Reuse of waste fresh concretes can contribute the resource saving and control of industrial wastes emission. This study deals with an application of the waste fresh concrete as a preceding mortar of the subsequent concrete pumping construction. Addition of super set-retarding agents and superplasticizers to the waste fresh concrete and subsequent wet-screening results in the Eco-Mortar whose basic properties are presented. Recovery factor of the Eco-Mortar as a function of screening mesh size and effect of the chemical admixtures on the quality of the Eco-Mortar are discussed in this paper.
Recently, high-rise reinforced concrete buildings 145 and 112 meter in height were constructed using high strength concrete with specified design strength of 100MPa. This paper deals with scheme of work execution and the results of quality control tests used in the construction of these buildings. In addition to the conventional quality control tests such as flow and air content measurements, a newly developed method of measuring the unit water content on flesh concrete was employed. As a result, high strength concrete with stable quality satisfying the design strength requirement was obtained.
In this study, an original production method of recycled aggregate concrete has been proposed for the case when it is difficult for ready-mixed concrete plant to produce recycled aggregate concrete. The method proposed by the authors is that recycled coarse aggregate is mixed on-site, by using track agitator, with other material; this has been mixed in the ready-mixed concrete plant in a near city and transported to the site. In this paper, it has been confirmed by the feasibility study that this method is effective in environmental impact and cost effectiveness. Furthermore, based on the results of duplicate experiment, the factors in production that have influence on the quality of recycled concrete have been recognized. And finally this method has been concretely determined by the data of real-scale experiment.
A new type admixture was developed for high fluidity concrete in water-cement ratio of 40-55%. The cost of concrete using this admixture will be less expensive because of using less powder and admixture content. The productivity by real mixer in ready-mixed concrete plant, the properties of fresh and hardened concretes were studied on the mock-up test. The high fluidity concrete using this admixture was confirmed to have sufficient fluidity and filling ability, though that has a little larger flowing gradient and flowing velocity than usual high fluidity concrete with high volume powder. The qualities of this hardened concrete in structure, that are compressive strength, young's modulus, shrinkage, durability and distribution of coarse aggregate, were made clear by this experiment. The sufficient and uniform qualities of structural concrete were realized by this concrete.
This paper deals with the development of new bonding systems of reinforced masonry buildings in order to improve the various kinds of performances such as aseismicity, durability and waterproofness, especially focused on the possibility of forming running bonds at various types of corners. The new systems are introduced for actualizing totally performed buildings after being examined in three experimental and trial constructions.
The carbonation evaluation method for AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) was investigated. Cracking, panel bending property, compressive strength and carbonation degree were investigated for field AAC panels aged 4 to 33 years. When the carbonation degree was above 50%, the AAC panels showed cracking and degradation in panel bending property and compressive strength. Therefore, we propose the carbonation evaluation method as follows ; The AAC panel, whose carbonation degree is above 50%, is deteriorated'. With this criteria, surface finished AAC is 1.5 times more durable in carbonation than non-finished AAC. And also, water-repellent AAC has twice as durable in carbonation as normal AAC.
This paper deals with the development of high carbonation-resistant AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete). The AAC containing various silicone-oils have both carbonation-resistant and water-repellent properties. We have studied the type and content of silicone-oils to make AAC with high carbonation-resistant property. AAC containing a small amount of alkyl-modified silicone-oils showed the targeted property.
Studies have been conducted in recent years using fibers, such as carbon fiber, aramid fiber, glass fiber, and vinylon, in place of steel bars for reinforcing concrete. Being encased in concrete, these fiber are exposed to a highly alkaline environment. It is therefore necessary to grasp the alkali resistance and acid resistance of continuous fiber bar, which consists of fibers and a binder (matrix), both of which are in many cases made of high polymer. In this study, we immersed continuous fiber bars in a mixture of Ca(OH)_2, KOH and NaOH at a high temperature of 80℃. As deterioration was observed in tension tests, the state of deterioration on the cross section of these continuous fiber bars was measured by an electron microscope and EDS to grasp the physical deterioration phenomenon.
High durability of wooden structure can be obtained by preventing it from termite damage and decay which would weaken the strength of the wood. In this study, we have performed field surveys of wooden houses in similar conditions with regard to their age, location, plan and structure in order to collect data of the actual termite damage and decay. Based on the quantum analysis of the data, we have clarified the relationship between locations of the damages and their deterioration progress.
This paper deals with proposals and experimental results on evaluation methods of flexural behaviors out of plane concerning about panel components for dry renewals of external walls. For utilizing various kinds of advanced materials, a new scale of flexural bearing capacity, namely effective first cracked flexural strength is proposed by considering ductility. GRC,aluminum, inorganic extruded materials and many kinds of hybrids, such asmetal-ceramics were experimentally examined to comply with a criterion of more than 7 MPa in the specific flexural strength presumed herein. Furthermore, relationships between flexural moment and curvature is proposed for designing the panels against various kinds of external forces.
The water-drainage heat insulation form which consist of grooved polystyrene foam insulation with nonwoven fabric and recycled magnetic-tape board was developed. Developed water-drainage heat insulation form is used for the wall of basement, which works as casting form, drainage material and heat insulation. The practical performance was confirmed by experimental tests including actual scale lab. test, and that developed water-drainage form heat insulation was found as effective to prevent dew condensation generation on basement wall.
There was spoken that steel bars welding joint need to three removal axis of horizontal position welding method, be used to play four removal axis of horizontal position welding process to deliberate about weight and cost. To embody this welding method, there was how to play stick, how to play arc starting, how to choose backing. This welding process in quality control is as well as arm welding. There show that arm-welding having excludes from unstable element.
This paper presents the characteristics of the building damage caused by a spout (Tatsumaki) in Natori City, Miyagi Prefecture, on September 16, 1998. A questionnaire was given to all residential houses located in the stricken area of approximately 100m by 500m. The dependence of the damage rate on various factors was investigated; the factors under consideration are the roof shape, roof pitch, cladding material, ridge direction relative to the path of the spout, and the age of the house. It is found that hip roof houses were less severely damaged than gable and mono-sloped houses. Furthermore, the results indicate that the roof slope minutely affects the damage rate.
This paper discusses the characteristics of the wind damage to residential houses caused by Typhoon 9119 in Akita and Aomori Prefectures, based on the results of a damage investigation. It is found that the damage strongly depends on the framework and construction method of roofs. Furthermore, the results of a multivariate regression analysis indicate that the damage ratio for an area is related to the local topography as well as to the number of households in the area.
The structural method of semi-rigid pile head connection for cast-in-place concrete piles has been developed. By this method, it is possible to reduce the bending moment of pile head to about half as much as the case of the conventional method, and it has the deformation performance of greater than 3/100 radian. This paper presented the outline of loading tests of pile head connections, the proposal on evaluation method for structural characteristics of the semi-rigid pile head connection, and the trial calculation results applied for the pile foundation of the 15-story apartment building.
The reversal cyclic loading tests of prestressed high strength concrete (PHC) pile were carried out, in order to investigate the effects of an axial load fluctuation on the deformation behavior of PHC-Pile. The seismic response analysis of the building foundation under a large earthquake was calculated, which was based on the experimental plastic deformation property of PHC-Pile, in which the change of deformation behavior according to the fluctuating axial loads was considered.
The paper describes a methodology for assessing the impact resistant RC slab thickness subjected to the crash of a cylindrical thin shell with a soft pipe. Assuming that the cylindrical thin shell behaves as a fluid type body and the inside pipe behaves as a soft body, the momentum equation is simplified to obtain the impact load. Slab thickness evaluations are performed to prevent the global flexural failure, perforation failure and the local perforation failure. Impact resistant RC slab thickness is decided to be the largest value of the above three evaluations. An example problem is analyzed and reviewed.
The purpose of this paper is to present a process that may be used to generate the positions of the nodal points of a structural configuration. The process is based on the minimization of a numeric function such as the geometric potential. Several examples presented in the paper are shown to be usable for generating the grid division and improving the regularity of braced domes.
In truth, architectural fielding on field welding joint happen to heat-affected zone fracture outside of base metal fracture. This accident caused is affected that deformed bar happen to toe crack and heel crack more than root gap and welding arm of welding company. Heat-affected zone welding joint is A class joint. There are deviated base metal need A class joint but reality building, there are few think that heat-affected zone fracture affect in use structural resistance.
This paper presents the structural design of a museum constructed with "box assembling structure" for which the PCaPC compression joint method is adopted. All walls, roofs and floors are of precast concrete slabs; the exhibition spaces were made by erecting boxes with PC members which are firmly connected by compression joint method. Then by supporting these boxes by three independent columns, a "floating exhibition rooms" were realized. Those boxes with its frame style are adopting a number of details that no other example can offer.This paper first introduces the design details followed by the problems raised during design stage, then reports the facts confirmed through our mockup tests and the field measurements.
There is a possibility to maintain plastic deformation capacity by synergism of web and flange of high strength steel beams even though its depth-thickness ratio larger than existing standard. In order to apply the above knowledge to practical design work, structural rank is to be determined by revaluing collapse mode and plastic deformation capacity of steel beams with large depth-thickness ratio. Also desirable treatments of practical application of steel beams with large depth-thickness ratio, concrete design methods, its procedures and possible advantages of steel beams with large depth-thickness ratio are clearly mentioned in this paper.
In applying dampers on structures for reducing response against seismic forces, confirming dynamic performances of such dampers are essential for guaranteeing safety of whole structural system. In this paper, axial-type elasto-plastic dampers (Unbonded Braces) are examined on full-scale dynamic test-system using shaking table with real-time response against recorded earthquake shake. As a result, dynamic performances of whole system of this type of dampers, including effect of restraint encasement, welding, local buckling, local bending etc., are confirmed and reported. The test covers maximum axial stress up to 7.2%, and cumulative plastic-ratio up to 1,400.
The U.S.-Japan Cooperative Earthquake Engineering Research on Composite and Hybrid Structures initiated from 1993 fiscal as a five-year research project. Many research results obtained in this project have been presented in many technical papers. This paper summarizes the general objectives and the results of this project and makes clear the position of each technical output.
This report is described about the studies and development of the steel beams and Reinforced Concrete Columns. In the composite structure, the grasping of characteristic of the beam-column joints which becomes the point of intersection of the different kind structure parts. So we carried out twelve full scale specimens of composite structure's beam-column joints, to clear panel shear strength. According to the result, we can value panel shear strength by using AIJ-SRC standard method. And also we report on the construction, of supermarket, which built by pre-cast reinforced concrete columns.
In this report, super high-rise system composed of steel reinforced concrete (SRC) framed tube and reinforced concrete (RC) core-wall is presented. The lateral loading test of SRC columns has been performed, to confirm structural safety under high axial compression. And visco-elastic analysis of building model of 300m in height has been carried out. The differential displacement considering creep and shrinkage between SRC framed tube and RC core-wall is sufficiently small.
It developed hybrid stairs which composed steel frame and pre-cast concrete members. These stair system does not need the concrete placing in the building site because all members of stair are manufactured in the factory previously. In this report, the outline of the stair system and the execution method of this stair are described first. Next, the results of vertical and horizontal loading test are described. From these loading tests results it is clear that this stair system have enough rigidity and strength for vertical and horizontal direction.
Comparative study has been carried out between the IS09705 room corner test and the revised Japanese model box test, which was recently accepted as a new work item by the ISO/TC92/SC1 (Reaction-to-fire). The comparison shows general capability of the revised model box test to predict the conditions for the occurrence of flashover in the IS09705 test and the maximum doorway CO concentration after the flashover within the fire scenario behind the IS09705.
A hotel fire occurred in Shirahama, Wakayama prefecture on November 17th1998. This building fire was one of the widest burning area of building firesin Japan. During this fire, there was high wind velocity at about Tin/sec. Atthe same time, there was a lot of number of fire brands. We surveyed thedistribution of fire brands and spot fires due to this fire by exploration andquestionnaire. As a consequence, it was found that through exploration andquestionnaire that there is a relation between the distribution of fire brandsand the size of fire brands etc.
A survey on the architectural acoustic performance of diverse facilities in Aomori prefecture was carried out and mutual relations of various acoustic indicators were investigated. As the results of the survey, the followings were revealed. The value of STI sufficiently corresponds to Reverberation-time, Clarity and Deutlichkeit. The tendency that STI converges a constant value in the range of its small value was not observed.
Reduction of heavy-weight impact noise was made by the active control of ceiling vibration. Experiment was carried out with a small concrete box (internal dimension: 80×80×80cm) with plywood floor and hardboard ceiling. The vibration acceleration level of the ceiling was decreased by 10 dB and the floor impact noise level by 6 dB by the control system. Furthermore, the floor impact noise level by footstep was decreased by 4 dB.
To measure the airborne and impact sound insulation is inefficient, laborious, tendious and expensive. To solve these problem, three types of simply measuring systems of airborne and impact sound insulation was developed. The system I and III are fixed microphone method. The system II is a moving microphone method with hand. The algorithm is different from system I and III. With 3 systems, airborne and impact sound insulation were measured at field. The result of three types of systems were agreed. And measurement time was shorter than before.
A smart computer software, ENERGY-10, was reviewed and reported on the ground of its novel concept as compared with past studies. ENERGY-10 is regarded as a real computer aided design tool, which is composed of not only two parts of simulator, CNE for thermal systems including room, HVAC and controlling systems and another calculation code for daylighting estimation, but also powerful preprocessor and postprocessor supported by various graphical interfaces to guarantee its easy manipulability. One of the most significant and inventive features is that a using way of ENERGY-10 or its methodology is absolutely well organized by the definite strategy in order to allow interactive design process between energy evaluation and architectural aspect. In other words, an obvious scenario to apply is prepared in advance by ENERGY-10 itself to maximize its efficiency for convenience of low-energy building design. That means, there are some possibilities to restrict the inherent abilities of simulation engine in a sense. However, that might be one of the best solutions in narrow alternatives to be compromised between research-oriented viewpoint and genuine design tool. WeatherMaker, a meteorological data utility for use with ENERGY-10, was also reviewed.
To meet the stable supply and balanced consumption of energy, we took on a project to extensively introduce hybrid energy and thermal storage tank systems for medium-scale general office buildings. As a result of an experiment conducted on those systems, we succeeded in identifying the way to operate those systems in the most efficient manner. Especially we tested the measurement of changing operation of the heat source equipment in partical load season. This report introduces the actual operation date and effective operation manner of this systems.
Field measurement of negative ion concentration, temperature, humidity, and relation wind has been done in aquascape facilities in the Funabashi Andersen Park. As a result, shown as follow. RWhen the negative ion leaves the source, it decreased, but it increased again. (2) There is a negative ion from the fountain within the range of 5m distances. (3) The negative ion density indicates a value which there are many things a condition whereby the lee or the humidity are high.
The prupose of this study is to understand the heat mitigation and air purification effects of planted park by measuring the nitrogen oxide, temperature and relative humidity in the residential and planted park. The results are following; ・ Planted park area is cooler and more humid than the residential area in the night. ・ Planted park area is warmer than the residential area at dawn. ・ The density of nitrogen oxide along the traffic road is higher than the planted park area. ・ But the difference of temperature, relative humidity and density of nitrogen oxide between residential areas and planted park ones is very small.
Living area in detached houses which were designed by architects are expanding during these 30 years. The expansive tendensy is clearly observed in (1) the floor area of living area, (2) living area ratio, (3) the number of functional spaces which are included in living area. The functional spaces included are hall space, joint space (such as entrance, stairs), private space, and closet space. The three-dimensional shape of living spaces are also becomming complicated.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate user participated planning process of Hatami Community Center. In this project, we aimed to build of local wood and to involve users in planning process. The following three points are significance of this process, the first is generating users autonomous attitude for management, the second is inspiring sense of living together between old and new residents, the third is relating users with producer through wood. These are cause by various users experiences of creation, for example planning, learning materials, and performing a ceremony, and by involvement with children.
This study discovered how ski resorts were used by disabled skiers and outlined the problems of ski resorts which the disabled experienced by sending questionnaires to disabled skiers and by interviewing the related agencies and disabled skiers. It presented the guidelines on space planning of ski resorts taking disabled skiers into consideration.
In the sluggish Japanese economy today, Japanese businesses, particularly neighborhood shopping districts with strong roots in the community, are in a state of decline, with the numbers of empty shops continuing to climb. This paper focuses on the problem of empty shops and analyzes the current stage of shop scale and new shop development for the purpose of contributing to the vitalization of neighborhood shopping districts by effectively utilizing these empty shops. The results of this study revealed growth in new types of business shops not belonging to existing categories and the concentration of shop floor space at the two extremes. These results were used as the basis for estimating the suitable scale in the utilization of empty shops.
The purpose of the present study is to acquire basic knowledge concerning design settings using linear perspective drawings of houses designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. In the first stage of analysis, the conformance of drawing elements in each perspective drawing were evaluated by following the vanishing method in reverse. In the second stage, numeric values were calculated for 14 items that represent the relationships between building at the viewpoint by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Using the appearance rate of each drawing element in the perspective drawings, the present study clarified that each section of the "building" was plotted more accurately than the "distant view and environment" or the "exterior structural elements". In addition, the linear perspective drawings of houses designed by Frank Lloyd Wright were classified into six types, and the numeric characteristics of 14 items were clarified for each type.
Japanese construction style is scrap and build. Building industry consume the natural resources and dump the industrial waste, that make a damage for earth Environment. Because It must change the construction style of scrap and build into stock and renovation. The other hand after the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, seismic strengthening construct for non proper of existing building in the whole country. This technique have many issue in planning and design of architecture. Therefore we propose the attached frame, that is new concept. This study solved both issues in the space recycle on elementary school.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the present state of building cost and duration in the rationalized building systems. We made inquiries for enterprises, and then we compared conventional wooden houses with houses built of the building systems for rationalization. As a result, we found out that many enterprises expected not cost reduction but period reduction of building systems for rationalization, and that actually rationalization were not effective in cost reduction because of increase in factory labours. We clarified they are effective in period reduction and man-hour reduction on site.
Various studies on chages of building systems, parts and materials are reported. In this study, we pigeonholed those published papers, and we examined outlines of data for those papers and kind of building systems and parts. Consequently, studies for wooden building systems got a majority, and those were studied about old period and many local studies were included. Concerning building parts, doors and windows, equipment were studied. It became clear that those studies were tried to examine from relatively new period to the present time. As the methods for investigation, documentary records and hearing took large ratio of information.
This paper describes the outline of Ex-japanese-emigrant-villages at Hualien in Taiwan. And this paper reports the result of measurement-investigation on following 4 buildings, are remained at these villages, i) A farm house ii) A drying-hut for tobacco iii) A police box iv) A hall of elementary school (An Ex-Kendo-gymnaium)
This research employs a multi-dimensional spatial and historical approach to identify and analyze past, current and emerging trends in land utilization patterns along the northern coast of Tokyo Bay. Quantitative data for six variables, Regional Planning, Existing Land Use, Population Density, Land-fill History, Transporation Access and Distance from Waterline, were obtained and mapped on 100m × 100m grids. Correlation among the variables were also investigated. The results show that industrial zoning and industrial uses dominate in areas near the waterfront, and that residential uses and population density increase as one moves inland. Suggestions for improvements included increase in public access to the coast, more flexible restrictions on land use, and transportation systems which allow residents better access to open space and waterfront facilities.
This paper shows the effects of a method called "Rebuilding Design Game", developed for urban planning through community participation. In December 1998, we used the method at K region in Urawa-shi, Saitama-ken. This is where workshops have been held for expanding and reorganizing a street since 1996. Findings are; (1) A final plan was decided through the process of visually understanding the design and the exchanging of opinions; (2) Not only physical structures but also images of life and privacy issues were discussed; (3) Locatrions of residences and shops were concretely arranged. Citizens could imagine daily lives there.
By the amendment of the city planning law in 1992, local governments are mandated to adopt a master plan. The master plan has to be organized on both city-wide and neighborhood levels. Neighborhood planning programs are well established in the U.S.A. The purpose of this paper is clarify the outline of the recent situation of neighborhood plans, means of program sanction, and the purposes of neighborhood plans.