A new type admixture was developed for a super low drying-shrinkage concrete with water-cement ratio of 40-50%. The properties of fresh and hardened concrete using this admixture and expansive additive were studied by laboratory test and mock-up test. Drying-shrinkage of the super low drying-shrinkage concrete using this admixture was 16-22% less than ordinary concrete. Properties of this hardened concrete, as compressive strength, young’s modulus, tensile strength, durability and carbonation were determined by this experimental tests. Effect of reducing cracks by using this admixture and expansive additive was verified by test on drying shrinkage cracking of restrained concrete and mock-up slab test.
The purpose of this study is to apply concrete using recycled coarse aggregate class M to building flame affected by drying shrinkage. Therefore concrete using recycled coarse aggregate class H and M are compared durability. In addition, quality control of recycled coarse aggregate for practical use is examined. As the result, it is confirmed that the durability of recycled coarse aggregate concrete is no relationship with the quality of recycled coarse aggregate. In addition, it is confirmed that early stage judgment method of drying shrinkage is applicable to the quality control.
We made specimens for tile facing using light-weight adhesive mortars. In a cold region (Kushiro city, Hokkaido), after 10 years outdoor exposure tests, we estimated the durability evaluation. Specimens for external wall didn’t degrade to adhesive strength. Small size specimens degraded to adhesive strength, exposed to rain has caused strength degradation. On the other hand, Light-weight adhesive mortars didn’t catch the frost damage.
Influence of carbon dioxide permeability and moisture permeability of coating materials on carbonation depth of substrate concrete was discussed by 2 series of accelerated carbonation tests. Moisture permeability shows higher correlation than carbon dioxide permeability. Accordingly, moisture change in concrete was monitored in accelerated carbonation test in this study. It was found that water generated by carbonation reaction of concrete raise moisture content of the substrate concrete. Consequently, this increase of moisture content strongly affects the carbonation depths of concrete. In conclusion, moisture permeability has high correlation between carbonation depth, and which is due to generation of water by carbonation reaction in the accelerated carbonation test.
This paper describes the carbonation suppressive effect of varies coating materials for carbonated ALC. In contrast to carbonation of concrete members, that of ALC simultaneously proceeds within the panel and along the surfaces, as observed in a field survey of aged ALC. Therefore, carbonation-suppressing effect of varies coating materials for carbonated ALC was investigated by evaluation based on the degree of carbonation progression. The research results on the carbonation-suppressing effect of coating materials for concrete were found applicable to carbonated ALC panels.
The vibration characteristics of structures have been considered to be one of the important evaluation indices to clarify the seismic performance. This paper presented the results that were obtained from the ambient vibration of three existing school buildings before and after measurements of seismic retrofitting using a wireless measurement system. Results and comparisons between the modal parameters, first natural periods and story stiffness obtained by the before and after measurements of seismic retrofitting demonstrated that the measurement and data processing techniques used are valid for evaluating the seismic retrofitting works.
Asbestos containing coating materials for textured finishes of buildings painted on building walls may cause asbestos fibers release during removal with repair works and demolition works. Curing is necessary for prevention of asbestos dispersal, on the other side technical information about asbestos dispersal is not enough for planning repair and demolition works. In this study, airborne fibrous particles was measured under several removal methods of asbestos containing coating materials from specimen made of concrete and model demolition of specimen with asbestos containing coating materials, and removal methods are compared and verified.
The present paper reports some results of the investigation of practical application of an advanced Kriging method proposed by the authors to estimate seismic hazards. By adding only one new parameter, the proposed method can provide AIC 120 to 250 lower than that by an ordinary Kriging method, which corresponds to the random fields with 60 to 120 fewer explanatory variables. Also, the proposed method estimates the ranges of 150 to 700m while an ordinary method calculates those of 30 to 80m. As a result, the proposed method can practically estimate seismic hazards accurately for each construction site.
As for the structural design of the frame for roller coasters, the effect of the movement of bogie on the frame has not been cleared. Against this backgrounds, in this paper, the influence of movement of bogie on the main frame was evaluated based on results from the vibration test using U-shaped small-scale model and numerical analysis. In numerical analysis, an analytical method for calculating the acceleration due to the movement of the bogie was proposed and verified. Lastly, the safety factor for the structural design in confirming the seismic safety was proposed.
In order to utilize the Earthquake Early Warning more effectively in a high-rise building, functions to estimate a ground motion amplification of a building and long-period response in a building have been added to the Earthquake Early Warning system. The methodology to estimate these responses was verified by observed records in buildings, and the practical example of operation during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake was introduced.
When a building has high- and low-rise part or eccentrically-located core unit, it may need to use pile foundation supported by different length or diameter piles because of eccentricity for planar loading. In this study, the influences upon the dynamic behavior of building and pile by irregular pile position for the medium-rise building with pile foundation supported by different diameter piles are investigated using 3D FEM. As a result, the irregularity of the pile group has relatively less impact on the response of the building. However, It is found that the irregularity makes significant impact on response of piles.
In the cement milk pile construction method, it is important to ensure the stiffness of a consolidation of pile end. We propose to attach a holed disk plate to the pile end in order to improve the end bearing capacity of a small sized steel pipe pile. We examine the characteristics of the end bearing capacity and the effectiveness of the end disk plate by laboratory experiments. The dimensions of the plate to apply to the cement milk method are discussed. Subsequently, actual size load tests are performed to confirm the validity of the improved pile end.
The use of cast-in-place concrete piles with enlarged base for increase the uplift resistance are known compared with straight piles. Initially, the angle of enlargement was 12 degrees, but with technological and constructional advances, this angle has increased up to 20 degrees. This report describes the results of uplift response of model piles in laboratory varying in shape and angle of enlarged base, N-value of soil and depth ratio of soil embedded. As the experiments results, the pullout resistance increases when the enlarged base is larger. In addition, the resistance increases exponentially with the increment of angle of enlargement.
A new steel column and ready-made pile joint system is proposed by the authors. This new joint system has been using mortal in-filled steel tube joint. These abilities can enable to reduce costs and construction period by omitting mold construction work, rebar construction, and concrete work for building the foundation. In a structural design according to the present joint system, evaluation method of ultimate strength for mortar-filled joints should be clear. Therefore, in this paper, ultimate strength evaluation method in the case of the development of pile head joint by mortal in-filled method is clarified obtained by the present experiments.
This study aims to develop the seismic reinforcement method using sliding doors focused on the opening in an existing wooden house. The parameters of the full-scale lateral loading tests were chosen to examine the effect of the number and type of the seismic sliding door and the strength of hanging wall on the seismic performance of a wooden frame. The analytical model was proposed to estimate the relationships between the lateral load and deformation angle. The results of the full-scale test and analysis are presented and discussed.
In the current design code, verification of eccentricity ratio Re is required, which represents appropriate distribution of shear walls. The limitation of Re contributes to prevention of torsional vibration. However, damping performance is affected by distribution of dampers in the plan because the energy dissipation of each damper is clearly related to deformation mode of the structure. In this paper, the verification method of appropriate distribution of energy dissipation walls to wooden house is proposed. The accuracy of the method is confirmed by numerical simulations considering various kind of parameters with wide range.
Splitting strength perpendicular to grain for timbers using connections composed of steel pipes and high-strength bolts was experimentally evaluated. Edge distances influence the splitting strength; however, equations, which evaluate the strength and were developed in Japan and Europe, do not take into account the diameters of the bolts or pipes, nor edge distance. Fracture parameters Cr obtained in the experiment agreed with an existing equation. Variation of the splitting strength is greater and deformation capacity of the connections is smaller with respect to smaller edge distances.
To examine the load-deformation relationships and failure modes of the mud-walls placed on foundation, static tests under lateral cyclic loads were carried out. The estimation method of load-deformation curve for the mud-walls with openings was proposed. It is considering the bending of the columns and pullout of the lintel. The estimation results were compared with the experimental results of the specimens that are composed of hanging mud-walls, window back mud-walls and narrow side mud-walls. The estimation results were similar to the corresponding experimental results; therefore, the usability of the estimation method was confirmed under the conditions set in this paper.
The ultimate strength of R/C exterior beam-column joints using several types of mechanical anchorage for deformed rebar can be calculated by the proposed design formula derived on the basis of past test results. However, structural performance of such joints using a typical mechanical anchorage and circular anchor plate is not verified by a comparative test. In this study, the authors experimentally clarify the ultimate strength and ductility of R/C exterior beam-column joints using circular anchor plate to compare with a typical mechanical anchorage for deformed rebar of 590N/mm2 and 685N/mm2 strength.
The authors proposed new reinforcement detailing for R/C L-shaped joint connected with wide width beam using a typical mechanical anchorage for deformed rebar. In this study, 4 L-shaped joint specimens using circular anchor plate for deformed rebar are tested. Consequently, it is clarified that circular anchor plate is similarly effective to the new reinforcement detailing for L-shaped joint specimens using a typical mechanical anchorage. Also, the authors clarify the behavior of the number of beam reinforcements of L-shaped joint specimens for ultimate strength and ductility.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the floor rigidity for the structural analysis in the case that the floor is attached only to one side of the beam. First, the ratio of the beam rigidity with floor for that without floor (the extra coefficient) was examined based on the results of finite element analysis of model composed of column, beam and floor. Next, the equation that estimated the extra coefficient was proposed based on the results of calculation in considering rigid zone proposed by authors in the end of members.
In this study, it was confirmed the mechanical characteristics of the tapered coupler. First, tension test of tapered couplers for mortar grouted mechanical sleeve was carried out. In addition, finite element analysis that reproduced the tension test was carried out. From the results of tests and analysis, the shape of high performance and compact coupler was suggested. Finally, tension test of suggested shape of couplers was carried out. As a result, it was confirmed the effectiveness of the tapered coupler.
In this paper, to improve seismic response estimation for medium and low-rise RC buildings during aftershock, a hysteresis model which was modified from TAKEDA model was proposed. The modified model was added slip behaviors in loading and unloading processes to TAKEDA model. Time history response analysis using the modified model and TAKEDA model were done to examine the accuracy of the estimated seismic response by comparing with test results. As a result, the hysteresis and period characteristics and the residual displacement calculated by time history response analysis using the modified model were confirmed to give good agreement with experimental data.
In this paper, new vertical interlocking method using high tension bolts is proposed for laying steel frame unit systems of container standard size. In this method, the location of tightening bolts is characteristic. The position is located inside of a beam from the column beam connection. Therefore the ultimate strength for the earthquake is decided by the plastic deformation of the beam without the fracture of the bolt. This performance is proved by full scale tests and numerical analyses.
Significant number of wall-type precast reinforced concrete (WPC) residential buildings exist in Japan, constructed during the 1960-70s. They are assembled using prefabricated concrete panels for the slabs and walls and of high quality in terms of the structural conditions. In order to utilize them, seismic behavior of the existing buildings extended with new corridor and elevator structures were analytically evaluated. Static pushover analyses were conducted considering inelastic behavior of members and connections between the existing precast concrete wall panels. The ultimate lateral strength of the extended buildings were nearly equivalent to that of the existing buildings.
The new research center for Earth-Life Science Institute / Tokyo Institute of Technology is designed with three-stories concrete structure whose first story has very high horizontal stiffness and strength with heavy seismic walls, while upper two stories are composed of flexible moment frames without enough seismic walls to obtain the architectural flexibility against various program. To ensure the seismic performance of upper structures in this building, the walls around the stairs and soft moment frames are separated and energy-dissipating fuses are installed in between. In this paper, the seismic performance of the proposed system is researched, and the optimal design of the fuses is discussed.
Stud bolts are often used as a shear force transmission device between concrete and steel plate. The previous calculation method for the shear ultimate strength and the shear force-slip deflection relationship of the joint section with stud bolts are investigated. And the proposed calculation methods are modified.
We conducted an experiment for the purpose of researching the psychological reaction of indoor environment in the rooms which setting up green curtain or not at the apartment building. At the result, when sensible temperature (SET*) of rooms were equal, examinees felt more cool at under the thermal conditions over around 25°C according to evaluation by the index of warm/cool. It is almost same with the result of evaluation by the index of hot/cold on the basis of previous research. On the evaluation by the index of comfortable/uncomfortable, examinees felt more comfortable under the thermal conditions range from 25.4°C till 28.5°C.
In order to investigate the effect of school reconstruction on children and teachers, a field survey was conducted in an elementary school which experienced reconstruction process from 2012 to 2014. This report presents the result of the survey focusing on the changes of sound environment. The acoustic measurements for the classrooms of the old, temporary and newly built school building were conducted. Besides, questionnaire survey on school teachers and children was performed. The results for the three buildings were compared.
It is not desirable that impact noise changes by temperature environment, because absolute value is measured. There are main three factors by change of aging or temperature, e.g. impact source, vibration characteristics of slab and natural frequencies in receiving room. It is not so negligible their influence in the region of low-modal density that impact noise with heavy impact source is evaluated in particularly low frequency range. Then, systematic comparable samples were used, i.e. impact noises in bare slab of laboratory. Measures to reduce influence by three factors mentioned above were taken step by step and shown the results.
In this research, it is examined that influence on vibration sense by vertical vibration on railway and automobile running for actual residential floor. As the result, it is shown the following. 1. Influence on vibration sense by frequency characteristics are examined that difference between vibration sense in the broadband and narrowband evaluations. It is shown that vibration sense in broadband evaluations appeared to be more intense. 2. Evaluation physical quantity representing the perception of vibration is examined to determine the relationship between impact vibration and railway and automobile vibration. It can practically be represented by ΣLVa,VW (3dB).
In order to identify the effect of the daylight duct system on the visual environment, a performance measurement, investigation of customer behavior and a subjective experiment were carried out in a fast food restaurant. It was shown that luminous flux obtained from 1 klx of global illuminance was 200 lm approximately. The SPD of light from the light-emitting surface shows the duct systems decrease the short-wavelength-light and the long-wavelength-light. No obvious effect of light duct systems on customer behavior was found. The subjects at the tables illuminated by the duct system feel space more comfortable and preferable.
In recent years in Japan, membrane is often employed as safer ceiling for large span building because of its material advantages of light weight and soft property. Furthermore, membrane ceiling may improve the indoor thermal environment and energy efficiency by blocking air flow. Such environment aspect of membrane ceiling has not been well investigated, yet. The aim of this paper is to investigate the indoor thermal environment impact by membrane ceiling and its energy saving effect in detached housing with opening ceiling space through field tests.
To examine a possibility that heat loss factor is estimated using easy and simple field measurement of wooden houses, we measured 59 houses. We defined three evaluation values that show insulation performance of houses using measured temperature, and we examined the correlation of the values and the heat loss factor. We have defined the evaluation value as a temperature change rate of the inside and the outside, and we confirmed that the evaluation value shows high correlation.
This study is about thermal acceptable zone of the resident in daily life. Field survey is made in 9 households (13 persons) which exist in Kanto area. Thermal acceptable zone of the resident in this study is 15.8°C - 30.7°C. Thermal acceptable sensation is influenced by personal sense of values and social condition. These residents accept coldness, hotness and discomfort to some extent.
Direct solar gain system to get solar heat directly from the windows is often adopted in houses. On the other hand, if the amount of solar heat gain and thermal mass is not proportionate, this system will not work well. We proposed the blind which reflects near-infrared range upward and transmits visible light. It can distribute acquired solar heat to indoor thermal mass adequately. We evaluated the direct gain system using this blind by experiment and simulation. It is confirmed that the system could improve indoor thermal environment and contribute to energy saving.
Recently, applications of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) are expanding to various environmental issues such as pollutant/thermal dispersion in urban areas. The outdoor environment sub-committee of the Architectural Institute of Japan have conducted several benchmark tests for obtaining basic information and knowledge in order to provide the extended practical guidelines of CFD, which can be applied to more broad environmental issues than the present ones. This paper reports the results which considered the sensitivity of various computational conditions in the RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations) model to the prediction accuracy of pollutant concentration distributions for two different configurations.
The Great East Japan Earthquake generated on March 11, 2011 brought damage to much of the northeast area of Japan. The required number of temporary houses is more than 50,000. Many disaster victims have to reside in temporary houses for the near- to long-term future. Fungus contamination is expected to be an ongoing problem, especially given increased residential humidity resulting from dew condensation which originates insufficiently insulation. This paper describes the results obtained by a survey of 40 temporary houses in Sendai city, Miyagi in August and October, 2011, March and September, 2012. We report that in 40 temporary houses, the highest fungal concentrations rose up to 46,420cfu/m3. Moreover, almost 100% of surveyed houses in summer exceeded AIJ standard 1,000cfu/m3. On the other hand, as the I/O ratio is over 1 greatly, and genera of airborne fungi and settled fungi are almost same, it became clear that settled fungi is major indoor pollution source. Thus, it is necessary to perform evaluation including settled fungus to elucidate the actual condition of fungus contamination in residential environment.
Interference between a VAV damper and a fan inverter operation that changes the air volume for room temperature control is theoretically reproduced by using a mathematical model to analyze the mutual interference. The simulation analysis shows the effects of proposed methods for the fan inverter operation rule to reduce the interference. The results show that the adopted control strategies for the multi-zone VAV control system solve the mutual influence between the VAV damper and the fan inverter operation and save fan electric power consumption.
The subject of this paper is the heat source system with the Ground Source Heat Pump(GSHP) system and the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage(ATES) system. The site of this city hall building is near from the Mogami River, so the ratio of the soil is almost sand and the level of the underground water is high. Therefore the GSHP and ATES system is expected to make high performance. The heat exchanger of the GSHP system is installed in cast in place concrete foundation. The ATES system is converted from the snow melting equipment using the well water in the summer.
In Japan, except for the part of the cold regions, it is common for the air-conditioning to be used only in the room where residents are there. Thus, large temperature difference is likely to occur between the rooms. The temperature difference has been pointed out as one of the causes of the heat shock. It is effective to use the 24-hours central air-conditioning system in order to eliminate the temperature difference. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze electricity rate and power consumption of 24-hours central air-conditioning system in warm region on the basis of long-term measurement for a detached house.
Using a result of the questionnaire of the Eco-home Diagnosis carried out 212 households in Fukuoka Prefecture in FY2012, the household attribute data, the power consumption, the CO2 emission, the heating/lighting expenses, and the countermeasure to energy saving before and after the consultationwere analyzed. Annual CO2 emissions for the checked homes were 4,928 kg/year·household, and annual power consumption was 5,183 kWh/year·household. The deemed reduction in annual CO2 emissions for all households receiving diagnosis was 85,018 kg/year, and the deemed reduction rate was 12.2%. And the deemed reduction in annual power consumption was 118,132 kWh/year, and the deemed reduction rate was 16.4%. It can be said that the Eco-home Diagnosis raised awareness of energy conservation at the participating households, and it appears diagnosis had some effect in reducing CO2 emission and power consumption.
The action of ‘Cool Share’ and ‘Warm Share’ was expected to reduce CO2 emission from residential buildings. When occupants go shopping and enjoying sports and leisure, the cooling and heating equipment in their own homes would not be operating. Therefore they could share the cooling and heating in public spaces and its action would result in the CO2 reduction for the space cooling and heating in residential buildings. This paper describes the effect of CO2 reduction through the action of ‘Cool Share’ and ‘Warm Share’ in Akita city was estimated with questionnaire survey during cooling and heating seasons. As a result, a reduction of one to three CO2 tons during summer and a reduction of five to ten CO2 tons during winter were achieved through the ‘Share’ actions.
Changes of the energy consumption in welfare facilities before and after the Great Earthquake of East Japan were analyzed based on the investigation for development of the DECC. Both electricity and primary energy consumption in the facilities with the residential function were reduced by approximately 8% in the Tohoku region and 16% in the Kanto region in 2011 compared to those in 2010 even though the difference of air temperatures were taken into consideration. As the results from multivariate analyses, measures related to lighting were effective for energy savings in the facilities both with and without the residential function. Additionally, changes of setting temperature of freezers could be a strong factor for energy savings in the facilities with the residential function, whereas restriction of use of electric appliances such as portable electric pots had large influences in the facilities without the function.
The report on the measures of cremation capacity building of the crematorium who have not received the City planning decision. How it was refurbished in response to the residents of measures and construction funding problem. The author makes a basic design, and I do anecdotal reports of Niitsu Saijyo of Niigata City that made the construction supervision of the cremator construction. I discussed the benefits and challenges of the time of large-scale renovation.
New child and child-rearing support system has started from April 2015. Most of certified nurseries operated with the municipality’s standard have been forced to change to the national standard. So, the survey was done in some municipalities, mainly in Kyoto-city. Some results show as follows : (1) Age of the children, area standard of nursery room and capacity of facility are cited as major differences from the conventional standard. (2) The transition rate to the new system is different in each municipality, but difficulties judging from the differences in standard was reflected to the transition rate. (3) In the background of the smooth transition to the new system, improvement of standard has been raised 4 years before the new system implementation in Kyoto-city. (4) Own correspondence had been made in Kyoto-city for fire-resistance and seismic standard.
In order to avoid that the causalities of various severity of illness concentrates on a hospital at the time of a disaster, the cities have formed a plan to install an emergency medical aid station are seen. However, there is not argue about preparation of the emergency medical aid station in the elementary school where the medical relief activities in the area are performed in many cases. So, in this research, we conducted investigation about the preparation for which a medical staff devises to an example the medical relief activities in the elementary school in which an emergency medical aid station. From a result, consideration arranges required contents at the time of the practical use method of the existing institution, and preparation. Moreover, we consider the requirements for which the institution which is easy to utilize as an emergency medical aid station is asked.
City offices have recently been improving owing to deterioration, merger of local municipalities and demolition by the Eastern Japan Earthquake Disaster. The paper deals with 4 cases of city office renewal project. Consensus building process as well as discussing method of the review committee with citizen participation was studied. The conclusions are as follows: 1) discussion mainly focused on improving method of city office, as new construction or repair, and choosing its site in case of new construction; 2) an appraisal system for screening improving method and also choosing site is adoptable for the review committee with citizen participation.
Since 2005, rest areas of expressways have been opened to the local communities to increase the number of visitors. This study focused on the space use and management of these open-style rest areas. We clarified follows; 1) most of the rest areas are opened to local communities by renovating the existing facilities, 2) there are some advanced cases that local governments or companies collaborate to manage rest areas, 3) local residents visit rest areas not only to fulfill their everyday needs but also for other various purposes, 4) there are some problems in accessibility or equipment for users from local areas.
This report studies the importance of hospital staff participation in the improvement process of a common space at acute hospital. The methods analyses the transition along the participation of hospital staff members and their self-recognition of accomplishments in the improvement process of a particular common space. Although a recent project has been developed opportunities for existing and different types of staff members, there is still the necessity to reconsider the participation management in future experiences such as the representative election system among divisions, and the organization of events and meetings as part of regular staff duties.