In this paper, a method for predicting Young's modulus of cementitious composites produced by extrusion moulding is proposed. The applicability of the method was examined by three series of experiments. After the Young's modulus of matrices of composites are predicted, Young's modulus of composites are predicted by Hashin-Hansen equation, which is formed on the basis of Self-Consistent Approximation (S. C. A model) for finding composites mechanism on elastic modulus. Furthermore, it is clarified in case of extrusion moulding that Young's modulus of matrices are deeply influenced by visco additives and fiber additives as well as cement water ratio and degree of hydration. As the result of this experiment, predicted values are nearly equal to tested ones. Therefore, it is possible to predict Young's modulus of cementitious materials produced by extrusion moulding.
Inspection was made to examine properties of mortars ( 1: 1 - 1 : 5) randomly sampled from 10 ready-mixed concrete plants in the Kanto area. As fresh and hardened properties of the mortar, slump, slump flow, mortar flow, air content, bleeding rate, compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity and length change were studied. It was found that the properties of the mortar showed considerable scatter by plants though the designed mixture proportions were the same.
Large-scale outdoor monuments were made with exposed white concrete. A major hollow cone monument was designed as 7m heights, 7m base diameters and 24m^3 concrete volumes. To prevent air voids of the surface of the cone and concrete pouring joints, the cone form was set upside-down (V shape) and self-compactable concrete was poured continuously. After concrete hardened, the cone, with steel form work and steel supporting frame (total 120ton weights) was reversed into right posture, by overhead cranes putted on a temporary steel frame with computer control. The sculptor was satisfied with the results of these concrete works.
The seismic isolation retrofit of the main building of the National Museum of Western Art required excavating the foundation ground under the existent building and installing isolation devices, it was necessary to construct piles beneath the existing footings. Before the installation of isolation devices, construct piles beneath the existing footings in order to support the weigth of the building temporarily during excavation process. The piles were made of steel pipe segments, and were driven by oil jacks utilizing the weight of the building for reaction force. During the retro-fitting process, the subsidence of the building supported by the piles were monitored and controlled to avoid causing damage to the superstructure. The objective of this study is to investigate the axial stiffness and the yield strength of the piles during jacking. The axial stiffness is possible to underpin the existing building.
In this report, I did a follow-up survey of transition of welding abilities in welding joint of a reinforcing rod. As a result it became clear that heel crack and toe crack occurred by decrease of route gap and bead as execution amount progressed. Therefore, in the point of the site weld management, it is thought that the defect can correct it by making much of test after weld before weld.
What asked for durability test methods for roof membrane systems is durability of their performance, not durability of the individual materials that compose the systems. However, the most tests that have been adopted as durability tests only focus on roofing material itself. Therefore it has been difficult to estimate durability of roof membrane systems by the present test methods. In this study, new test methods to make clear performances of roof membrane systems were proposed from the idea of combining the performance tests for them described in JASS 8 with degradation conditions. The items for degradation are heat, ultraviolet irradiation, ozone and moisture. The durability of the four kinds of commercial roof membrane systems was experimentally estimated using the proposed test methods.
With the construction and expansion of coal-fired power plants, Japan's total amount of coal ash will sharply increase to approximately 10 million tons at the end of fiscal 2010. In this research, we developed a new type of plantable porous concrete that incorporates the coal ash (clinker ash and fly ash) that is created a by-product of coal-fired power plant operation. The characteristics of coal ash make it suitable for use in plantable porous concrete, and we were moreover able to develop a mixture that ensures a high coal-ash utilization factor.
In incineration plants, RC stacks took the place of steel-supported stacks in '70s with the view of improving design appearance. A number of stacks having various shapes other than circle (square, triangle, and so on) have been constructed for the same reason. In order to investigate wind response characteristics of RC stacks having typical shapes, a series of wind tunnel tests were carried out. For the practical design, coefficients of wind force were evaluated based on the test results and in accordance with the method specified in "Recommendations for Loads on Buildings" of AIJ.
The objective of this paper is to evaluate fragility curve and repair cost in terms of each structural damage level based on the damaged database of 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake. The seismic risk of a mid-to-high-rise building in Kobe is calculated through the analytical results. As a result, the following are verified : 1. The expectation of repair cost per square meter is about 29,000yen for minor damage, about 60,000yen for moderate damage, and about 64,000yen for major damage. 2. The seismic risk of a mid-to-high-rise building in Kobe, that is normalized by initial construction cost, is about 3.2 percent on condition that design lifetime is assumed to be 50 years.
The dynamic characteristics of a nine-story SRC building were investigated using incident waves generated from impactor machine. It is shown that this device can be right tool to investigate the vibration characteristics of the actual building up to relatively high frequencies range. Horizontal motions as well as rocking and torsional motions were investigated. The pulse like generated wave makes it possible to observe later arrival torsional response, which cannot be obtained in microtremor and vibration test using vibrator. To clarify the modal variations, mode decomposition analysis has been done.
We conducted tensile tests of large-sized natural rubber bearing, comparing other conventional specimens. Almost same tensile properties were observed among these rubber bearing specimens with different sizes. As a result of these tests, we confirmed that natural rubber bearing were efficient for practical use of super high-rise building in which tensile force acted on rubber bearings.
In case of base-isolated houses, it is necessary to consider an isolation device with a triggering system to prevent isolators from moving against strong wind. The triggering system which enables smooth transition from a locked isolation system to an unlocked one, should be provided. Three-dimensional shaking table tests were conducted to verify the behaviour of lead-bar triggering system under earthquake loading. The triggering system broke down at the same shear force ratio as that designed. And the transition from the locked isolation system to the unlocked one was smoothly performed.
This paper deals with an application of hybrid mass damper (HMD) using linear motor to an actual tall building which has a height of 101m. By using the linear motor as an actuator, the HMD has a simple structure, little noise of working and an easy maintenance as compared with those using normal AC servomotor, because the HMD has no mechanical part to translate form torque to linear force. Its controllers, for the 1st and 2nd modes of X translation and 1st mode of torsion of the objective building, are designed by H^∞ control theory for absolute acceleration feedback control. The control system becomes also more simply than those of current HMDs which use state feedback control by optimal regulator, because the feedback signals are only two absolute accelerations of the top floor. The performance of the HMD is confirmed through excitation tests of the building and simulations against winds.
Fragility models of a damage mode in the earthquake and of a building and facilities were presented to grasp the cost performance effect of earthquake-proof countermeasure toward the telecommunication building which supports a high information-oriented society. The expectation loss of the telecommunication building was estimated by some earthquakeproof Indexes, Is value, and some ranks of facilities based on Seismic Risk Management (SRM) method. It was clear that the SRM method could lead the optimum value of investment to buildings and facilities.
This paper presents parametric studies to obtain inelastic dynamic response characteristics of torsionally unbalanced single-story models. The following four models are analyzed ; 1) models with unbalanced mass, 2) models with unbalanced shear-strength, 3) models with unbalanced stiffness and 4) models with unbalanced shear-strength and stiffness. Major findings are as follows : (1) the total energy input is constant ; and (2) the damage concentration can be estimated by the first eigen mode and by the deviation of the yield shear force from the optimum one.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the rigid zone lengths for reinforced concrete members. The rigid zone lengths were calculated from the results of finite element analysis of beam-column members. The equations to estimate the rigid zone lengths were derived to utilize those rigid zone lengths. The estimated rigid zone lengths were applied to the 3-spans 9-stories reinforced concrete frame, and those frames were analyzed by stiffness method. The results of the analysis were very much in agreement with the results of finite element analysis of those frames.
When a high-rise building and a low-rise building have a common basement floor supported by friction piles, differential settlement can be reduced by controlling length of friction piles. Heavy loaded high-rise building area is supported by long length piles and light loaded low-rise building area is supported by short length piles in the concrete. This paper describes a case history adopted this foundation type and comparison between field measurements and numerical analysis results of simple calculation method and elasto-plastic finite element method.
Hybrid single-layer lattice shell using supplementary parts is the rectangular grid shell stiffened by self-equilibrated truss system. This system was applied for the imaginary projects of covering ball game stadium, in order to show the validity of this structure system for the large spans structure. The procedure to decide the arrangements of the supplementary parts is proposed. This procedure gives the arrangements, which improve the buckling load of the structure effectively.
This paper reports the collapse of Bongossi Bridge. The bridge was located in Ehime prefecture, and was made by bongossi and stainless fasteners. The bongossi wood was well known by its high durability, but the bridge collapsed by its decay.
In designing a high-rise building of about 200m-high, the authors set the objective performance as concrete as possible. The authors implemented verification tests at the design phase to obtain necessary data in performance based structural design. This study first outlines the established structural objective performances, and the design principles to realize the performances. Then, it further outlines the damage control design using hysteresis steel damper adopted for seismic element, and the experimental study implemented.
This paper describes the design of a high-rise building of 135m height with base isolation system using elastic sliding bearings and rubber bearings, dealing with the outline of structural design and the results of experiment of large-sized rubber bearings used in design. A dynamic response analysis confirmed the seismic performance to be excellent. Furthermore, from the tests on rubber bearings, their tensile property was grasped, and an inelastic model of their vertical stiffness was made. The response analysis using this inelastic model allowed the tensile forces at each rubber bearing to be estimated by the linear addition of the variable axial forces due to horizontal and vertical excitations.
In this paper, method of field measurement of the heavy floor impact sound level was examined. In receving room we made gride for measurement. At each point maximun sound pressure level were measured. In any receving point heavy floor impact sound level was caluculated. As a result, the changes of heavy floor impact sound level is 5dB. It is clear that measuring positions affect heavy floor impact sound level. Especially low frequnecy are influenced by fundamental frequency. L-value was scattered as compared with A-weighted maximum sound pressure level.
The aim of this study was to develop objective criteria for the evaluation of the interior color impression using images. The object of the study were welfare facilities in Miyagi prefecture. New parameter named "mean color" is used. The calculation and analysis of this parameter was possible due to the current level of computer equipment. The validity of the parameter was investigated in experiments. The subjective evaluations were in correlation with the computer measurements, which proves the impact of the selected factor upon the human perception.
Design criteria of the ground thermal insulation around vertical edge insulation on foundation wall is studied in this report. There are variation in the size of ground insulation, such as width, thickness, and depth of overburden of insulation board. Influence of such sizes of thermal insulation on frost depth are discussed. They are discussed based on some results of simulations of frost depth and measurements of ground temperature around full scale experimental house.
Recently, the prediction of wind environment around a building using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique comes to be carried out at the practical design stage. However, there have been very few studies, which examined the accuracy of CFD prediction of flow around a high-rise building including the velocity distribution at pedestrian level. The working group for CFD prediction of wind environment around building, which consists of researchers from several universities and private companies, was organized in Air Environment Sub-committee considering such a background. At the first stage of the project, the working group planned to carry out the cross comparison of CFD results of flow around a high rise building by various numerical methods, in order to clarify the major factors which affect prediction accuracy. This paper presents the results of this comparison.
We have established the system evaluation method in order to estimate the energy saving effect of the cold air distribution system. By this method, we calculated the systems' annual electric consumption. According to the AHU (s) location-one on the basement floor for whole building or one for each floor, distribution air temperature -16, 10 or 6℃, and chilled water supply method from the ice storage tank (s) -directly or indirectly with a heat exchanger. In case of small stories buildings, annual electric consumption for the central AHU system with cold air distribution is the lowest. In case of large stories buildings, in which each AHU is located on each floor, annual electric consumption for cold air distribution system of 10℃ is the lowest. As the cold air distrbution systems of 6℃ need more volume of chilled water, they spend more electricity than the normal air supplying system of 16℃.
The students who were lodging in Kyoto were surveyed to know their evaluation of the living environment. The results showed that the dissatisfaction on the indoor environment, especially on acoustic environment was great. It is important to improve acoustic environment to improve their evaluation of the comprehensive environment. There was little difference between the evaluation of the indoor environment by the students who have experienced moving and those who have not experienced it.
Considering psychological impact of environmental changes caused by building construction and urban development, we have to simulate the proposed environment in advance to examine our ideas and concepts whether or not they work as expected. The present report introduces a new simulation system, which uses both analogue and digital image to test psychological impact of the environment. In this new system, such movable elements as pedestrians and cars produced by real-time CG are overlaid on the static environmental background, which is video image of scale model space. A preliminary experiment was conducted to test the performance of the simulation system.
To make sure of global environment protection in the field of construction, it is important that the occurrence of environmental impacts be suppressed by such approaches as green designing. This paper reports on the abstract of "Environmental Performance Evaluation Method for Building Design" developed for use as green designing support tool in building basic design work. It also shows the environmental performance evaluation results with "Environmental Performance Evaluation Method for Building Design" with the purpose of examining the propriety of them.
Green cover ratio was estimated by means of the constrained least squares method using Landsat TM data in Higashi-nada area and Nagata area where were greatly damaged by seismic fires just after the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. And the relationship between green cover ratio and areas damaged by seismic fires was found out. Estimating methods of green cover environment by using the two dimensional weighted moving average method were proposed, and the results by these methods were compared with each other.
In university campus, there are a huge number of facilities, various facilities, and various user groups etc. Thus, it's very difficult to make a reasonable usage plan of facilities in a short period of time. This paper reports a process from plan making to decision-making, which utilize FM database and computational simulation as a Decision Support system ; such process was actually realized in facilities re-allocation planning at the faculty of engineering Chiba University. Through the case of Chiba University, the advantages of such process : transparency of information, fairness of procedure, and timesaving efficiency in plan making and decision-making are confirmed.
This paper shows the effects of a method called "Design Language" developed for planning public facilities through community participation. In this study, we pay attention to the idea of editting together. The process of editting "Design Language" by participants is an original method. The three effects are following ; ・ "Design Language" is an effective method as a communication tool for various participants. ・ "Design Language" is an effective method as a creative tool by which participants imagine a space. ・ "Design Language" is an effective method as a tool for creative consensus among participants.
The purpose of this study is to develop a temporary dwelling by corrugated cardboard. This report describes to examine in joint system. We suggested the corrugated cardboard panels and their joint systems, then we carried out performance evaluation test and shearing test of joint systems. And we structured full scale structures, and carried out horizontal loading tests of that structures. As a result, we found that panels have shearing strength and heat insulating performance, that joint system of joining wooden frames in the panels with screw is the best, and that panels can be used for small temporary dwellings.
The purpose is to clarify characteristics of long spanned domes based on 18 case studies since 1988. The methods are to review published materials, to have interviews with concerned persons and to visit sites. In case professional sports, covered area 40〜70 thousands m^2, total floor area 90〜180 thousands m^2, average span 194.2 m, in case amateur sports covered area and total floor area 20 thousands m^2, average span 135.7m. Volume is 1.2 million m^3 in professional baseball, 500〜800 thousands m^3 in bicycle race and soccer, 200〜700 thousands m^3 in amateur sports. Average volume per covered area is 23.9 m^3/m^2.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effective value and means of workshops as participatory planning method through analizing dweller's consciousness and mutuality in planning process of pubulic estate for community in housing and environmental renewal. It were making up plan of residence according to dweller's subconsciousness requests and wishes for residence and shown to recreate the new mutuality and community in participatory planning with workshops. As result of the participatory planning dewllers should get over identity-crisis and create identity independently.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the method and the process of the townscape improvement that is linked with the advanced improvement in the old town-center. The townscape improvement of Taisho Romantic Street have been linked with the advanced improvement of the neighboring area in Kawagoe-city. As a result, the various factor, which had led the reduction of the time for progress and the contribution for the vitalization in the town-center, was grasped according to analyze the distinctive feature on the theme, the organization and the method of improvement of Taisho Romantic Street.
In this study the method of urban safety analysis and environmental design named "MUSE" is proposed from the viewpoint of disaster-mitigation toward the twenty-first century. Modeling a city as an organic and closed system by classifying the urban space into 8 elements and visualizing the aspect of the city, MUSE analyzes and simulates the city from each element or mutual relations between elements. This paper further shows the role of MUSE in the field of urban design. MUSE is expected to be used for the recognition of cities together with new information tools e. g., GIS, GPS, and mobile computer.
This research on the street in Venezia, it is for the purpose of that carrying out the moving experiment by the search walk with the street net of Venezia, clarifies relation among a part of the process of the spatial cognition, streetscape and human position, obtain the basic data for future pedestrian space. Eye fixation behavior on wayfinding became clear that is making "the facade of the building" and "the person" as the mainly stare object, grasp space in the stare range of the angle of the distance of 0 to 10 meters, angle of elevation and depression of 0 to 12.5 degrees.
This study proposes orienteering as a training program with gaining experience of walking in a city area for social participation of the visually handicapped. It aims at giving recreation nature to a program for positive participation and at progress of orientation and mobiltiy by walking in various city areas with tactile maps. Through the experiment, it seems to be important to assure the safety and raise the recreation nature for the positive participation of the visually handicapped. Moreover the validity of tactile maps was found, and the support for the social participation of the visually handicapped could be expected.
This paper aims to clarify the transformation of commercial structure from the viewpoint of quantity. To analyze that, we use three indexes as number of establishments, sales floor area and employee per 10,000 inhabitants. With those indexes, the average figures would be clear. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) While number of establishment per 10,000 inhabitants has decreased after S54, there are increases in sales floor area and employee per 10,000 inhabitants. 2) In the view of the commercial structure, the cities of "under 50,000" and "200,000-250,000" have specific character with regard to those three indexes.
We have tried to bring into the action called "Kodomo Matikado Kaiketutai" for 5 years from 1994 in Teine Ward. This action is community making that children realize what residents think for their living environment. The purpose of this paper is announcing a concent of this children's experiential action process, and evaluating the process of it from a mutual view piont of "children" and "community making". Through this unique experience we analyzed that resident's (and children's) affection and sensitivity toward thier living environment was raised, and so on.
There are various methods for citizens' participation such as committee, symposium, public meeting, public hearing, questionnaire, workshop and others in plan making process or plan decision process. Various methods in Muroran City after 1991 were analyzed their contents and were tried to evaluate on the basis of 10 evaluation points considered to activate participation. As the result of total evaluation, workshop was given higher score than other methods. Although the trial of evaluation was done by only the author of this study, it means individual differences among several persons were rejected and all methods were evaluated by the same criteria.
The purpose of this paper is to report the design and construction process of TAIWA-cho health and welfare center, that has the possibility of a general model in the local public welfare facilities. In this case, we organized the supervising group besides the designers. Under the direction of the supervisor, they collaborated and supported the works that designers could not manage sufficiently. We consider that this system for design and construction is very useful in the process of bringing up new-type local public welfare facilities of which design concept has not been confirmed yet.
In this study, inhabitant-units are set by integrate and analyze neighborhood and life region as space information in urban areas. To grasp characteristics of the extent in neighborhood regions, shift neighborhood region to circular, obtain the radius, and analyze the relation of the neighborhood region and distance from the house. The circular gradation with these characteristics was set on the life region, and the inhabitant-unit was set by making and analyzing the image superimposed. As the result, it could visualize as an image of what kind of spatial arrangement has been formed as a cluster unit in the region space.