The author found fragments of Chinese texts in Uighur script at the St. Petersburg Branch for Oriental Studies of Russian Academy of Sciences and identified their corresponding Chinese originals. The phonological system of the Chinese written in Uighur is basically the same as that of the northwestern dialects of Tang and Five Dynasties. Although the fragments were composed later during the period of Yuan Dynasty, its phonological system is undoubtedly quite different from that of colloquial Chinese used in Yuan Dynasty. As a result of detailed examination of the texts, it has become clear that the phonological system behind the texts is well reflected by the Uighur inherited reading of Chinese characters similar to the Japanese Ondoku system, i.e., Chinese reading of Chinese characters. On the other hand, it is occasionally observed that Chinese characters are sporadically inserted between Uighur lines in the above texts. These inserted Chinese characters must have been read in Uighur. These Chinese characters appear not only as words, but also as phrases and sentences. An interesting fact is that in some bilingual texts such as ″Thousand Character Essay″the Uighur inherited, reading of Chinese is followed by its corresponding Uighur translation. Furthermore, in other texts represented by ″Abhidharmakosabhasya-tika Tattvartha″, it is recorded how Uighur speakers read Chinese texts in Uighur pronunciation, translating the contents into the Uighur language. Taking these facts into consideration, a conclusion is inevitable that Uighurs had their own way of reading Chinese texts which is typologically comparable to the Japanese Kundoku system, i.e., Japanese reading of Chinese characters. Japanese is known as a language in which Ondoku and Kundoku are well developed. It is extremely difficult to understand the contents of Chinese texts merely by listening to Ondoku reading, where a large number of homonyms are created by the loss of many phonological distinctions. Japanese Buddhist monks recite Chinese Buddhist texts following the Ondoku system, but at the same time they understand the contents by Kundoku reading utilizing ideographic nature of Chinese characters. The author would like to argue that Uighur monks of the Yuan dynasty period employed the same kind of method when reciting Chinese texts.
Mongolian (Khalkha dialect) has several plural suffixes such as -nar, -(n) ood2, -d and -s. As shown by many examples, it has been said that these plural suffixes tend to be generally attached to nouns referring to humans. Previous grammars have pointed out such a tendency but generally lack adequate description on the functional and semantic differences of these suffixes. In fact many complex tendencies can be observed in the co-occurrence of nouns with the plural suffixes. The aim of this paper is to show such tendencies in view of three points by applying Silverstein's (1976) noun-phrase hierarchy (1) in the occurrence of plural suffixes, (2) in the meaning of plurality and (3) in the morphological dependency of plural suffixes. The plural suffixes can mainly be divided into two groups: -nar and the others. Each set is characterized as follows: -nar The suffix -nar is attached to the nouns of higher classes in the hierarchy, particularly for pronouns, proper nouns, kinship nouns and other specific human nouns, such as those indicating occupations. When attached to pronouns, proper nouns and kinship nouns, -nar tends to be interpreted as a 'plural of approximation'. On the contrary, when attached to the lower class of human nouns, it is usually interpreted as ordinary 'homogeneous' plural. Morphologically, -nar is more independent than the other plural suffixes. -((n)oo)d2, -s These suffixes are attached to nouns lower in the hierarchy than the kinship class and are interpreted as ordinary plurals. They function as pure derivational suffixes, so their combinations with preceding nouns are firmer than those between nouns and -nar. On these grounds, I have come to the conclusion that Mongolian plural suffixes have mainly three characteristics: (1) nouns of higher class in Silverstein's hierarchy tend to show their plurality, (2) nouns of higher classes tend to be interpreted as 'plurals of approximation', (3) there is a correlation between the meaning of plurality and the morphological dependency of the suffixes.