This paper describes the study on the effect of control of temperature rise of concrete which was carried by a track agitator in hot weather. As a result, the following four ways of using a track agitator were valid, (1) coat which reflected sunbeam, (2) coat which reflected sunbeam and had adiabatic characteristic, (3) using vaporization heat of water of dram cover, (4) watering at dram. Slump loss of concrete was improved by these measures this time. However, as for air volume of concrete, a definite difference wasn’t admitted.
This paper is described about the failures of waterproofing membranes for underground structures applied on earth retaining walls prior to wall concreting. In this waterproofing system the quality of waterproofing work may become worse and failures increase because waterproofing membrane is applied to irregular surface of the earth retaining wall, waterproofing work is complicated with demolition work of earth retaining wall and concreting work. So it must be recognized the note of this system and needs to make standard of this system. Before standardizing, we researched the failures of this method and classified.
The purpose of this study is to establish strength estimation method for high strength construction concrete whose strength is below 100N/mm2 using non-destructive test. Experimental studies of non-destructive test and concrete core strength are carried out and the following conclusions are drawn in this research. It is confirmed that several multi-regression analysis using combinations of several single non-destructive test results are examined in this study. The analysis shows that the combination of rebound-hummer method and elastic-wave propagation method gives more accurate estimation equations in the concrete strength range of over 60N/mm2 than single rebound-hummer method.
The fundamental experiment was conducted by outdoor measurement of the model specimens maintained on the horizontal plane for the purpose of development of the simple predicted method of the temperature of tiles on the face of an external insulation construction method. The predicted method of tile temperature during nights of periods of all weather was made into the considerable sol-air-temperature method. By this method, it was checked in general that tile temperature can be predicted in high accuracy.
The life of the nailed joints that are used at shear walls of wooden houses was predicted by using the eyring model. In this study, the stress factors for the eyring model were the temperature of surroundings and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of the wood in which nails were driven. And the constants of the eyring model were decided by accelerated test. The temperature and the relative humidity inside of the walls of wooden houses were measured, and the EMC of the wood were calculated. By application of the eyring model, it was calculated that the life of the nails without surface treatment were about 230-370 years in the walls of wooden houses.
Ultimate lateral strengths of 208 buildings, designed after 2007, were obtained by the questionnaire survey to inspection agencies. The building strength is represented by the safety margin index which is the strength divided by the required strength of the Building Standard Law of Japan. The safety margin is clarified to fit a log-normal distribution with considerable accuracy regardless of structural types and systems. The distribution for all structural types and systems has the mode of 1.05 and the average of 1.34. The average for RC moment framed structures is 1.16, while that for Steel moment framed structures is 1.60.
In this paper, we study the influence of ground motion predicted for Uemachi Faults to the response of highrise buildings. Two highrise buildings were modeled to fishbone-shaped frame model and time-history analysis was performed. Then, we compared response of fishbone-shaped frame model with response of other vibration models.Also, we studied the influence of PΔ effect. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained. 1) The response to the predicted ground motion is much larger than that of the seismic design motions. 2) It tends to evaluate the response small in a more detailed vibration model. 3) When the first mode response is predominant, the influence of PΔ effect is large.
Recently, relative displacement measurement attracts much attention because of its capability for directly monitoring damages of a building structure. We have developed a noncontact-type relative displacement monitoring system by arranging a two-dimensional PSD paired with a LED array on each story, and investigated the feasibility of this system from the viewpoint of measurement accuracy.
This paper describes forced vibration tests and microtremor measurements performed at 9-story actual building before and after a steel beam were damaged artificially. The damage detection through these measurements data is applied. It is shown that (1) It is difficult to detect the damage based on the horizontal response change at each stories using forced vibration tests and microtremor measurements data; (2) It is possible to detect the damage based on the vertical response change on damaged beam using forced vibration tests data.
New and available isoparametric finite elements having the option function on nodes are developed. It is shown that the option function on nodes leads to the more adaptable and applicable tool in generation of finite element meshes. According to the standard finite element procedure, new 2D- and 3D- isoparametric finite elements are formulated. Also, the availability and applicability of the present approach are, with aid of several numerical examples, discussed and examined.
This paper reports the results of confirmation tests aiming at understanding the strength characteristics of ground improved by fracture grouting. It was found that the improvement effect of the fracture grouting could be obtained with less quantity of grout materials as compared to the conventional grouting method, although the test cases are limited. In addition, the paper describes the applicability of the grouting method to housing sites.
Measurement of prestressing force in permanent ground anchors, which was used in order to prevent the building from floating by the lift of ground water or in case of an earthquake, was carried out over the long period of time. When the prestressing force of 60 years after was presumed based on the measurement result, the effective prestressing rate was set from 0.84 to 0.95, and was around 0.9. As a result of comparing the calculated value and measurement value, it was found that the adoption value at the time of a design was appropriate.
Long term loading test of the decreasing effect of settlement about small building foundations using tapered pile were conducted. We used basis reinforced with tapered pile and straight pile. This paper presents the outline of the loading tests and results of the tests and so on. From the studies, analyzes about settlement of foundation and the load distribution ratio of base slab and pile.
This paper describes the structural design and the construction process of Health & Sport Sciences Center of Ryutsu Keizai University, which roof is a hybrid tension dome. This new structural system makes effective inner space wide and large. In technical respect, it is confirmed that (1) a hybrid tension dome has better characteristic that stress and displacement of dome structures can be controlled by tension strings and those strings also control buckling behavior, (2) the structural behavior during construction is accurately predicted by detailed structural analysis considering construction process.
It is important to grasp the effect of non-structural elements on the seismic performance of wooden frame structures. The static lateral loading tests of wooden frame structures with the sliding door are performed. From the results of the tests, the relationship between the story drift angle and damage situation of the door is clarified. In addition, the effect of the door on the restoring force and the state of stress is examined.
The engineering plastics, polycarbonate resin materials are transparent and have a high level of impact resistance and flame retardant properties. These properties enable them to be used as construction material in various ways. They do not break easily compared to other wooden building materials and are thus safe to use. This, in turn, leads to thinking that it may be possible to make a wooden shear wall consisting of plywood and nails like regular wooden-frame structure, with the exception of using polycarbonate solid sheets as a substitute for the plywood. Number of shear wall specimens were prepared and tested for in-plane shear properties.
The buckling-restrained brace is a brace whose core plate is covered with a restraining part to prevent buckling. In this study, two types of buckling-restrained braces are tested and evaluated. Welding a pair of mortal-filled steel channels forms the restraining part of one type. The restraining part of the other type consists of steel channels and flat steel plates with high-strength bolts. The restraining parts are designed to have an equal geometrical moment of inertia that is used as a variable in imposing buckling restraint. Then, the hysteresis characteristics, final fracture shape and cumulative absorbed energy are investigated.
The Hokkaido Toyako Summit was held in July 2008, and the international media center (IMC) was constructed. IMC was used in a short term for the Summit and dismantled afterwards. For reduction of environmental impact, non-waste of structural materials of IMC was aimed, and reuse and recycle were executed completely as a result. This paper describes a series of structural approach in designing, constructing, and dismantling of IMC.
Authors developed productive system utilizing pre-cast PRC piles, which system is the one-story buildings limitation. On this system pile are driven into the under soil upto the over ground, and integrated columns of the first floor. We can reduce environmental load, particularly since this system can omit footings and foundation garter, that are consequent on soil disposal for earth work, and material consumption for concreting such as reinforcement and formwork.
A two-story, two-span by two-bay frame was set up on E-Defense shaking table, and curtain walls made of metal sashes and glasses were attached with typical connection details. In a series of tests, seismic responses of a high-rise building were reproduced in the frame. First, damage of the curtain walls in expected seismic responses (the maximum inter-story drift angle is 0.02 rad) was observed. The possibility that the curtain walls come off and drop from the frame was also considered in an ultimate deformation range (the maximum inter-story drift angle is 0.04 rad).
With concerns about dependence on fossil fuel and emission of carbon dioxide, a concept of Solar Power Satellite was proposed by Dr. Peter Glaser in America, 1968. The concept is to construct huge solar cell panels in space and send electric energy to earth as micro wave. It was planned in America and in Japan around 1980 as structures whose scale extent is from several hundred meters to kilometers. This thesis will focus on the problem of transportation and construction of such huge plane panel structures and propose how to fold and deploy them two-dimensionally and stabilize it.
The building facade plays an important role not only for ornament designs, but also for the safety and environmental impacts of the building. To satisfy these demands, the authors have proposed an integrated facade system using diagonally arranged louvers. When considering the safety, the verification of the behavior of the ejected plume from the building’s openings is important as to prevent the fire from spreading. A full scale fire experiment, in which the louvers were attached to the opening, has been carried out. The ejected plume behavior from the opening was verified through temperature and radiated heat measurement around the opening and the louvers and through study of the shape of the plume.
The Sen’nichi Department-store fire(1972, 118 victims) is noted for the largest loss of life in a single building fire. This work intends to reproduce numerically the smoke spread and evacuation during the fire, and further applies the numerical simulations to inspect the validities of then-discussed assumptions and speculations for the largeness of the life loss and for the possible improvement of the fire safety. The study suggests any better crisis management could have reduced the number of victims but the failure of the smoke separation through elevator shaft, staircases and ventilation duct was the essential cause for the life loss.
Underground wall is one of useful techniques to reduce the ground vibrations generated by artificial sources. To study such effectiveness of underground wall, forced vibration tests using a shaker were conducted in the construction site where the soil-cement wall was constructed. The experimental results showed that underground wall can considerably reduce ground vibrations just behind the wall. It also showed that the effectiveness depends on frequency component. In the present research, 3-dimensional finite element method combined with thin layer model was successfully employed to simulate the tests. As well as the field tests, the analysis demonstrated the effectiveness of underground wall in reduction of vibrations.
The vertical edge insulation on foundation walls, the popular method for structures located in colder regions, is expected to spread across moderate and humid climate regions because of its insulation superiority in the hygrothermal environments found in crawl spaces. However, in the first year after completion of buildings, the hygrothermal condition in crawl spaces with insulation foundation wall tends to worsen, leading to condensation and heating load growth. We clarify the factors affecting the hygrothermal behavior in crawl spaces with insulation foundation wall and explore some possible improvements in these hygrothermal environments through simulating simultaneous heat and moisture transfer.
Aiming to create a low carbon society, the most important task is to reduce energy consumption for hot-water supply which covers 1/3 of the total energy consumption in the residential sector. It has been considered that the introduction of a solar thermal system is one of the key solutions, however, its adoption rate remains sluggish recently in Japan. On the other hand, the installation rate of solar water heaters in China is amazingly high and now China has the world’s No1 share of the market. This paper is to report the outline of the research results on the present situation of solar hot water systems in China and its background in order to find new incentives to promote solar thermal systems in Japan.
This paper reports the experimental results about the effect of the filter performance on airborne microbial concentration in a building used actually. The main conclusions obtained from this research are as follows. (1) In relationships between the airborne fungi concentration of supply air and filter performance, airborne fungi concentration tended to decline with upgrading filter performance. (2) Almost all the airborne microbe concentration ratio between supply air and pit room air are less than 1.0. One reason is that airborne microbe concentration in the pit is higher than supply air.
Generally speaking, as life expectancy of air-conditioning systems is shorter than building structures, we have to carry out remodeling project several times for them during endurance period of buildings. Dealing with remodeling plan, we have to take actual building usage into consideration in remodeling plan and design appropriately from the point of further reduction of carbon dioxide emission or energy saving. In this paper, results of investigation study are shown. It was found that operational state of newly installed system is vastly improved in comparison with former system.
An analysis of questionnaire survey result of heating apparatus use in Japan has been presented. It has been found out that there are many bcombinations of heating apparatus. 85% person who uses air conditioner as heater uses other heating apparatus together such as with electric warm carpet. How much time the air conditioner has been used in a day depends on the kind of the other heating apparatus used together. It has been found that more than 80% person who uses air conditioner and floor heating system uses air conditioner only for 1.5 hours a day.
Through the review of the studies related to urban heat island countermeasures by building materials, their technical characteristic and performance are arranged and “the table on the effect of urban heat island countermeasures by building materials” is made. On the basis of their characteristics, the appropriate technical choice for the various areas and the various building uses is promoted. The evaluation tool is developed for estimating the performance of countermeasures from the viewpoint of public benefit, i.e. outdoor air temperature reduction and improvement of the thermal environment of human body in the outside space. When a user selects solar reflectance or evaporation efficiency, surface temperature, sensible heat flux and air temperature reduction at 13:00 and 21:00 can be estimated easily.
Enhancement of the governance and the cooperative structure of local governments toward the reduction of carbon output is becoming more and more important. In this study, the CO2 reduction potential of the town of Yusuhara - selected as one of the “Eco-model Cities for the Low Carbon Society” (EMC) by the Japanese cabinet office - is estimated considering the change of social situation. Such estimation supports local governments to formulate their action plans and contributes to the realization of low carbon society.
Indicators are partial reflections of reality. Those are necessary information we use to understand present conditions in cities, make our decisions, and plan future actions. Since environmental problems such as global warming and biodiversity loss are getting worse, the importance of urban/city assessment indicators as a mirror of current situation is increasing. Urban/City assessment indicators and tools are surveyed in this research, so that it can contribute to the realization of sustainable cities.
From the standpoint of health risk management for the occupants of a building, it is important to analyze the ventilation efficiency in room; if the ventilation system efficiently exhausts any air pollutant that can occur in the building. We carried out the measurements using tracer gas method to analyze the ventilation efficiency. The measurements were carried out twice; in summer and in winter, under the same experimental conditions, except that the pattern of temperature difference between the inside and outside of the building. Using the measurement results, we analyze the sensitivity on the results caused by season.
Wood is well-recognized as a renewable resource that can contribute to the reduction of environmental load and it has long been used as a material in the building sector. The LCA database for buildings (established by the Architectural Institute of Japan) has been developed and utilized to evaluate the reduction of environmental load through the use of wood materials. However, this method does not evaluate the environmental load incurred through the production and transportation of imported wood materials, although wood materials are imported into Japan in large volumes. Therefore, this study aims to develop a database which includes the environmental load of imported wood materials from several countries and regions.
Computer software for simplified simulation of thermal environment of glassed-in spaces was developed to support planning of those spaces. The software outputs the temperature and the relative humidity of glassed-in spaces after users input the date, the location, the layout of those spaces (dimensions and direction), the specification of surfaces (roof, four walls, and floor), the setting of floor heating and the condition of natural ventilation. Compared the predicted temperature with the actual measured temperature of a real glassed-in space, it appears that the software is a practical tool for understanding the overall behavior of thermal environment of glassed-in spaces, or for comparing the characteristics of thermal environment of those spaces under different input conditions.
The purpose of this paper is to report the survey of a long-term-care hospital implementing extension and reconstruction for nursing care facility with downsizing care and private rooms. Some results show as follows : (1) The reconstructions from long-term care ward with multi-inpatient room to nursing care facility with downsizing care and private rooms were repeated many times for a long term more than 17 years. (2) The extensions and reconstructions for nursing care facility with downsizing care and private rooms were done after 2002. At first, existing buildings were rebuilt for the conversion of multi-inpatient rooms to private rooms, and then extensions were done for the installation of shared space.
This paper aims to report on the result of the questionnaire survey for Physical, Intellectual, Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities Facilities. It organize general condition of three kinds of facilities, Compendium of Residents’ Attribute and Activities, spatial composition and staff assignment. Moreover, the unit scale and the spatial composition were classified into some patterns. As a result, There was no clear relation between the type and the satisfaction rating. It is inferred that the concept of “Fine living environments” cannot be shared in facility for the disabled. The study approach that leads to sharing consideration is important.
There are some elementary schools that have hillbacks adjacent to themselves in local cities. We surveyed actual conditions of education and mountain play in the hillbacks in IBURI sub prefecture Hokkaido and asked the boards of education in Hokkaido about possibilities of elementary schools using hillbacks. The results became the followings. 1) 11% elementary schools use hillbacks in class. P.T.A or teachers almost maintain the hillbacks. 2) Over 60% boards of education in Hokkaido feel the elementary schools with hillbacks have possibilities, for example, for environmental education. 3) Mountain play in the hillbacks which is concerned with block plan of elementary schools or parents understanding. For example, we found much mountain play at the school with the faculty’s office near the entrance in the hillbacks.
The purpose of this study is to classify the typical motorway rest areas “MRA”, and to clarify the environment-related legibility challenges through wayfinding in order to learn the basic guideline for environmental preparation of MRA. MRA has various characteristics and can classify the characteristics in six types. It is classified into three types respectively as an outside environmental property and an internal environmental property.
Our detailed site investigation on the war damage reconstruction of the Tokyo Station, it was revealed that a lot of “Pre-Con” components were used. “Pre-Con” is the precasted concrete truss construction system developed during and after the war. In this paper, the range and the method of “Pre-Con”’s use in the war damage reconstruction are made clear. In addition, it was assumed that it was clear about introduction process and engineer who concerned with introduction.
In this paper, we report the result of some experiments about measurement of lateral load on balustrade caused by various human behaviors. We classified human behaviors in both ordinary and refuge-taking case, experimented to reproduce these human behaviors and measured loads of them. Compared to similar past researches, we roughly acquired appropriate results. Based on result of this experiment, we proposed the grades for the strength of balustrade, which should be expected to complement existing standards.
The generic products have been rapidly developed in the pharmaceutical market and are requesting a new manufacturing layout and system rational to many kinds but small volume products. It is concluded that the proposed “Cluster-layout Concept” based on a cluster, dimensioned in module, which consists of five rooms, an inner corridor, and a preparation room, is one of most suitable process configuration through the comprehensive study in comparison with a conventional grouping layout , a stand-alone equipment layout and a simple line layout.
This research studies the application of the evaluation technique of thermal comfort in the outer spaces of urban areas, focusing on thermal environment evaluation indexes, i.e. HIP, MRT and thermal storage (thermal insulation), to the heat balance simulation tool in cold regions in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, climatically characterized by extreme cold and dry where urbanization is rapidly spreading. In addition, the research presents whether the environmental design of city blocks using the heat balance simulation tool in cold regions will help restrain the consumption of resources and reduce environmental burdens, and the methodology and the concept of creating living environments. This paper reports the research frame and technique to apply the heat balance simulation tool, which was developed as a design support and environmental design tool mainly for reducing the heat island effect and cooling the city, to the cold regions, the results of a field survey on the information about buildings and the surface of the ground, and the collection and preparation of data required to perform heat balance simulations.
The objective of this study is to disclose the enactment process and its validity regarding the Iranian National Building Codes (NBC). The intension of this paper is to understand the interrelation between the social background of contemporary Iranian building construction environment and NBC’s regal content’s comprehensive feature. The analysis consist of two chapters as follows: Chapter 2 explicates the formulation and enactment background of NBC including the social background of building construction environment in the second half of the 20 century. Chapter 3 explicates the NBC’s legal contents and its comprehensive feature with examining 20 chapters of spec-oriented items.
The aim of this paper is to examine and clarify the procedures and land using by undertaking case study of contaminated farmland in Japan. It investigated 12 cases by interviews to local governments and farmland visits. It is found that land contamination treatment is done with agricultural policy. After the treatment, cultivation environment is improved. It is also found that we can classify land contamination treatment into six types according to density of cadmium, law, land use, measures plan, and compensation. Then find out the most appropriate treatment from them.
In Southeast Asia, the water level change and periodical wind can threaten their lives at times. I think it important to grasp how they cope with natural wonder and live comfortably. Therefore, I surveyed “the location of houses” “the relocation of floating houses, removal and vocational change” “the structure of houses” “everyday life,” and “the microclimate of houses” of the villages of Lake Tempe in Sulawesi Island. As a result, I clarified some corresponding techniques. For example, residents move their floating houses to the center of the lake in the dry season and to the shore in the wet season. If the water level goes down, residents move to the land houses and do farming.
Many of small-scale cities in Hokkaido which urban redevelopment projects conducted were falling into financial difficulties. In this study, current status of four urban redevelopment project cases were verified from the view of existing neighboring land use and actual installation of large-scale stores. As a result, the facts that several stores carried on business in small-scale municipality were revealed, whereas their neighboring stores were forced to shut down. Based on this finding, urban redevelopment projects were admitted as effective methods, as far as appropriate planning were applied which considering the avoiding strained relation with existing competitive category of business.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of landuse changes on river discharges in future. We firstly estimated the numbers of population and households of the basins in 2050. Secondary, the surplus areas were calculated based on the scenarios of compactness index and were relocated to the natural land uses, such as paddy field and main natural land uses. Under the several scenarios of land use changes in future, we simulated river discharges of the basins. The results of this study indicated the importance of landuse changes, i.e. increasing natural land use and shrinking urban landuse.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how historic buildings in Aikawa remain and to understand design characteristic of those buildings. This is to make a basic report for expected district designation and establishment of design guidelines. Major results are as follows: 1) 776 historic buildings were counted, 2) Among those we extracted representative 14 types by design characteristic in 440 buildings that we judged to be town houses. So design characteristic of town houses are various, 3) There are many one-storied house type in Kamimachi, and many two-storied house type in Shitamachi.
Many tall buildings are built and changing the view of the city in Tokyo. But the research of the view in large city area is difficult because it is difficult to reconstruct the city view in computer graphics with the existent software, and more difficult to measure the change of the urban view quantitatively in real perspectives. The data of GIS is accurate geographic data. It includes the floor of building, so using such data, we developed the new program that calculate the visible area of landscape elements using building and topographic data of GIS.