This paper deals with consideration in boom operation changed length of tip horse to boom and posture of boom in placing concrete by pumping method. Therefore, Quality variation of concrete after pumping show a tendency to almost equal in length pipe for boom. Pressure line for boom should be consideration that length extended pipe line is longer. In addition, Posture of boom should be consideration that take measures to prevent overload for boom as much as type M keep.
Thin steel plates galvanized are used for steel-framed house, roof and wall and their metal fittings of building structures. There are corrosion, fatigue, thermal effects and surface defects in the factors of deterioration of steel material. Corrosion occurs such as a thin steel plate, as well as the usual steel caused by the presence of moisture and oxygen, depending on the environmental conditions, the degree and form of the corrosion are different. Not only flat portion but also cut edge portion of metal fitting using a thin steel plate in corrosion resistance are different. In this paper, combined cyclic test of various specifications of metal fittings for folded-plate roof using thin steel plates is conducted and corrosion resistance of metal fittings is evaluated.
This study deals with the thermal properties of ALC panels subjected to accelerated carbonation. Difference in the thermal conductivity of ALC subjected to accelerated carbonation was marginal, scarcely affecting its heat insulation design values. Also, up to a degree of accelerated carbonation of 70%, the temperatures within ALC panels including steel reinforcement were comparable to those of uncarbonated ALC panels during fire resistance testing. Accelerated carbonation therefore causes no appreciable difference in the heat- and flame-shielding performance of ALC panels evaluated by fire resistance testing.
Carbonation of ALC panels progresses simultaneously throughout the whole section. Even with ceramic tiles laid on one side of the panel, ALC is carbonated to the back of the tiles by CO2 penetration from the other side. In this research, tiled ALC panels were subjected to accelerated carbonation followed by bond strength testing between ALC and tiling. As a result, it was found that carbonation of ALC does not directly cause tile spalling up to a carbonation degree of 89%.
Existing reinforced concrete structures in Gunkan Island began to construct since 1916, it was said to be the oldest class of RC high-rise apartment buildings in Japan. In the RC structures, the integrity evaluation of exterior wall finishing materials and analyses of various bricks in the wall were investigated. Most of the buildings had the peeling and the separation in finishing materials, the average defective portion was approximately 25%. Red bricks and black bricks in the building number 16 were not being fired during manufacturing, and were considered to have been molded by gypsum or the like as a binder.
In this study, thermal insulation performance of a building covered with a heat-treatment wood was evaluated with four kinds of building models with concrete. The conductive heat flux was smaller than the concrete surface without the cladding through a day. When thickness of the cladding increased, heat transmission coefficient was decreased and transfer of heat was more suppressed through a day. On the other hand, when concrete and a gap of the cladding disappeared, heat transmission coefficient was increased and transfer of heat increased through a day.
It is important to ensure safety of members of truss towers against fatigue damage. Fatigue damage is caused by the facts that the entire steel tower responses by earthquakes and wind, and that individual member is vibrated by the wind. It is especially feared that vibration with vortex shedding occurs in a thin member. This paper presents method and example of evaluating fatigue damage of pipe member under vortex shedding. In this paper, pipe and connection are modeled by finite elements in order to calculate hot spot stress at welded point. The cumulative time of wind speed in verification time period is evaluated by simplified method proposed by the authors.
The authors developed an oil damper with a new and novel configuration. That has the high damping capacity, 6000kN force in maximum. Through a real scale performance test with conditions of velocity of 450mm/s or of displacement amplitude of 184mm both in maximum, it was confirmed the developed damper possesses the designed characteristics. In another test using earthquake responded waves, the device showed an expected performance, as well. It was also found out that a new test method, employing the feature on the configuration consisted of three element dampers, and will make product testing possible, was precise enough.
This paper describes the influence of the accretionary wedge (hereafter AW) along the Nankai Trough on long-period ground motions in the Chukyo area using the finite difference method. Simulations with AW agree generally well with the observed records in the foreshock occurred in south-east off Mie Prefecture in 2004. Simulations without AW show larger amplitude than the observed records. Based on separation with a barrier, the difference of seismic waves between with and without AW is larger in shallow part of subsurface structures. It’s revealed that AW traps seismic waves from the foreshock and hardly influences on the seismic waves from assumed strong motion generation areas.
During the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, long period ground motions were largely amplified in coastal area of Ise Bay. This report describes the 3-D wave propagation analyses results for the 3-D geological model including sedimentary basin of Nobi Plain by using the 3-D finite defference method. The records are well simulated and the long period ground motions are amplified in the coastal area mainly due to constructive interference of multi-passing waves. We also investigate amplification characteristics for various azimuthal angles of the incident S-wave, showing complexed spatial variation of local amplification.
Earthquake response analysis of 30 high-rise building models under long period motions is carried out. There are some cases in which the response exceeded the safety limit, when the level of input long period motion is larger. Damage to beam ends of high-rise building models is estimated. Damage ratio tends to be larger as story drift angle becomes larger.
Structural characteristics of super structures and seismic isolation devices were shown by the analysis of database of 3202 seismically isolated buildings. In the recent buildings, natural period of seismically isolated buildings becomes longer, and base shear coefficient becomes smaller. By the simple estimation to long period ground motions to isolated buildings, 15% buildings should be examined by time history analysis.
Dynamic properties of 23 middle-low rise RC/SRC buildings during the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake was investigated through the identification of strong motion data. From the identification result of SDOF simulated wave, the identified results of strong motion data can be reproduced. Viscous damping can be estimated from the part of small amplitude. The change of natural periods during the earthquake is related to the damage condition of buildings.
This report shows the advantage of using high-strength steels and hysteretic dampers for low- and medium-rise buildings. In this paper, the structural members are decided by the long term stress. Seismic loads are burdened with hysteretic dampers. There are two methods to increase the yield stress of columns; one is using high-strength steels, and the other is adopting larger members. Through the investigation of time history response analysis, a method using high-strength steels has high performance not only decreasing damage of frame but also increasing the equivalent damping factor than another method.
The authors performed statistical analysis of the data obtained from vertical loading test conducted on 14 kinds of 192 screw piles which were applied to The Building Center of Japan. The effects of the position of wing (pile shaft or pile tip), the shape of wing (helical plate or flat plate) and the shape of pile tip (closed end or opened end) upon the spring constant at toe of screw piles were discussed. And further, the equation of load - settlement curves of screw piles were compared to those of cast-in-place concrete piles of AIJ and BCS.
In this paper, inversed coefficients of subgrade reaction (kh) estimated from past horizontal load test data of single piles with wide range diameter in sand deposit are studied. As the result, reference kh (kh0) calculated with SPT blow counts (N-value) is smaller than the inversed kh0 in small N-value ground. The inversed kh0 obtained from the values at y/B = 0.01 (y: pile displacement, B: pile diameter) has good correspondence with the test data than that obtained from the values at y = 1cm. Further, the variation of the calculated kh0 based on B-1 and y/B = 0.01 is smaller than that based on the method of the AIJ recommendations.
In this article, we discuss on the mechanical properties of bamboo as construction material and on the development of handmade joint connecting bamboos, based on the results of some experiments. We used them in the planning of the actual building as reported in the previous paper (Part 1). We sampled some test pieces in the bamboo forest near the building site, and conducted experiments to evaluate the strength of bamboo. Joint making method was also developed by repeating some test trials. We propose two types of method, which have convenience for manual work and enough reliability in securing necessary strength.
The wooden blocks made of the plywood using timber from thinning were devised to build masonry walls. The one of usage of the wooden blocks is the seismic retrofitting for the existing-timber houses that have inferior earthquake-resistant capacity. In this paper, the experimental results conducted in order to clarify the effect of the seismic retrofit using the wooden blocks are described. The two timber-frame specimens are reinforced by the wall that is built by single-piled wooden blocks. The another one is reinforced by the wall that is built by random-piled wooden blocks. The restoring characteristics of the timber-frame specimens are verified and the basic earthquake-resistant capacity of the seismic retrofitting method is clarified from the experimental results.
As for the glulam beams with plural round holes, there are very few studies at present. The authors conducted full-scale bending tests using 14 types of specimens and proposed the strength calculation methods of glulam beams with plural round holes based on the results of the tests. The ratio of hole diameter to beam height (d/h) are 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. As a result, the relationship between cracking angle of holes and ratio of d/h was found. It was also found that the lower limit values of the effective section modulus at the hole could be approximated by using Hankinson’s formula.
Precast prestressed concrete brace system (RB Method) has been used for seismic strengthening for its simple and economical construction. The authors developed the new brace system using glulam members in place of concrete members. As for the bracing method using glulam, single brace type was already developed, therefore crossing brace type was proposed in this paper. For the purpose of investigating the structural behavior of the proposed system, half-scale concrete frame loading test was conducted, which was strengthened with the crossing brace system. As a result, the strengthened frame showed ductile lateral deformation until a drift of 1.0 %.
This paper focuses on the viscoelasticity evaluation of the wood, based on simple relaxation test of Japanese cedar in its L, R directions. The viscoelastic parameters for these specimens were extracted based on regression analysis using results of compression test on several stroke rate. Adaptability of these parameters were verified by simulating the result of simple relaxation test. The characteristics of these woods depend on stroke rate. Using these parameters, it is possible to evaluate the stress relaxation of short term.
Responses of the reinforced concrete high-rise buildings under long period ground motions in case of the Nankai Trough large scale earthquake are calculated using the nonlinear three-dimensional frame analysis. In the analysis, slab contribution to the beam flexibility, slab behavior in the flexural hysteresis of a beam, and P-Delta effect are properly considered. From the analysis results, it was found that significant damage difficult to maintain their function may occur in the high-rise buildings.
Buckling restrained braces are among the most effective seismic-resisting structural members. This study focused on the feasibility of using buckling restrained braces for base-isolated steel buildings with long-span girders. A series of analyses were conducted to characterize the seismic response of base-isolated steel building structures reinforced by concentratedly placed K-bracings with ordinary or buckling restrained braces. Buckling restrained braces were shown to reduce not only the lateral deformation of the buildings but also the tensile force acting on rubber bearings of isolators.
Sometimes, a fitting type connection is adopted to the connection of steel structures which requires the disassembling properties and any other purpose. In this study, a new type of connection technique for steel square tube is suggested. This proposed joint has fitting connector by embedding mechanism not using bolt or welding, a clearance between each steel tube is filled with adhesives to adjust the rigidity and strength. Therefore, this study develops the possibility and feasibility of new constructional and joint technique using the adhesive material. Herein, the cyclic loading tests are conducted to clarify the resistant mechanism and inelastic behavior.
There are many discussions about repairability and recovery on damaged building structures. In considering sustainable use of damaged building structures, it is required to apply suitable repair methods for each damaged component members. Several repair methods for damaged RHS steel members have been proposed in technical guideline. However, the specific work procedure and the relationship between repair method and recovery have not been well reported in past researches. This study focuses on a repair method for RHS steel members. The detailed repair procedure is validated based on actual examples. Furthermore, the recovery of structural performance after repair is clarified.
Wall-type precast reinforced concrete (WPC) residential buildings using prefabricated concrete panels have maintained high structural quality, although they were constructed more than 40 years ago in Japan. In order to utilize them, seismic behavior of the existing buildings was evaluated by static pushover analyses considering their foundations. The failure mode in the transverse direction is rocking of the walls. The ultimate lateral strength is higher for the existing buildings with piles than without piles. The mode in the longitudinal direction is beam yielding, which is unchanged considering their foundations.
Generally for seismic strengthening works of existing brick masonry buildings, post-installed anchors are used to structurally combine existing brick walls with reinforcing additional members. However, the mechanical evaluation methods of the anchors have not been established unlike in the case of reinforced concrete structures. It should be needed to propose and the methods in order to conduct practical restoration projects employing such reinforcement technique. This paper summarizes the tension and shear tests of the post-installed anchors in brick walls and shows applicability of the capacity evaluation formula of the post-installed anchors in reinforced concrete structures to those in brick walls.
Cyclic loading experiments on Lead Rubber Bearing (LRB) with large diameter lead plug were performed. Four-size LRB specimens which had almost identical shape factors were used. Effects of temperature and scale on LRB properties were examined based on one-direction loading tests. In addition, behavior under two-direction loading was compared with one under one-direction loading. The relationship between temperature and yield stress of lead plug was derived from temperature measured by using thermocouples installed in the center of lead plug. Heat conduction analysis using the relationship can predict force and temperature of lead plug with high accuracy.
Recent researches pointed out that steel furring suspended ceiling systems attached to its surrounding walls/beams without clearance have a certain seismic capacity. Although guidelines limit overhanging length at the end of ceilings, the effect of the length on in-plane compression strength of ceilings has not been clarified yet. In this paper, static loading tests are conducted to grasp the effect and collapse mechanisms using some specimens with different overhanging length. The results show that the effect is relatively small.
The Japanese government is promoting use of wood in recent years, because of the environmental provision of carbon dioxide fixation. The authors developed “FR wood”. “FR wood” is the only technique with simply use one tree species in Japan. “FR wood” is built by three layers. The central member supports load, the second layer prevents a fire and the third layer is surface. A lot of experimental cases were conducted, and many temperature data or carbonization thickness data were accumulated. The measured maximum temperature depended on the thickness and the tree species of load supporting member.
Sequential measurements of space impression of spaciousness were conducted using three methods. The objective is to detect proper method of sequential measurement of impression. Participants tried to evaluate spaciousness while walking with three methods: answer sheet, verbal answer, and device with volume knob. The data of behavior was also continuously recorded. After the experiment, participants responded to an inquiry survey. As a result, the impression of spaciousness is not affected significantly by the used methods. However, it is concluded that the device is the best method as participants feel the answer was easier and more correct with the device.
The control grade of heavy floor impact sound for the Housing Performance Indication System can be calculating by combination of slab construction, floor finish, edge confinement type, equivalent thickness, and room area. In this study, we examined how much corresponding between the actual measured value which follows specified notification within heavy floor impact sound control grade and the value notice in the heavy floor impact sound control grade. Also, we proposed the extended specification notification by actual measured value of collective housings which follows current specification.
Inside of the Housing Performance Indication System, indications related with sound environment are highly demand by residents. These affect to claim and trouble, and become civil suit factor. Therefore, to promote spreading indication of house performance are much required. In this study, focusing to the heavy floor impact sound control grade, we simplify the evaluation method criteria and proposing slab thickness grade conversion. Slab thickness grade conversion is new method of calculation with the indicated slab thickness and consideration change of sound receiving room area.
This research examined measuring positions by using questionnaire survey with presenting a hypothetical measurement example of vibration induced by human moving in a room. Results obtained by the survey were the followings. (1) For the measurement of magnitude of vibration, many respondents select the center of the room and the middle of floor surrounded by large or small beams unless the positions are identified. (2) For the measurement of the floor resistance against human movement vibration, many respondents select the center of the room, and the middle between the center and each corner of the room.
Generally, local residents are warned to evacuate to evacuation facilities such as schools, gymnasiums, and community centers, when a disaster occurred or is predicted to occur. However, there are not many investigations about thermal environment of those facilities under severe cold weather. In this report, we report the results of questionnaire for the thermal environment of housings under large-scale power failures in winter. Moreover, we investigated the thermal environment of evacuation facilities during disaster drills in severe weather. The results indicate that the thermal environments of gymnasiums are very severe, especially if it does not have enough thermal insulation.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of effective heat capacity on energy saving efficiency. First, the effective heat capacity of room was calculated from the data of room temperature fluctuation of a PB (plasterboard finishing) room, an mPCM (microcapsule PCM plaster wall) room, and a gelPCM (gel PCM puck installed on the back of the finishing) room. In the case of the gelPCM room, overheating due to solar radiation was suppressed to a maximum of about 3 K. The average heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the mPCM room and gelPCM room were less than that of the PB room by 10% and 5%, respectively. The heating load reduction rate of the mPCM room was about 35%. The natural temperature difference was proportional to the effective heat capacity.
This paper describes the experimental result of heating operation mode using building mass for thermal storage to make use of a stability at room temperature of the outside insulation building. As heat load per hour of this building was reduced by extension of heating operation time, so the hot water temperature produced by a heat pump and the supply air temperature for heating could be set lower than usual operation. As a result, the heat load per day didn’t so increase and the coefficient of performance of the total heating system were on an equality with usual operation.
Earth-tube system is one of the methods of subterranean heat use, and is applied as a ventilator of a detached residence or small-scale buildings. And the reduction of fresh air loads is expected. In this study, we investigated the earth-tube system installed at Kiduno-syou Community Center in Takaoka City. A vinyl chloride tube of 200 mm in diameter was laid underground by 125 m of the total extension. The burial depth of a tube is about 2.0 m. Based on the data of temperature and relative humidity of diffused air through one year, the cooling and heating effects were analyzed.
In this study, we investigated on trial production of life cycle assessment (LCA) tool for using by clients at the initial stages of housing design. The utility of LCA input items were examined. Based on examination result, the input items are classified into several categories to apply for user interface of LCA tool.
This paper focused on the effects of outdoor temperature upon the sleep disturbance due to temperature changing in the urban area. We conducted the questionnaire survey at Osaka Prefecture in 2010 through all four seasons. As a result, the positive correlation to sleep quality against outdoor temperature in only summer were found. And the statistical significance were found in the score of SQIDS between the case of using air conditioner and not.
Waseda University and various enterprises proposed a Zero-Energy-House(ZEH) called “Nobi-Nobi HOUSE” in ENEMANEHOUSE2014. In this ZEH, we carried out a design for the ZEH technology, and was build in Tokyo at January 2014. After the relocated in Shizuoka, it was measured every four seasons in energy consumption, electric-generating capacity and indoor environment. This report shows design of “Nobi-Nobi HOUSE” for ZEH and result of measurement.
We conducted a survey on economic impact of CASBEE score and intellectual productivity. We found some effective correlation between CASBEE scores and rents. For example, rents of CASBEE building have possibility to be 3.6% higher rents compared to those of non-CASBEE buildings. We also observed correlation between intellectual productivity score and rents. We will disseminate such findings to market players in Japan in order to promote green properties.
In the research on the typology of Bungalow, a development of British colonial houses, the investigation process included preliminary documents research, and locally conducted research with the means of site measurement of existing houses and interviews to its current owner and management body. The research found three key aspects; 1) The concept of aloof siting of a house within an concealed site, which was later inherited in British housing development, 2) Bungalow fused with British housing culture of its floor plan, functionally partitioned with central hallway and surrounded verandah, and 3) Its adaptation of construction and material to local climatic condition.
This paper aims to study the continuity possibility of elderly’s daily living in an elderly housing with supportive service in Aichi prefecture from the viewpoints of location, housing, and operation of the elderly housings. Based on statistic analyses and case study, the followings can be pointed out. A lot of the elderly housings analyzed in this paper are located in a suburban area and, are designed spatially and operated in the similar way to a care facility for elderly. And, the current national institution enacted newly for the elderly housing with supportive service has been one of the factors that cause these problems. As a result, it is concerned that these characteristics of the elderly housings impact on the continuity possibility of life of elderly negatively.
Future plans such as regeneration and maintenance business of large-scale station environment is planned for the high functionality with integrated of urban functions. Such highly functional space is required to safely and comfortably accommodate extreme dense crowds. It is required strongly than before to objectively evaluate a design of the space in terms of crowd control. The purpose of this study is to visualize the place and the degree of local congestion in order to allow an intuitive grasp based on the investigation and analysis of crowd behavior.
Our purpose is to develop a manual for the set up of emergency medical aid stations. Our previous report determined the most suitable locations and layouts for emergency medical aid stations based on ideas devised by medical specialists with disaster training and experience, taking an elementary school as an example. However, simply identifying location and layout in advance is insufficient. Thus, we broaden our previous results to include utilization of non-medically essential areas for related support activities, and to examine management methods incorporating both staffing and furniture placement requirements for the efficient operation of emergency medical aid stations.
This report is further study about the collaboration with teachers and researchers at Mihama Utase Elementary School. In the second year of this collaboration, we put in practice some lectures to school staffs and teachers, some trial classes for utilizing spaces, and accounting to objective outsider this collaboration activities and its achievements. Through this collaboration and practices, we recognized that collaboration with teachers and researchers of open-plan schools was significant activities because school buildings and educational methods are promoting individuality.
This paper aims to explain changes in pupil numbers and resulting school closures. From 1963 to 1975 the number of pupils declined drastically, significant amalgamation and reorganization of schools proceeded massively. On the other hands, the number of pupils has been declining since 1988, but there were no major changes in school numbers until 2010 in Okayama prefecture. Therefore, we classified municipalities into ten categories, determined by their changes of school numbers in them, and we analyzed the characteristics of these categories.
Expressway rest areas in Japan are being improved to provide better customer satisfaction. Because rest areas are facilities for the general public, quantity rather than quality was pursued to satisfy technical standards. Our challenge is to improve the “quality of rest” provided at rest areas, so that they become not only a place to take a break from travel but where people of all ages and nationalities can enjoy and feel comfortable. A multi-facet assessment index integrating scientific, facility operator and user viewpoints will be developed, because currently, there are no quality-of-rest assessment standards for rest areas in Japan.
This study aims to determine the possible correlation between features of distant shopping and the impressions of distant shopping. The study used questionnaire surveys in three urban locations: one core city (the Chuo district in Sapporo city); and two satellite cities (Ishikari city and Kimobetsu town). The main conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) more than 80% of respondents in the three areas go shopping in Sapporo city at the weekend. (2) The significant features of distant shopping included: go shopping with other people, eat out, do other activities besides shopping, and long duration. These features were especially significant for respondents from Kimobetsu town. (3) Positive impressions of distant shopping on weekends are greater than on weekdays. (4) There is a correlation between features of distant shopping and positive impressions. (5) Younger people’s positive impressions are correlated with shopping with their families.