The purpose of this study was to organize and define the concept of psychological independence in university students, and to examine its correlations with several influential factors and psychological adjustment. Psychological independence was defined as "exercising emotional, cognitive, and behavioral control over one's life, and being responsible for one's own behavior". The participants were 329 university students, who filled out a questionnaire. As the result of a factor analysis, psychological independence was distilled into 5 factors, namely "building self, "emotional control", "self-determination and responsibility", "positive attitude to life", and "unattained individuality". The results of a multiple regression analysis suggested: 1) psychological independence was significantly correlated with basic trust in both genders; 2) psychological independence in females was correlated positively with distant associations with friends; 3) emotional support from fathers was correlated negatively with psychological independence in females, whereas emotional support from mothers was positively correlated; and 4) in males there was little correlation between psychological independence and interpersonal factors. Another multiple regression analysis suggested that psychological independence was correlated with maladjustment, besides adjustment. The limitations and implications are discussed.
Situations in which adolescents were anxious in initiating, maintaining, and terminating romantic relationships were termed "problematic situations in romantic relationships," and characteristics of such situations were identified in Japanese adolescents. Undergraduates (n=288) responded to a questionnaire on problematic situations in romantic relationships, hetero-social anxiety, competence in romantic love, and romantic experiences. The structure of problematic situations and gender differences in anxiety were investigated on the basis of the degree of anxiety experienced in such situations. Results indicated the following. (1) Many adolescents experienced anxieties about maintaining and terminating relationships. (2) Females and adolescents with no experience of romantic experiences were more anxious about maintaining romantic relationships. (3) In males, romantic experiences influenced most problematic situations through hetero-social anxiety. (4) Males with no romantic experiences were more anxious in situations that needed an active approach.
This study examined the tendency of self-development among Japanese university students, based on Kegan's constructive-developmental theory. The Japanese version of the subject-object interview ("SOI") was administered to 40 university students. Results indicated that only one participant was at the transition stage from the imperial self (stage 2) to the interpersonal self (stage 3), while 38 participants were at the transition stage from the interpersonal self (stage 3) to the institutional self (stage 4), and one other participant was at the transition stage from the institutional self (stage 4) to the interindividual self (stage 5). Furthermore, the higher the grade, the higher were the structural-developmental stage scores. In addition, it would appear that in Japan, few participants are at the transition stage from the imperial self (stage 2) to the interpersonal self (stage 3) relative to the case of New Zealand.