Seibutsu Butsuri
Online ISSN : 1347-4219
Print ISSN : 0582-4052
ISSN-L : 0582-4052
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  • Naoko FUJIWARA, Tetsuro HIROSE
    2024 Volume 64 Issue 2 Pages 71-77
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    Membraneless organelles (MLOs) are condensates that compartmentalize and thereby facilitate specific biological functions. Multivalent interactions between RNA and protein components elicit phase separation to form MLOs. Many MLOs are multiple-layered, and the physiological properties of each layer contribute to MLO functions. MLOs sequestrate specific factors to promote/suppress the biological reaction in which they are involved. MLOs are also known to associate with specific chromosomal loci to place genes in the appropriate sub-nuclear environment for regulating their expression. Reflecting the physiological importance of MLOs, aberrant morphologies of MLOs and mutations in MLO components have been reported in various tumors and diseases.

  • Shin FUJISHIRO, Masaki SASAI
    2024 Volume 64 Issue 2 Pages 78-84
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    Recent biochemical and microscopic measurements have revealed fluctuating chromatin structures of 10–7 to 10–5 m. These structures are intrinsically related to DNA transcription and replication; therefore, elucidating the physical principles of chromatin structural dynamics is essential for understanding cell functions. A three-dimensional computational model of the whole human genome was developed through the physics-based bottom-up approach, which quantitatively explained various genomic and microscopic data on chromatin. The model suggests that the difference in the functional activity among chromatin domains leads to the heterogeneous domain movement in the genome, which entropically drives chromatin phase separation to form A and B compartments.

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