In Japan, approximately 8 million tons of coal ash is being produced by the electric company every year as the by-product from coal-fired thermal power plant. The volume is expected to grow further due to the new construction and expansion of coal-fired thermal power plant in the future. The use as the mixture material for concrete is the most effective use for fly ash from the viewpoint of large amount of consumption. We collect test records of JIS Type-II fly ash shipped in recent years from 24 places of each electric power station in the whole Japan for about two years. The number of data is about 450. We research about the statistical distribution of the data referring the background of present JIS standard value.
Bi-linear relationships between drying shrinkage and mass loss of concrete are known. Drying shrinkage tests of concrete with various materials and mix proportions are conducted, and inclinations (α) and X sections (β) of the second lines of drying shrinkage and mass loss are worked out, and it becomes possible to estimate α and β from materials and mix proportions of concrete. Using the results of investigation, an estimation method of drying shrinkage of concrete are proposed.
The aggregate move to the center of the tube when concrete placed with the pump car. The material separates when this becomes awful. The device from which this separation was prevented was developed. This is installed in the boom point of a concrete pump car. The presence of MY-BOX was assumed to be an experiment variable, and the comparison experiment of concrte properties was done. When this device is used, the material becomes uniform. Workability improves and the quality improves. The crack of the foundation decreases. The air gap on the surface of the foundation decrease. The speed of making to the carbonation is slow.
Precast columns using 150MPa concrete were produced, and bond strength of the ceramic tile was investigated. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained. (1) Bond strength of tile in 150 MPa concrete column was higher than that of 60 MPa concrete column. (2) Bond strength of most tiles was high enough compared with a regulated value. (3) It was useful for the improvement of bond strength to paint the acrylic silicon resin on the backside of the tile. (4) The direction of the back foot did not influence bond strength of the tile.
This report deals with the results by the two types of the fatigue tests. First, performed on the nowadays regularly used fastening elements applied to the ALC panel substrates, and the second performed on the complete mechanically fastened waterproofing systms. The improvements of the problematic issues are also considered. Based on the first fatigue test results, we can state that the resistance of the fasteners and the ALC substrate, to the repetitive effect, is decreased. Moreover, depending on the fastening method, there are differences between the fatigue resistances of the fastening elements. The fatigue resistance is improving in the following order: the directly applied screws, the PA plug using fasteners, and the chemical fasteners with in advance injected epoxy resin. Test results of the both fatigue tests were compared. We can state that for the present waterproofing systems, the weak point is not the low strength of the ALC substrate, but the strength of the waterproofing membrane and/or the part of the force transmission from the fastener to the membrane. We presume that there is some potential to improve these problems.
This study presents the basic characteristics of recycled wood plastic comprising waste plastic and demolished timber. Fundamental physical property test such as bending, elasticity, etc. and durability tests were carried out on recycled wood plastic specimens. The influence of demolished timber mixing rate on the quality of recycled wood plastic was confirmed through those tests. Consequently recycled wood plastic is deemed applicable to use as a formed panel for exterior products.
For the purpose of construction plan and management of building automation construction system, the total construction management system was developed. In this inside, the method for automatically recording work time and operation content by the crane was developed, and it was applied to the actual construction site. The method of data collection and result of analysis of got data are reported.
This paper presents the experimental method to estimate the physical properties of wall clay. The suitable size and flow value of test-piece, made up by mixing original wall clay with the flow value 170±10 and fibers for plastering (Susa in Japanese), are 40×40×160mm and 135±10, respectively. The standard sand-soil ratio (S/C) is 85%. Strength of wall clay proposed here takes 0.05〜0.2N/mm^2 for bending, 0.5〜2.5N/mm^2 for compressive, and 0.4〜1.3N/mm^2 for shear.
Recently is increasing that redecorating of the external facing wall with an aluminum panel that improves the safety of the wall flaking off and aesthetic qualities of buildings. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between color properties, glossiness and the impression evaluation in both building levels and mateial levels.
Law for the recycling of construction materials put demolition work under an obligation to do preservey before the work, and to estimate the discharged construction waste. However, generally the period gave to preservey is very short. This report shows preservey system developed by the authors and the document of demolition work (Total floor area: 34,165m^2).
The development of RE-GLASS made from waste glass by low-temperature melting method was studied in this paper. The compressive strength of RE-GLASS produced by different melting maximum temperature was tested. The melting method was clarified to satisfied the contented compressive strength as building materials.
The transparent of RE-GLASS made from waste glass was studied in this paper. It was clarified that the calette size of waste glass and the melting maximum temperature have an effect on the transmittance of RE-GLASS.
Concretes and steels used at Coal mining station "Shime" in Fukuoka prefecture as industrial heritage were investigated. On footing, river gravel of granite were used. Most concrete were not reinforced, and maximum size of their coarse aggregates were 15 to 100mm. Sometimes crushed brick or coal slag was used. Most fine aggregates were river sand. Compressive strength of many concretes were not high, but about 40N/mm^2 of strength was seen on concrete basement for machine. Steel bar seemed to be made on the open hearth furnace of Yahata.
For the preliminary decision-making in the seismic risk management of buildings, we developed a computer program to evaluate the expected lifecycle cost (LCC) without time history response analysis. The methodology employs the Capacity Spectrum method to estimate peak building response in the scenario analysis for the events from a fault rupture to damage costs. For the LCC estimation, the program is equipped with the database of the seismic sources all over Japan. Then the program can compute the LCC by combining the probability models for earthquake occurrences and the deterministic losses from selected fault ruptures, which are obtained by the scenario analysis.
Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag is a promising device for the management of a huge number of products at a very low cost. In the proposed system, an electrically conductive material is applied to a part of structure in which crack will occur. When a crack occurs, the electrically conductive material is broken, resulting in an increase in resistance of the measured current. Crack width can be estimated by the ability of an RFID transmitter to communicate with the tag. By bending tests of concrete specimens, the relationships between crack width and conductivity of the materials are examined.
It is shown that the RTK-GPS can be used for monitoring the displacement response of high-rise buildings in real-time. First, the applicability of the system is checked using test specimen, which can simulate high-rise buildings. Then, the system is simultaneously applied to two super-high-rise buildings during a windy day. It is concluded that although the dynamic response of the towers is not well tracked because of low amplitude of dynamic vibration, the long period displacement is observed. Such information can be used to track the behavior of the adjacent high-rise buildings for external loads.
The Response of wooden houses during earthquakes is strongly affected by characteristics of ground surface amplification and incident ground motion. Seismic design method and seismic retrofit design method of wooden houses based on "Response and Limit Strength Calculation (RLSC)" is developed considering in the excellent deformability of traditional construction system. From the importance of evaluating rational ground surface amplification Gs in RLSC, we constructed the database of Gs using the public database of surface strata presenting from "Central Disaster Management Council" of Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. Some remarks are pointed out with utilizing this database, and investigated wooden houses reponse using two types of Gs specified in the notification.
Earthquake observation has been performed for a base-isolated building built at the research institute for about 15 years from July, 1991 to the end of March, 2006. This research examined the earthquake response based on the observation record in case of the earthquake of the base-isolated building. Furthermore, the simulation of the observation result by numerical analysis is carried out, and it was shown that the behavior in case of the earthquake of the buildings can be pursued in analysis.
The topology optimization tool for reinforcement of floor slab using CFRP plates is developed. This tool is used to find an efficient layout of CFRP plates on a floor slab. The floor slab reinforced by CFRP plates is modeled by a laminate plate. The laminate plate is analyzed by FEM using solid element. The CFRP layer is separated by a necessary part and an unnecessary part using topology optimization method. The density method is adopted for the topology optimization analysis. By using such tool for the reinforcement of floor slabs, it is possible to efficient reinforcement using CFRP plates.
This paper presents a new shallow foundation system with soil improvement. As the new raft foundation system without pile is the hybrid building foundation with concrete raft and shallow soil improvement, it is an economical foundation. As the adoption of the new raft foundation system is able to reduce the excavating soil and concrete materials, it can be used as an environment-friendly foundation. This paper also reports the examples of actual constructed structure with the new raft foundation system and the measurement data of the settlement of the structure are reported too.
One of the most important matters in keeping membrane structures in healthy condition is to maintain the proper tension distribution over the membrane. However, it is not easy to understand the real stress level in the membrane quantitatively after completion of the structures. Fluttering by strong wind or ponding caused by rain water may cause the severe damage of membrane structure itself and, therefore, it is very important to know magnitude of existing stress in constructed membrane structures for their maintenance and management. In this paper, a new method is proposed to measure membrane stresses in two different directions separately, where instead of measuring the membrane stresses directly, the natural frequencies of the membrane within fixed rectangular region resonated by sweep and white noise external excitation induced by sound.
This paper deals with the experimental study of the steel plate reinforced with timber beams. Axial compression tests and bending tests were conducted to determine the compression and bending characteristics. We compared with the experimental results of the reinforced steel plate that was simply supported and loaded.
In order to obtain the amplitude dependency of dynamic characteristics of a two storied contemporary timber house, vibration table tests were carried out. The main results are shown below. Natural frequency of the house becomes small as the vibration force becomes large. Contraraly, damping coefficient becomes large as the vibration force becomes large. Torsional angle between first and second floor becomes large as the vibration force becomes large, and this angle is larger than that between second and third floor.
This paper describes the retrofit design of wooden structure by damping wall using glass and viscoelastie material. We introduce the method of this retrofit design, the arrangement of damping wall, size and arrangement of the viscoelastic material, and connection details with wooden frame. After and before the damping wall works, we measured the eigenvalue and damping of the building, and we confirm the effect of dumping wall.
A new bearing wall using so-called arakabe panel is developed to improve the seismic performance of timber frames. The arakabe panel is a precast mud-wall consisting of mud, waste paper and solidifier. By using arakabe panels instead of traditional mud-wall, it has advantages such as shortening of construction work and stabilization of quality. To evaluate the seismic performance of bearing walls framed by arakabe panels, static loading tests were carried out for various types of bearing walls. From experiments, it is found that the bearing wall framed by arakabe panels has the larger deformability and bearing force than the traditional mud-wall. It is possible easily to design a variety of bearing walls having bearing force as necessary.
To evaluate accurately the weight of traditional wood house, the weights of whole and principal members of typical traditional house so-called Kyo-machiya are examined. Here, the weights of two houses were measured. These houses are full-scale specimens for vibration tests carried out by using the E-defense shaking table in Miki-city. One was reconstructed at the test site by demolishing an old house, which was really built in 1932 in Kyoto-city. The other was newly constructed as a specimen. From the direct measurements of the whole houses, the real weight of old house is 353.14kN, and that of new house is 271.79kN. After the vibration tests, the houses were disassembled and the weights of principal members were also measured. The weights of houses obtained by the summation of each weight are about 5% less than the real weights. This difference is corresponding the weights of secondary members in houses. On the contrary, the weights calculation based on the Building Standard Law are about 15% heavier than the real weights.
When a 33-year-old schoolhouse of a university was dismantled, a beam that had been used as a structural member was removed, and its flexural crack properties and flexural load capacity were examined. It was found that the maximum flexural crack width at the main reinforcement position before flexural load was applied had become smaller than the durability limit. On the other hand, the maximum flexural crack width at the service loading after flexural load had been applied was larger than the limit value. The flexural yield load corresponded well to the ultimate flexural strength of the standard for structural calculation of reinforced concrete structures.
Impact responses of a high rise reinforced concrete building with 20 stories which was desinged in accordance with Japanese seismic design regulations was analyzed by three dimensional elasto-plastic stuructural model subjected to impact load due to collision of F4 Phantom fighter of middle size. Three collision points were adopted, that is, the higher floor 19, the middle floor 12 and the lower floor 7. The impact load was obtained based on knowledge from the full-scale aircraft impact test and impact velocities for F4 Phantom was selected as three levels. Consequently, the deformation and force due to collision of the fighter with the largest impact velocity of 150m/s was 4 to 10 times than those subjected to collision of Cessna airplane with impact velocity of 111m/s.
This paper shows the investigation of the corroded members in steel building structures (factories, warehouses) near the coast of Seto inland sea. Corroded members of 112 steel buildings are categorized into five ranks. This data suggests the heavilty corroded positions of the buildings, the influence of the distance from the sea and repainting cycles upon the corrosion.
In this paper, evaluations of earthquake response of a five stories reinforced concrete boxed wall-building using the capacity spectrum method considering structure-soil interaction are conducted. Three different soil conditions are considered in the evaluations. The horizontal strength and the ductility of buildings in stiff soil condition, the horizontal stiffness and strength of buildings in intermediate soil condition, and the horizontal strength of buildings in soft soil condition are important for the seismic safety of reinforced concrete boxed wall-buildings.
The authors have proposed the concept of integrated facade engineering, which treats architectural design, structural and environmental design combined together. In this paper, the practical application of this concept to the aged concrete building is reported, which requires seismic retrofit allowing continuous tenant occupancy along the retrofit works.
Aged deterioration of natural rubber bearing is one of key issues in the base-isolated structure. Static loading test and free vibration test were carried out for the base-isolated building. In this paper, the aging deterioration of natural rubber bearings installed in the building was estimated using static loading tests, free vibration tests, and response acceleration data in case of earthquake events.
Generally, a structural strength of handrail is influenced by bearing capacity of support column and it's base, due to shape of a handrail. We development of a handrail health monitoring technique, base on measuring strength of support column and it's base. It is easy to change a characteristic of vibration of a handrail by additional mass. And, it's able to evaluate rigidity of support column and it's base, based on more than two independent vibration tests. It's able to obtain of accurate measurement of rigidity of support column and it's base, by the sytem identification technique with additional mass. It is made that the handrail health monitoring by comparing now rigidity with initial it of support column and it's base.
According to the result of seismic capacity evaluation of Aichi prefectural office building, the seismic capacity of the building is judged to be insufficient. To improve the seismic capacity of the building, Project team was formed. This report is summary of a study for the best choice of seismic retrofit method for Aichi prefectural office building by the project team.
Parametric analyses of steel poles for reinforcement of old or weak wooden houses subjected to impact loads were conducted using tree-dimensional elasto-plastic FEM. Parameters were (1) soil classification; cohesive soil, sandy soil, (2) shear wave velocity; 100, 125, 150m/s, (3) embedment depth; 1.25, 1.50, 1.75m. Furthermore, load-displacement relationship of steel poles buried in cohesive and sandy soils were determined using the impact response analyses based on the energy preservation, that is, complete transformation of motion energy of impacting body into strain energy of pole.
This paper deals with analyses of aluminum poles for reinforcement of old or weak wooden houses due to static lateral loading test. Three-dimensional elasto-plastic Finite Element Method (FEM) analyses were carried out to examine whether the computer analysis could accurately simulate or not results for the elasto-plastic behaviors of aluminum columns buried in soils with different embedment depths due to laterally loading tests. The behaviors were simulated fairly precisely by the elasto-plastic FEM. In addition, impact analyses were made for the horizontal load tests for aluminum poles with actual size buried in a soil to examine the applicability of the three-dimensional FEM. In consequence, the impact behaviors of the aluminum column could be found in consideration of the elasto-plastic interaction between aluminum column and soil.
In this paper, renovated performance of evacuation safety of converted buildings, from office to residential and welfare facilities, is analyzed quantitatively, calculating by "Verification method for evacuation safety". Performance of evacuation safety is estimated by "the marginal time" which is the remainder of "the time taking to clear the fire room" from "Smoke filling time". Converted buildings are analyzed below process, (1) "The marginal time" is calculated for former plans as office occupancy. (2) "The marginal time" is calculated for present plans as converted occupancy. Comparative studies are made by checking "the marginal time", difference between converted plans and former plans. (3) Problems or weak points of converted plans are pointed out from a viewpoint of performance based evacuation safety. Secondly improved plans are proposed with "the marginal time". Comparative studies are made by checking "the marginal time", difference between improved plans and converted plans.
A full investigation including an influence of resonance of floor vibration caused by human action repeated at constant tempo (such as walking, aerobic dance, etc.) was done on actual floors where the natural frequency and damping were small. As a result, it was shown that the evaluation was greatly different by presence of resonance. And, the meanings of evaluation curves provided in the guideline of A.I.J. were clarified from the relations to resident's evaluation. Moreover, new analyzing methods of damping characteristic and resonance frequency were presented. Finally, the applicability of a new vibration reduction system for actual buildings, which is proposed by one of authors, was proved.
The new edition of "Guidelines for the evaluation of habitability to building vibration" in AIJ was published in 2004. It is recommended that the habitability to traffice vibrations uses the peak value of floor vibration acceleration in each 1/3-octave band. In order to utilize the new guideline effectively, it is necessary to accumulate measurements in the 1/3-octave band values. WG on Measurement Technique of Environmental Vibration in AIJ and GOTO Laboratory of Hosei University jointly implemented an experimental measurement of house vibration induced-by running train. This paper considers variable factors affecting measurements in the 1/3-octave band values for the house vibration and refers to usage notes for applying the guidelines.
This paper focuses on verification of impacts of practical renovations regarding thermal performances, which can be applied conventional wooden frame houses in mild climate regions. The practical renovations in this paper consist of followings; 1) Install insulation materials to the ceiling and the floor, 2) Insert wrapped batt insulations to prevent exfiltration at the connections of the wall and the floor, 3) Exchange single glasses for double glassings on windows. These methods were demonstrated on an actual wood frame house that satisfied the former energy conservation standard. Impacts of the renovations on air tightness and specific heat loss coefficient were clarified quantitatively by nonlinear regressions and field measurements. Furthermore improvement of indoor environments and hygrothermal behavior after the renovation were studied.
Authors have so far experimented to indoor air flowing in into a wall. As a result, it has reported that indoor air flows in into a wall even from openings with a slight wall socket. In this report, filling-up thermal insulation wall model using inorganic fiber insulating materials packed in polyethylene bag which has spread most in the warm area was used. The wall socket assumed to be openings was installed on the interior wall, and the experiment was conducted using house wrapping sheet and plywood for structures as wall composition material. As a result, the dew condensation situation in a wall was confirmed. In addition, by making a hole in plywood for structures, vapor resistance of a wall was reduced and the method of construction which decreases the quantity of dew condensation in a wall was examined. Furthermore, even if indoor wet air flows in into a wall, a measure method of construction with the effect which controls generating of dew condensation is proposed. Morevoer, comparison examination of the conventional method of construction and the new measure method of construction is carried out.
This paper was researched for toileted paper exhausted from the water closets. The product of toilet paper is paper is provided for by JIS P 4501. Toilet paper dissolved in water, and examined whether to pollute water. The examination is mass, amount of the organism, SS, COD, BOD. As for the result of the research, toilet paper is a pollution thing. The proportion of each pollution thing to mass became clear. Moreover, the proportion of the transportation distance of double toilet paper to mass became clear. However it has been understood that toilet paper of the single was a little related to mass.