In this study, I investigated the mix proportion of ready mixed concrete using fly ash for buildings. As a result, I obtained the useful information for mix proportion of concrete using fly ash of type-II (JASS5 M-401). As methods of using fly ash, the four methods (cement substitution, fine aggregate substitution, cement and fine aggregate substitution, unit FA amount constant method) are used. This paper describes the purpose of use and mix proportion design method for each of the four methods.
In this study, we focus on the Ready-mixed concrete factory using recovered aggregate for concrete as building materials. We interviewed with fourteen Ready-mixed concrete factories, about equipment of collecting recovered aggregate system, products, others and we tested physical properties about aggregate. The results show the following points: (1) 40% of a questionnaire respondent was held equipment of collection recovered aggregate (2) addition method A need to device to put aggregate impartial (3) some physical properties is different between original aggregate and recovered aggregate.
Silica fume mixed cement and silica fume as admixture are used for the binder of ultra high strength concrete. In the examination so far, it was confirmed that specific surface area of binder influences. In this study, as a measure to improve fluidity, we focused on limestone fine powder and fly ash2 species, and conducted experiment using mortar as fundamental study. As a result, fluidity was improved by using limestone fine powder or fly ash type2 in inner split. Furthermore, it was confirmed that some formulations using fly ash2 species could secure compressive strength equivalent to that of base mortar.
We extracted and analyzed the evaluation results of accelerated tests from existing studies to understand the actual situation. As a result, it was revealed that the amount to which fly ash contributes to carbonation resistance in accelerated carbonation test may have been evaluated as almost zero. Then, we extracted and analyzed test results in actual environments. We took a contribution degree to the carbonation resistance property into consideration. Based on the considerations, it was revealed that, the evaluated level of binding material contribution degree under accelerated tests condition showed approximately a 12.5% than that of under the actual environment conditions.
Roofing materials suitable for roof greening have been studied, such as coating systems and sheet systems. When root resistance of the waterproof layer is not sufficient, plant roots breaks through the waterproof layer, which may lead to leakage. Especially directly on the waterproof layer, when planting laying soil. The purpose of this study is to clarify the roof resistance of FRP waterproof. In a way the same test method of JASS8T-401-2014, which was the bamboo plant, through the roots in the FRP waterproof was not confirmed. In JSTM G7101 method, the # 450 glass mat one or more thickness was confirmed to be at least 50 N.
In this report, climate characteristics related to cold weather concreting were examined using the normal value of Japan Meteorological Agency (891 points). As a result, the climate characteristics were classified into three types, climate characteristics and construction characteristics of each region were arranged. The climate characteristics of Japan are remarkably different depending on the region, and regional differences are confirmed in the planning method adopted also in the past questionnaire survey. In order to further enhance Recommendation for Practice of Cold Weather Concreting, it is necessary to develop a rational planning method that takes full account of climate characteristics.
Concerning “Construction of Remaining Some Prop by Received Three-Layer” applicated in concrete formwork, questionnaire survey had been carried out about the way of structural calculation for formwork shoring and actual state of requester building. We have summarized results of surveys about structural calculation outline. And summarized results of surveys about building part necessary for structural calculation and defining required concrete compressive strength.
In this paper, in order to grasp the characteristics of the RC buildings under consideration of the construction of remaining some prop by received three-layer collected the structure diagram and design strength, structure calculation root and each we extracted and analyzed the structural elements. As a result, among RC buildings under consideration of the construction of remaining some prop by received three-layer it was found that most of the buildings of the RC floor slab without the small beams are buildings of 3 to 15 stories in multi-family houses. In addition, the standard ranges concerning the structural elements of each member were shown.
The authors devised the mechanism of the displacement measurement assuming the installation of a displacement transducer in a base-isolated story and developed an upright type displacement transducer with a long stroke. In order to demonstrate that the transducer can follow the movement of a base-isolated story and can measure the displacement of the base-isolated story, dynamic loading tests using the specimen of the transducer were carried out. We confirmed that the specimen can measure the displacement appropriately during the movement of the maximum speed of 1.0 m/s and the random movement.
Vibration measurement has been performed for a full-scale field test of 6 story wood framework wall system under seismic ground motions. 9 MEMS acceleration sensors have been installed inside and outside of the building to monitor its seismic responses continuously. Using the past earthquake records, the vibrational characteristics of the building under seismic ground motions are investigated, taking into consideration soil-structure interaction. It is shown that the target building is a time-variant system that depends on ground motion characteristics.
Buildings 16-20 are the second oldest building set in Gunkanjima and almost located in the center of the island. Each building is mutually interconnected by a large corridor at one end and fixed to a rock mountain at the other end. Mutual coupling effect among buildings 16-20 is investigated by processing acceleration data acquired by the vibration sensor network using accurate MEMS acceleration sensors. It is shown that vibrational characteristics of each building are strongly influenced through mutual coupling among buildings under ambient vibrations.
This paper describes the results of full-scale model tests and numerical analyses of placing fresh concrete in bored piles to investigate the flow process of high-strength concrete after pouring ordinary concrete by tremie method. The vertical cross section through the cured test pile shows that the high-strength concrete spreads over the previously placed ordinary concrete. The flow patterns obtained by the numerical analyses based on computational fluid dynamics are good agreements with the test results. The analysis method has possibilities to simulate flow behavior in bored piles.
In this paper, we discuss a seismic performance evaluation technique of a wooden important cultural property building. The building is a Gi-yofu architecture which exists in Bingo, Hiroshima. We drafted structural drawings based on assumptions, because the structural details of the building are unknown. On the other hand, we carried out a microtremor measurements and clarified the vibration characteristics of the building. Furthermore, we examined and verified the technique to judge the validity of the structural assumption from the measurement result.
In this paper, we carry out an experiment of timber-steel frameworks to clarify the horizontal deformation capacity of the frameworks. The steel lintel of the framework supports the vertical load. It is confirmed that the frameworks have the deformability to 1/10rad from the experimental results. The PΔ effect is observed. We made it clear that the PΔ effect appears by a half of deformation of a usual framework from the analysis of the model of the framework by which the PΔ effect is considered.
Reinforcement methods of glulam beam with a round hole are proposed and their performance are experimentally and analytically investigated in this report. There are two types of reinforcement methods, uses steel plates or plywood plates. Both methods are confirmed effective based on experimental results. The reinforcement method using steel plates is highly practical. Because it is excellent in workability and the steel sheet is thin, it does not affect the finish. Therefore, the effectiveness of reinforcement with steel plates is investigated with the parametric study by using FEM analyses. The result shows a good performance of reinforcement under various conditions.
The basic concept of seismic design is to ensure the deformability and the proof stress against the seismic forces. Meanwhile, the idea of isolating from seismic motion and reducing the forces existed. In this research, we aim to accurately the maximum response evaluation considering base-slip in the traditional timber structure by using calculation of response and limit strength and the reproductive numerical analyses of the shaking table tests conducted at E-defense were executed to estimate the effect to the seismic performance by DEM analysis. To confirm the accuracy of the proposed evaluation method, the maximum response deformation angle is evaluated.
The purpose of this research is to calculate the restoring force characteristics of a panel with a solid wood board fitted to timber grid. Diagonal compression experiments were conducted using existence or nonexistence of the solid wood board and cross section size of the timber grid as parameters. The restoring force characteristics of the timber grid panel can be evaluated by the calculation formula of the previous study. The restoring force characteristic could be calculated by adding the shear strength which the timber grid can withstand the shear strain which the solid board obtained from the shear strain adds together.
This study aims to develop a new structural utilization of a stressed skin panel (SSP) with lattice-shaped webs which is used mainly in Europe for supporting the roof of large span timber buildings. Our proposal is to construct a bearing wall by stacking, horizontally and vertically, the blocks cut out from the SSP. In this study, we conducted four kinds of tests on shear, compression, out-of-plane bending and joint-shearing for the blocks. In this paper, we describe the features and test results of this bearing wall and clarified the fundamental performance by adding discussion basing on numerical analysis.
Recently, medium large scale wooden buildings have became popular. Large rooms are often located in these buildings such as auditoriums, conference rooms and so on. In order to create these rooms, it is required to develop Stressed-Skin Panels (SSP) which support long span floor. The purpose of this study is to clarify the bending performance of SSPs. Bending performance of SSPs depends on tensile strength and stiffness of their flanges. For this reason, tensile tests of plywood used as flanges are conducted and plywood with the best properties are selected. After that, full size bending tests of SSPs are carried out to measure bending performance and the validity of the evaluation method was verified.
Glued build-up members (GBM) are structural building members that are developed as an application to effectively utilize Japanese domestic box-heart timbers. The purpose of this study is to establish a method to evaluate the bending performance of a GBM. In this study, a structural model is construct when vertical stress at the lower timber edges of the GBM subjected to bending is regarded as combined stress of bending component and tensile component. In addition, using the experimental results of the full scale GBM specimens, we evaluate it as a combination stress and verify the applicability of the evaluation method.
The author has proposed the formulas for estimating the flexural ductility of R/C square columns and rectangular columns. However, the flexural ductility of R/C square columns related to the configuration of reinforcements is not verified by comparative tests. In this study, tests of R/C square columns related to the configuration of reinforcements using 685N/mm2 and 785N/mm2 class transverse reinforcement have been conducted under high compressive axial force. Based on these test results, the accuracy of estimated flexural ductility of R/C square columns is clarified.
In this paper, we developed a crack width measurement program by image analysis and carried out an actual size loading experiment of RC nonstructural wall with parameters of rebar interval and rebar ratio. As a result, it was found that the width and the slip on the cracks increased with the increase of the reinforcing bar interval, and there was no effect on the crack width due to the difference in the reinforcing bar ratio. Moreover, the crack width density distribution and the slip were measured by an image analysis.
The application of wooden materials in architectural field has been focused on in recent years. So far, there has been very little use of wooden material in Middle-scale buildings which has been actively applied. Currently, research on hybrid structures that combine wooden materials and other materials is being actively pursued as one of the rational design methods for wooden structures. Therefore, in this report, using cedar and reinforced concrete in a hybrid column to conduct the bending shear experiment and then compare the data obtained by FEM analysis in order to grasp the structural performance.
This report is on an earthquake-resistant refurbishment design and construction case for a high-rise SRC rental residential building having v-shaped plane designed by the old seismic code. In this retrofitting design, the building was divided into two, making them well-formed buildings, and retrofitted by k type steel brace. The construction procedure for dividing the residential building into two and the results of monitoring during the construction process were shown in this report. Although the relative displacement and inclination angle increased by the dividing, the deformation angle was about 1/5700 and it was considered that there was no structural problem.
Vibration measurement has been performed for a full-scale field test of 6 story wood framework wall system under internal excitation. A vibration generator was placed on the floor in the building. 20 MEMS acceleration sensors were installed to monitor the vibration propagation inside and outside of the building. It is shown that the rocking of foundation, the first torsional and second translational vibrations of superstructure might be excited when a reciprocal or rotating machine is operated in the building.
Paying attention to cobalt-based amorphous alloy as magnetic shielding material to replace permalloy, the authors attempted to modify materials suitable for magnetic shielding by heat treatment. Furthermore, magnetic shaking technique was applied. As a result, incremental magnetic permeability could be increased to about 59.5 times that of permalloy. Next, the magnetically shielded room using cobalt-based amorphous alloy was developed. It was confirmed that shielding performance was greatly improved as a result of fabrication of magnetic shield modules, coupling them to fabricate magnetic shield panels, and adding them as magnetic shielding layers to an established magnetically shielded room.
In order to upgrade internal thermal system for RC wall with less spatial loss, a new site-fabricable thermal system using quite thin vacuum insulation panel(VIP:5 mm and 8 mm) is developed here and compared with traditional XPS thermal system(45 mm) by Calibrated Hot box Method. In this new system, small pieces of plastic blocks in place of furring strips are arranged on lattice points of a square lattice on RC wall with VIPs in between them and with VIP joints covered by site spray foam. VIP system shown close score to Japanese Flat35 standards whereas XPS shown adequate score to it. For further upgrading of new system, improvement of joint heat bridge will be necessary.
In this research, meanings of the results derived from heat storage amount measurements are investigated. By examination using calculation, it is confirmed that the room temperature fluctuation is predicted by the thermal performance of walls obtained by measurements or calculation.
In recent years, R&D work has focused on radiant air-conditioning systems for realizing net Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEBs). In a previous report, we described the results of thermal environment settings about a cool spot installation in the radiation cooling/heating office through the subject examination of going-out action. In this paper, the effectiveness evaluation was carried out considering the number of time until thermal sensation is restored to a comfortable state after several fitness exercises.The feature of this research is that the selection of a cooler cool spot leads to extension of the number of time is shown.
We conducted subjective experiments of heating condition using the small room of which temperature of the upper and the lower part and the floor could be controlled separately. The results show: 1) the thermal sensation shifted to the warmer level when the temperatures of both the lower part and the floor were higher than the upper part temperature, and 2) it was modeled by Structural Equation Modeling that the lower body thermal sensation was influenced by the thermal sensations of the upper body and the bottom of the foot, as well as the temperatures of the lower and the floor.
Passive design can keep a comfortable thermal environment without air conditioner all year around while it needs precise thermal environment simulation to analyze the effectiveness before it has been constructed. However, large discrepancies in simulation results can exist between different programs so that it’s hard for designers and researchers to choose appropriate program for passive design from so many programs without recognition about characteristic of them. This paper compares several commonly used simulation programs in Japan, concentrating on analyzing natural temperature calculation to find out the calculation characteristic of each programs.
In recent years, energy conservation of houses has become one of the important issues to reduce global warming gas emissions, and ZEH could be an attractive solution. As renewable energy source, the spread of photovoltaic system is greatly expanding. The generated electric power by photovoltaic system is DC power, and it can be said that the DC power supply system would be suitable because it does not require conversion to AC. In this report, we analyze energy conservation effect by introducing DC power supply system quantitatively and clarify the difference of introduction effect due to regional difference.
In order to show the direction of construction and maintenance in green wall planning for university buildings, the questionnaire surveys were performed on users to evaluate their preference of green walls with various environmental mitigation effects by conjoint analysis. For the both green-covered and uncovered buildings’ users, green coverage ratio was important factor comprehensively. Especially, for green-covered building’s users, the environmental mitigation effects to the rooms were found as significant value. It is considered to be cost-effective for building owners to pay maintenance cost for high coverage of green walls.
This study’s aim is to catch the trend of residential area in a case study in Muroran city and to grasp the idea of the plan for compact cities, especially from views point of “new residential area”. Results of studies reveal the follows. 1) Muroran city has a lot of new residential areas than other cities. 2) New residential area has high rations of built-up in midtown. 3) High intention to live in midtown is revealed from viewspoints of residents relocation in Muroran city.
In this study, we tried to clarify the design process of “Yotsuya Co-operative House” from documents, design drawings and measurement surveys. In January 1956, at the time of beginning to sell, the design had high independency with individual stairs on the first floor. In the design drawing in February, it seems that the design of common parts was completed. In July, layouts of each dwelling units were fixed. Changes of interior design were divided into four works: construction, electric, gas, and sanitation. From the measurement surveys in 2017, we clarified the detailed design of dwelling units and common facilities.
This research is trying to clarify the positive influence that Hope Primary Schools (HPSs) bring to the education programs and activities, and the deep connection between the construction of HPSs and the quality of education of local area. Moreover, we want to reveal the planning methodology of HPSs which are bases on the cooperation between schools and local communities, the utilization by local communities, and the interaction between HPSs and local communities. Through this studying, we aim to gain the knowledge of closing the gap of education and rebuilding schools in the post-earthquake reconstruction.
The aim of this report is to clarify the actual condition and problems of the university community space; “Omoshiro Lab.” in Hiroshima University, where the renovation plan and management system are mainly proposed by students. In the report, the actual condition of the proposal of renovation and its background are clarified. Then, the status and problems of management and operation of the space after renovation are clarified.
This study clarified the actual choices of facilities in accordance with ‘daily living areas,’ which is defined as care service providing districts by local government, in a particular municipality. A case study was conducted for the usage situation of 8 community-based multi-care facilities, 10 group living facilities for the elderly with dementia, and 8 nursing homes in Municipality K2, Ishikawa Prefecture. Then, an approximate formulation of the selection rates of these three facilities for the elderly in the living area was made on the basis of the considerations.
This study aims to clarify how to decide the unit indicator based on the facilities capability, by the investigations on following two points. 1) To determine the unit indicator for outpatient department, we verify the correlation of specifications including the average number of outpatients per day. 2) To examine the characteristics of the distribution, we accumulate various data as a database based on the unit indicator, for hospital facility management. As a result of examination, although the strong correlation of factors is few, the significance of examining these parameters as a distribution is shown.
This research studies various special-needs educational aspects and spatial composition by interviews and observational survey. During interviews regarding architectural requirements, special-needs schools representatives reported the need for a multipurpose space while those responsible for special-needs classrooms mentioned the need for individual learning spaces. From observation, the activities of children at special-needs education facilities with different spatial composition were grasped. In special-needs schools, if there was subspace besides the main activity space, group organization and separate of activities were easily. On the other hand, in special-needs classrooms, differences in aspects of activities were confirmed in spatial composition and group organization.
In this research, in order to clarify the condition of bathroom planning required for severely disabled persons who need full assistance, the assistance actions of caretakers were recorded with a 3D motion capture system. At the same time, caretakers were interviewed about problems in assisting actions. Based on these results, improved bathroom layouts were created, and the assistance actions of caretakers were recorded again and analyzed. As a result, in the improved layouts, rotation action and moving distance were reduced. Finally, we proposed the size of the bathroom which was required for bathing of the severely disabled person.
The purpose of our comparative assessment is to create a data reference showing what height for kitchen counter tops and sink bottoms is most conducive to ease of use. We used an experimental device with adjustable counter tops and sinks depths heights to test with a large group of subjects consisting of a wide range of heights to determine ease of use for counter tops and sink depth height, then we compared the resulting equation to results of past experiments and research done to show what counter top height and sink depth height is currently most appropriate for use.
This paper is a study on the imports of building materials and components in Japan. The followings are shown by analyzing both domestic statistics and Trade statistics: firstly, changes in the import quantity and rate of eighteen building materials and components from 1971 to 2016 are classified into four types. Second, the import rate of seven materials are higher than 10% nowadays. Third, the increase of the import rate has been basically caused by the globalization from the early 1990s, although the resource nationalism and the growth of Korean industry increased the import rate of same materials in 1980s.
This is a report on the contents of the information method sharing between the designers and the building owner to renovation to lease apartment rooms and facilities “while using”. The line of the rooms, which connected to a vertical pipe, is the smallest unit of the construction. The tenants in the line with the most vacancy are moved, and the renovation is carried out as the 1st construction. And other tenants moved to the renovated rooms and renovate the line as the next. And the construction procedure to repair while keeping the lifeline was examined by repeating.
This report focuses on the design principle and process in the utilization of buildings other than cultural heritages; ordinary buildings with undeterminable historical value notably innumerable buildings constructed after the New Seismic Design Code. Principle and process are as follows: 1) Design with respect to the distinctive landscape and civic pride of the Hekinan people. 2) Determine the technical factors arise by renewing the building use. 3) Propose a renovation plan considering long-term maintenance vision. 4) Maintain both LCCO2 and LCC performance. Considering the impact that exterior design creates to the regional landscape, respect to the organic evolution is expected.
Effects of providing several proposals at a design meeting with a client was examined. By carrying out interviews of eight architects about their preliminary design process, it was found that architects showed multiple proposals in design meetings to make clear of client’s requirements, to select the proposal on client’s own initiative, and to obtain client’s agreement on the recommended option by the architect.
This study investigates the implementation of cross-border cooperation projects by municipalities with a prefectural boundary. Our research clarified that there are cross-border cooperation projects in various fields in Japan, and specifically, the tourism field had the most projects. These projects can be categorized into two types. The first involves cooperation between neighboring municipalities, and the second involves cooperation between remote municipalities. Our research clarified that the former makes up approximately 80% of the projects, while the latter makes up approximately 20% of the projects.
This study focuses on the settlements that comprise Kamikatsu town in Tokushima Prefecture. The characteristics of each settlement were surveyed to evaluate the effects of residents’ consciousness of rice terrace landscapes, water environments, irrigation organisations, and new businesses on agriculture and rice terrace landscapes. The survey found that the agricultural settlements are a tendency to convert rice terraces into fields, except in settlements where a majority of residents are conscious of rice terraces as beautiful landscapes. As these new businesses become more prevalent, it has become clear that this is related to the agricultural.
This study clarifies building trend and residential awareness in urbanization promotion area of tsunami hazard area after the Great East Japan Earthquake, focusing on the case of Maisaka District of Hamamatsu City. Building activity including both of houses and non-houses drastically declined after 2012 fiscal year. Especially the demand for houses has become to be limited only for the persons related to local community. These residents tend to decide to the dwelling continuity without scrutinizing the possibility of migration. It is necessary to continue enlightening the tsunami risk and to prepare the subsidies to safer housing structure.
It has been becoming increasingly important to apply geographic information system (GIS) for recognizing, understanding and sharing the spatial conditions in disaster responses. This study aims at obtaining basic information for realizing effective disaster responses through the information support activity using GIS in the disaster volunteer center (VC). Results show that GIS is useful tool for understanding, sharing and managing the information and the complicated analysis on GIS is not necessary in disaster responses.