimensional beam-column joints were carried out and structural characteristics were examined. The results confirmed that the Q-R curves show excellent energy absorption and ductility properties. The ACI equation evaluates the maximum strengths with good accuracy. If each reverse beam and regular beam's direction is examined separately, even under bidirectional loading, it is possible to design for shear stress in any direction on the safety side.
Seismic retrofit method by attaching external braced steel frame to existing concrete building has a significant advantage in that the construction can be done without interfering the use of building. For retrofitting the existing RC building by using the attached external frame, the Japanese Building Disaster Prevention Association has published a design manual. However, the recommendations in the current design manual are not sufficient for low strength concrete and Diamond Type Bracing.
Conversion of an existing reinforced concrete building was done. In that case, several spans of flat slab structure of the building came to have to support the large increase of live load. In order to attain that purpose, a special strengthening plan using external prestressing cables was proposed, and reinforcement work was actually performed. This paper describes the design plan and the reinforcement work for the flat slab panels.
The authors developed a buckling-restrained brace for using steel framed houses. The buckling-restrained brace is small-sized and light-weighted with a restraining part of hard polyurethane or mortar. Conducting static and cyclic axial loading tests, elastoplastic and stiffening properties are difined. Specimens with the restraining parts of various restraining forces were fabricated. The authors considere the test data on cumulative ductility factors and cumulative plastic strain energy, and evaluate its performance.
We report the results of out-of-plane flexural tests of historic brick walls under monotonic loading reinforced by inserting stainless pins. We conducted the flexural tests in the retrofit project of a historic warehouse built in 1902 at Maizuru. The test results indicate significant increase of the ductility by the reinforcement. We found from the esperiment that yielding and/or fracture of stainless pins and fracture of the bond between stainless pins and bricks are the key mechanisms of the out-of-plane flexural failure. From these observations, we present a simple design formula for estimating the out-of-plane flexural strength of the brick walls.
Large amount of low-rise public accommodation buildings are remained in urban cities with difficulty for redevelopment, because of occupation by residents. Such residents are also tending to be aged and access improvements are also required. For solving those problem, additional isolation system on existing buildings are proposed. The system is composed of self-supporting additional floors on existing buildings, with energy-dissipation devices between existing buildings. In this paper, the structural characteristics and effects of this system are discussed, and easy estimation methods of their response are proposed.
The authors propose the concept of movable energy-dissipation glass wall, which is able to be laid out along wide opening of Japanese traditional wooden house and folded into a door pocket. Firstly, dynamic tests on real size mock-up walls are carried out, and their dynamic characteristics are evaluated. This system is applied to an exsisting traditional house, and the performance of the wall is discussed using the result of vibration tests.
The authors have developed one of teaching materials showing vibration test featuring a temple, which is called ‘Otera-bururu’. Based on an analysis of earthquake damage and structural factor of temples, the 1/10 scale wooden temple model placed on hand cart, which is kind of a shaking table, is developed in order to demonstrate the seismic weakness of wooden temple for promotion of seismic retrofit. Model experiment and close-up VTR could show breakup process and appeal an effect of seismic retrofit to the eye and the ear.
A questionnaire on neighborhood noise disputes was carried out to persons in charge of the noise problem in municipal offices in the whole country. A number of the answers was 479 and the recovery rate was 62%. Through the result, the conflict concerning a dog barking increases in small cities, and that is anticipated to increase in the future. There were arguments pros and cons about the regulation against the neighborhood noise. In the free description, it is mainly commented that the neighborhood noise dispute depends on the lack of the neighborhood association.
This study was conducted to investigate the relationships between colors and materials concerning facade of buildings facing a street. On-site survey was conducted in Oike Street which is one of the most modern streets in Kyoto city. The findings are stated as follows. (1) Colors used with high frequency have warm in Hue, middle or high score in Value and low score in Chroma. (2) Walls of the second story and up are mainly tiled and judged to be the dominant color. (3) Walls of the first story are mainly finished with stone and judged to be the assorted color. (4) Window frames are mainly made of metal and judged to be the accessory color.
In a previous paper, the response against the noise complaint was researched using the Picture-Frustration study in a psychological technique. A present study treats the method which evaluates quantitatively the response against complaint on a community noise. In the first place, the investigation with Scheffe's paired comparison test on the strength of the response was carried out and the numerical value of the response was evaluated. Based on the result of the investigation, the response index against the noise complaint was newly proposed.
Two types of hydro-fluorocarbons (HFC245fa and HFC365mfc) which are the substitutes for HCFC 141b has been put in practical use as new blowing agents for polyurethane spray insulation foam jsut since 2004. In this study, we developed estimation method for aging of thermal conductivity in HFC-blown spray foam with whole skin based on experiments. Furthermore, we simulate change of heat load by heating/cooling caused by the aging with house model.
CASBEE-UD, a new member of “CASBEE family”, is developed to assess the environmental efficiency of planned projects consisting of multiple buildings and public areas. Its particular emphasis is on the outdoor environment and compound function of group of buildings. This tool inherits the general framework of other CASBEE tools, such as the assessment by BEE defined as the quality of buildings performance divided by the environmental load. It enhances well-balanced planning of urban projects, so that it can contribute to the realization of sustainable cities.
It assumed that the maintenance engineers and the building managers have to present the quality level of jobs as “commitment” to each client with the contract. The jobs of the maintenance and the management of the building services are classified. The quality levels are set for each job. This report present the tables of such levels. The commitment list can be made choosing the level from this alternatives tables. The jobs for the reliability, handling the degradation and the obsolescence, management of energy, water, waste and the indoor environment, and jobs for the building management are set as the objects.
In order consider the efficient residential energy conservation, measurements on energy consumption for four houses in Akita Prefecture have been conducted for two years. Annual energy consumptions classified by energy source, end-use, and appliance, and also daily profiles of energy consumptions for lighting and others were shown. In conclusion, total energy consumption for lighting and others showed a small seasonal fluctuation, excepting that for refrigerator and “washret”. Energy consumption fluctuations for some appliances in some houses had a different tendency depending on weekday and holiday. Energy consumption is related to appliance performance, energy usage and resident's lifestyle.
A super insulated test house was constructed in Shinshu University of Nagano city. This house was designed with zero heating load concept and its heat loss coefficient is 0.72W/m2K. The thermal environment and energy consumption were monitored for one year. Measured results reveal the possibility for no energy consumption for space heating with both high thermal performance of envelopes and generated heat gain from occupants, lights and so on. Also it is shown through field measurement and numerical analysis that super thermal performance with solar shading and cross ventilation conduce the decrease of energy consumption for space cooling.
The study on Gangi of public housing of Hokkaido and Aomori's prefectures has been conducted to find out relations between dwelling units and Gangi when it is planned as a common space. As a result, new arrangements are found to enhance relations between Gangi, dwelling units, and outdoor environments. The following three points are recommended by the auther. 1) Gangi should be arranged in south to get much heat. 2) Gangi has to be positioned beside the living room. 3) Gangi should connect inside and outside environments in order to work functionally as Engawa.
In 2002, St. Luke's International Hospital located at Tokyo, decided to renovate the playroom in its Children's Ward. Our group including the authors studied in detail, the issues, problems, and solutions of the then playroom, and proposed the new design. The renovated facility was completed in April 2005. This paper aims about the renovation of the playroom; 1) to report an architectural planning research case with a cycle of an original on-site survey, sorting out of issues, a proposal of design, an assessment of efficacy by afterward survey and its analysis, 2) to examine whether the problems pointed out at the planning stage are solved, the purpose to establish a playroom is fully achieved, and the proposed space has raised the assumed effect by comparison of how the playroom is used between before and after the renovation.
This study is a report based on a questionnaire for elementary and junior high school teachers who are in charge of school children with intellectual disability. The main focus of this report is the children's urinary incontinence and the difficulties faced by the teachers when the children use the toilet. The report confirms that a fairly large number of teachers perceive difficulties with regard to the excretory process of school children with intellectual disability. It also shows that many of the difficulties are strongly related to spatial elements. It also highlights the fact that so far, numerous environmental arrangements have been considered and undertaken to deal with the excretory process of such children.
This paper aims to report on the actual management states of the integrated facilities within functions of nursery school and nursery in various cases. Then, we tried to arrange merits and issues on management of these facilities, and gain foundational knowledge to plan these facilities. For this purpose, firstly we conducted hearings with many local governments and flagship, facilities, and observational survey at those facilities. Secondly, we grasped and arranged following points in each local governments and flagship facilities,: 1) the actual management states, 2) the process and backbround of introducing the integrating, 3) the detail consideration to whole concept of these integrated facilities, 4) merits and issues on managemeting the integrating.
This paper aims to clarify the consideration change of the staff who is related to the repair process at nursing home where the repair is scheduled in the future. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1. In the repair process by the staff, the organization that becomes a nucleus is necessary. 2. Especially, there was a change in the idea concerning staffs “Dead angle” and “Purpose of making to the pribate room”.
The complete enumeration questionnaire survey throughout Japan concerning current situations of group living for the eiderly was conducted in 5216 traditional nursing homes. The contents of the investigation are whether or not they introduce group living, how they manage the care for group living, when they started, and what effects cause the elderly and care givers. As a result about 30 percent of the answering facilities provide group living, and about 60 percent of group living facilities evalvated the positive effects.
In this report, we investigated local activities and specific environment in substitute settlements under influence of dam construction. As a result, the relocating houses are performed in a small group, and substitute settlements forms the small groups with other residence. If an old village becomes extinct, people are more active to participate in old local activities. On the other hand, the people moved to participate in new activity of substitute settlements.
The purpose of this thesis is to clarify locations of coin-parking lots, or hourly parking lots on hire with tollgate machines. As a result of analysis, we found that the locations of coin-parking lots are affected by three following back-grounds mutually. 1. Tendency of land use in the area 2. Former land use of the land 3. Various local factors
National wide researches were carried out in order to obtain actual risks concerning living environment. The results of the inquiry are shown as follows. 1) A large number of respondents worry something unsatisfactory coming up against crimes or disasters. 2) Remarkable risks are different from respondents' situation, such as living area, age, and house. 3) Several numbers of measures are taken to deal with some risks. 4) Many people expect informational exchange multilaterally.
Ryokuen-toshi is a satisfactory city that developed by sagamitetudo company. A lot of lands deveroper only provided lands and housing, while sagamitetudo company was different from them. Sagamitetudo company didn't only provide lands and housings, but also helped to establish RCA (Ryokuen-toshi Comunity Association) that maintain living environment of Ryokuen-toshi. In recent year, RCA's efforts appreciated and got a prize. This papper discusses the how to deveroped and maintained Ryokuen-toshi finely, and its changes.